Airport Engineering

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Airport Engineering

Contents

1 The Structure and Organization of Air Transport 

1.1 The Need for National and International Organizations 1
1.2 The International Civil Aviation Organization 1
1.3 Nongovernmental Organizations 4
1.4 U.S. Governmental Organizations 4
1.5 Aviation Planning and Regulation at State Level 6
1.6 Patterns of Airport Ownership 7
1.7 Revenues and Expenditures at U.S. Airports 9
1.8 Sources of Capital Financing for U.S. Airports 11
1.9 Federal Financing 15
1.10 The U.S. National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems: A Classification of Airports 18
References 20

2 Forecasting Air Transport Demand 

2.1 Introduction 21
2.2 Components of Air Transport Demand 25
2.3 Conventional Airport Forecast Methods 26
2.4 Integrated Demand Forecast Framework 33
2.5 Multiairport Region Forecast Framework 43
2.6 Air Trip Distribution Models 60
2.7 Modal Choice Models 62
2.8 Generation–Distribution Models 63
2.9 Air Freight Demand Forecasts 66
2.10 General Aviation Forecasts 68
2.11 Route Choice Models 70
References 71

3 Characteristics of Aircraft As They Affect Airports 

3.1 Relationships between Aircraft and Airports 74
3.2 The Influence of Aircraft Design on Runway Length 76
3.3 Other Airport Layout Factors 94
3.4 Factors Affecting Airport Capacity 97
3.5 Noise 98
3.6 Future Trends in Aircraft Design 101
References 104

4 Airport System Planning 

4.1 Aviation System Planning 105
4.2 Levels of Planning 106
4.3 Planning Airport Systems under Different States of Industry 106
4.4 Effect of Airline Hubs and Deregulation on U.S. Airport System 110
4.5 Air Transport Planning in the United States 115
4.6 Airport System Planning in Europe 129
4.7 Airport System Plan Analysis 131
4.8 Data Structure for Airport System Planning 145
References 148

5 Airport Master Planning 

5.1 Airport Master Plan: Definition and Objectives 150
5.2 Hierarchy of Planning 151
5.3 Elements of Airport Master Plan: FAA 151
5.4 ICAO Guidelines for Structure of Master Plan 160
5.5 Airport Layout Design 162
5.6 Data Requirements for Master Planning 163
5.7 Structure of Master Plan Report 167
5.8 Airport Site Selection 177
References 178

6 CNS/ATM 

6.1 Evolution of the System 179
6.2 U.S. National Airspace System (NAS) 183
6.3 CNS/ATM of the NAS 193
6.4 Next-Generation Systems 230
References 232

7 Airport Capacity 

7.1 Introduction 234
7.2 Capacity, Level of Service, and Demand Peaking 235
7.3 Airside Capacity 237
7.4 Factors Affecting Airside Capacity and Delay 241
7.5 Determination of Runway Capacity and Delay 245
7.6 Annual Service Volume 256
7.7 Preliminary Capacity Analyses 258
7.8 Calculating Aircraft Delay 260
7.9 Taxiway Capacity 264
7.10 Gate Capacity 264
7.11 Assessing System Capacity–Delay for Airport Development 266
7.12 Airport Landside Capacity 273
References 294Contents vii

8 Airside Configuration and Geometric Design of the Airside 

8.1 Introduction 297
8.2 Principles of Airport Layout 298
8.3 Airfield Configuration 298
8.4 Runway Orientation 301
8.5 Obstructions to Airspace: FAA and ICAO Standards 309
8.6 Runway Length 312
8.7 Clearways and Stopways 318
8.8 ICAO Reference Code 319
8.9 FAA Airport Reference Code 321
8.10 Separation of Parallel Runways 322
8.11 Runway and Taxiway Cross Section 323
8.12 Object-Clearing Criteria 330
8.13 Longitudinal-Grade Design for Runways and Stopways 332
8.14 Longitudinal-Grade Design for Taxiways 335
8.15 Taxiway Design 336
8.16 Holding Aprons 340
8.17 Terminal Aprons 340
8.18 Summary 349
References 34

9 Safeguarding the Airport 

9.1 Airport Safety 351
9.2 Airport Security 359
9.3 Airport Emergency Planning 361
9.4 Planning of Airport Security 367
9.5 Safeguarding the Airspace 373
References 412

10 Passenger Terminal 

10.1 Function of Airport Passenger Terminal 414
10.2 Terminal User 414
10.3 Facilities Required at Passenger Terminal 415
10.4 Passenger and Baggage Flow 417
10.5 Security Considerations in Passenger Terminal Design and Layout 418
10.6 Terminal Design Concepts 420
10.7 Vertical Distribution of Activities 424
10.8 Passenger Behavior in Terminal 426
10.9 Importance of Passenger Terminal Expenditures 428
10.10 Space Requirements for Individual Facilities 429
10.11 Baggage Handling 438
10.12 Terminals for Low-Cost Carriers 444viii Contents
10.13 Expandability, Modularity, and Flexibility 444
10.14 Number of Aircraft Gates 447
10.15 Parking Configurations and Apron Layout 452
10.16 Apron Facilities and Requirements 454
References 456

11 Air Cargo Facilities 

11.1 Importance of Air Cargo 457
11.2 Functions of Cargo Terminal 457
11.3 Factors Affecting Size and Form of Cargo Terminal 458
11.4 Flow through Airport Cargo Terminal 462
11.5 Pallets, Containers, Igloos, and Other Unitized Systems 465
11.6 Freight-Carrying Aircraft 469
11.7 Documentation and Control 469
11.8 Apron Cargo Handling 471
11.9 Elements to Be Considered in Design of Air Freight Terminals 472
11.10 Example of Design of Middle-Technology Freight Terminal 474
11.11 Design of Highly Mechanized Cargo Terminal with Container Stacks and ETV 479
11.12 Mail and Express Parcels Facilities 485
11.13 Conclusion 486
References 488
12 Airport Drainage and Pavement Design 489
AIRPORT DRAINAGE 

12.1 Introduction 

12.2 Estimation of Runoff 490
12.3 Collection and Disposal of Runoff 496
12.4 Subsurface Drainage 504
STRUCTURAL PAVEMENT DESIGN 508
12.5 Introduction 508
12.6 Flexible-Pavement Design Methods (U.S. Practice) 516
12.7 Rigid-Pavement Design Methods (U.S. Practice) 527
12.8 Pavements for Light Aircraft 536
12.9 Aircraft and Pavement Classification Numbers 538
References 541

13 Airport Access 

13.1 Access Problem 543
13.2 Determining Mix of Access Modes 547
13.3 Available Access Modes 548Contents ix
13.4 Access Modal Choice Models 557
13.5 Parking Space at Airports 559
13.6 Curbfront Design 562
13.7 Capacity of Access Routes 564
13.8 Layout of Access 564
13.9 Summary 571
References 571

14 Heliports, STOLports, and Vertiports 

14.1 Introduction 573
14.2 Helicopter Characteristics and Trends 573
14.3 Planning and Design of Heliports 577
14.4 Planning and Design of STOLports 595
14.5 Planning and Design of STOL Facilities 596
14.6 Planning and Design of Vertiports 600
References 601

15 Airport Modeling and Simulation 

15.1 Introduction 602
15.2 Definitions and Concepts 603
15.3 Airport Simulations 609
15.4 Airfield–Airspace Simulation 610
15.5 Environmental Simulation Models 635
15.6 Airport–Landside Simulation 644
15.7 Airport GIS 653
References 655

16 Airport City 

16.1 Introduction 659
16.2 Global City 660
16.3 Building Blocks of Airport City 662
16.4 Anatomy of Aerotropolis 666
16.5 Airport Cities of the World 673
16.6 Planning of Airport City and Aerotropolis 700
References 703

17 Environmental Impacts of Airports 

17.1 Introduction 704
17.2 Environmental Legislation 705
17.3 Airport Environmental Guidance 706
17.4 Environmental Review Process 707
17.5 Air Emissions/Quality 714x Contents
17.6 Biodiversity and Natural Resources 720
17.7 Historic, Archaeological, Architectural, and Cultural Resources 721
17.8 Noise and Land Use 721
17.9 Social and Socioeconomic Resources 729
17.10 Waste Management 731
17.11 Water Resources 732
17.12 Sustainable Development 733

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