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UNIT I           TACHEOMETRIC SURVEYING                                       6
Tachometric  systems  –  Tangential,  stadia  and  subtense  methods  –  Stadia  systems  –
Horizontal and inclined sights – Vertical and normal staffing – Fixed and movable hairs –
Stadia constants – Anallactic lens – Subtense bar.

UNIT II          CONTROL SURVEYING                       8
Working from whole to part – Horizontal and vertical control methods – Triangulation –
Signals  –  Base  line  –  Instruments  and  accessories  –  Corrections  –  Satellite  station  –
Reduction  to  centre  –  Trigonometric  leveling  –  Single  and  reciprocal  observations  –
Modern trends – Bench marking

UNIT III        SURVEY ADJUSTMENTS                     8
Errors – Sources, precautions and corrections – Classification of errors – True and most
probable  values  –  weighted  observations  –  Method  of  equal  shifts  –  Principle  of  least
squares   –   Normal   equation   –   Correlates   –   Level   nets   –   Adjustment   of   simple
triangulation networks.

UNIT IV        ASTRONOMICAL SURVEYING                                                11
Celestial  sphere  –  Astronomical  terms  and  definitions  –  Motion  of  sun  and  stars  –
Apparent  altitude  and  corrections  –  Celestial  co-ordinate  systems  –  Different  time
systems – Nautical almanac – Star constellations – calculations for azimuth of a line.

UNIT V          ADVANCES IN SURVEYING                                           12
Basic concept of hydrographic surveying – Tides – MSL – Sounding methods – Location
of soundings and methods – Three point problem – Strength of fix – Sextants and station
pointer  –  River  surveys  –  Measurement  of  current  and  discharge  –  Photogrammetry  –
Introduction  only  –  Basic  concept  of  terrestial  and  aerial  photographs  –  Stereoscopy  –
Definition  of  parallax  –  Electromagnetic  distance  measurement  –  Basic  principles  –
Instruments – Trilateration – basic concept of Cartography and  Cadastral surveying.

                                          Total: 45
1.         Punmia, B.C., “Surveying”, Vol. I, II and III, Laxmi Publications, 1989.
2.         Kanetkar   ,T.P.,   “Surveying   and   Leveling”,   Vols.   I   and   II,   United   Book
Corporation, 1994.

1.         Clark D., “Plane and Geodetic Surveying”, Vol. I and II, C.B.S. Publishers and
Distributors, 6th Edition, 1971.
2.         Anderson,  J.M.  and  Mikhail,  E.M.,  “Introduction  to  Surveying”,  McGraw-Hill
Book Company, 1985.
3.         Heribert Kahmen and Wolfgang Faig, “Surveying”, Walter de Gruyter, 1995.

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I am Thomas Britto here to share my experiences in the civil engineering field to all my readers.Today many students are struggling to buy books at high prices. So I decided to start a blog and share my experience and knowledge with all my readers.

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