Structural Engineer’s Book

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Structural Engineer’s Book


Contents

1 General Information

Metric system 1
Typical metric units for UK structural 2
engineering
Imperial units 3
Conversion factors 4
Measurement of angles 5
Construction documentation and procurement 6
Drawing conventions 8
Common arrangement of work sections 10
Summary of ACE conditions of engagement 11

2 Statutory Authorities and Permissions

Planning 13
Building regulations and standards 14
Listed buildings 17
Conservation areas and Tree preservation orders 18
Archaeology and ancient monuments 19
Party Wall etc. Act 21
CDM 24

3 Design Data

Design data checklist 25
Structural form, stability and robustness 26
Structural movement joints 29
Fire resistance periods for structural elements 30
Typical building tolerances 31
Historical use of building materials 32
Typical weights of building materials 34
Minimum imposed floor loads 38
Typical unit floor and roof loadings 41
Wind loading 43
Barrier and handrail loadings 44Selection of materials 46
Selection of floor construction 47
Transportation 48
Temporary works toolkit 52

4 Basic and Shortcut Tools for Structural

Analysis
Load factors and limit states 55
Geometric section properties 56
Parallel axis theorem and Composite sections 60
Material properties 61
Coefficients of linear thermal expansion 64
Coefficients of friction 65
Sign conventions 66
Beam bending theory 67
Deflection limits 68
Beam bending and deflection formulae 69
Clapeyron’s equations of three moments 76
Continuous beam bending formulae 78
Struts 79
Rigid frames under lateral loads 81
Plates 84
Torsion 88
Taut wires, cables and chains 89
Vibration 91

5 Geotechnics

Geotechnics 92
Selection of foundations and retaining walls 93
Site investigation 94
Soil classification 95
Typical soil properties 96
Preliminary sizing 100
Trees and shallow foundations 109
Contamined land 113

6 Timber and Plywood

Timber 117
Timber section sizes 119
Laminated timber products 120
Durability and fire resistance 122
Preliminary sizing of timber elements 125
Timber design to BS 5268 127
Timber joints 135

7 Masonry

Masonry 141
Geometry and arrangement 143
Durability and fire resistance 147
Preliminary sizing of masonry elements 148
Masonry design to BS 5628 152
Masonry design to CP111 166
Lintel design to BS 5977 168
Masonry accessories 170

8 Reinforced Concrete

Reinforced concrete 175
Concrete mixes 177
Durability and fire resistance 179
Preliminary sizing of concrete elements 180
Reinforcement 182
Concrete design to BS 8110 185
Reinforcement bar bending to BS 8666 205
Reinforcement estimates 207

9 Structural Steel

Structural steel 208
Mild steel section sizes and tolerances 210
Slenderness 239
Durability and fire resistance 242
Preliminary sizing of steel elements 246
Steel design to BS 5950 249
Steel design to BS 449 261
Stainless steel to BS 5950 269

10 Composite Steel and Concrete

Composite steel and concrete 275
Preliminary sizing of composite elements 277
Composite design to BS 5950 281

11 Structural Glass

Structural glass 284
Typical glass section sizes and thicknesses 287
Durability and fire resistance 288
Typical glass sizes for common applications 289
Structural glass design 291
Connections 293

12 Building Elements, Materials, Fixings

and Fastenings
Waterproofing 295
Basement waterproofing 296
Screeds 299
Precast concrete hollowcore slabs 300
Bi-metallic corrosion 301
Structural adhesives 302
Fixings and fastenings 304
Cold weather working 307
Effect of fire on construction materials 308
Aluminium 310

13 Useful Mathematics 

Useful Addresses 320
Further Reading 331
Sources 336

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Civil Engineering Project Management

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Civil Engineering Project Management

Contents

1 The development of construction procedures 

1.1 The nature of civil engineering work 1
1.2 The most widely used contracts for construction 2
1.3 Other long-standing procedures 3
Lump sum construction contracts 3
Cost reimbursement contracts 3
Design and build contracts 4
1.4 Growing use of design, build and operate contracts 4
1.5 Developments in the later 1980s 5
1.6 New approaches to construction contracts in the 1990s 6
1.7 Introduction of ‘Private Finance Initiative’ 7
1.8 Public–Private Partnerships 8
1.9 Partnering 8
1.10 Project Management 9
1.11 Operational or service contracts and ‘Facilities Management’ 10
1.12 Framework Agreements 11
1.13 Influence of computers and information technology 11
1.14 A criticism of certain systems 13
1.15 Ancillary contractual practices 14

2 Procedures for design and construction 

2.1 Promoter’s obligations 17
2.2 Importance of feasibility studies 18
2.3 Options for design 19
(a) Design by promoter or a consultant 19
(b) Outline designs provided with detailed design by others 19
(c) Layout design by promoter;  detailed design by contractor 20
(d) Functional specification by promoter: design by contractor 20
2.4 Options for construction 20
(a) Direct labour construction 20
(b) Construction divided into trades 21
(c) Main civil contractor supplies all ancillary services 21(d) Civil contractor constructs; promoter orders  21
plant separately
(e) Civil contractor orders all plant 22
(f) Plant supplier arranges building design and construction 22
2.5 Construction using forms of management contracting 23
(a) Construction management 23
(b) Management contracting 23
2.6 Design and build procedures and other options 24
(a) Design and build or ‘turn-key’ contracts 24
(b) Design, build and operate contracts 25
(c) Engineer, procure and construct contracts 26
(d) Partnering 26
(e) ‘Term’ or ‘Serial’ contracting 26
2.7 Comment on possible arrangements 27

3 Payment arrangements, risks and project cost estimating 

3.1 Methods of payment under different types of contract 29
(a) Rates only contracts 29
(b) Rates and prices for re-measurement contracts 29
(c) Lump sum contracts 31
(d) Cost reimbursement contracts 31
(e) Target contracts 32
(f) Payment under design, build and operate contracts 32
3.2 Other payment provisions 32
(a) Price variation provisions 32
(b) Payment terms 33
(c) Bonus payments 33
(d) ‘Ex-contractual’ payments 34
(e) Pre-payments 34
3.3 Contractual risks arising during construction 35
3.4 Producing an initial cost-estimate of a project 36
3.5 Estimating the cost of a project at design stage 37
3.6 Project cost control 39

4 Contract conditions used for civil engineering work 

4.1 Standard conditions of contract 40
4.2 Contract conditions produced by the UK Institution  40
of Civil Engineers
(a) ICE Conditions of Contract for Works of 
Civil Engineering Construction 40
(b) ICE Conditions for Ground Investigations 41
(c) ICE Minor Works Conditions 42
(d) ICE Design and Construct Conditions 42
(e) ICE Term Version 43
(f) ICE Engineering and Construction Contract 43
(g) Partnering Addendum 44
vi Contents4.3 Conditions published by the International Federation of
Consulting Engineers (FIDIC) 45
FIDIC ‘Red Book’ Conditions, 4th Edition 45
1999 New forms 45
4.4 Other conditions for civil engineering or building work 46
GC/Works/1 – General Conditions of Government  46
Contracts for Building and Civil Engineering Works, 
Edition 3 (1991)
Joint Contracts Tribunal Conditions 46
4.5 Conditions mainly for plant and equipment supply 47
I Mech E Model Form A 47
I Mech E/IEE; MF/1 48
FIDIC 2nd and 3rd Editions: ‘Yellow Book’ 48
I Chem E ‘Red Book’ Conditions 48
I Chem E ‘Green Book’ Conditions 48
4.6 Other associated conditions 49
ACE Forms of Agreement 49
CECA Sub-contract forms 49

5 Preparing contract documents 

5.1 Initial decisions 50
5.2 Roles of the key participants in a construction contract 51
5.3 The contract documents 52
Instructions to tenderers 53
General and particular conditions of contract 53
The specification 53
Bill of quantities or schedule of prices 53
Tender and appendices 54
The contract drawings 54
5.4 Bond, insurance, etc. 54
5.5 Writing specifications 55
5.6 Co-ordinating contracts for construction 57
Plant supply contracts 57
Site preparation contracts 58
Co-ordination requirements 59
5.7 The specification of general requirements 59
5.8 The specification for workmanship and materials 61

6 Tendering

6.1 Methods used for obtaining tenders 64
6.2 Tendering requirements and EC rules 65
6.3 Procedures under selective tendering 67
6.4 Requirements for fast completion 69
6.5 Issuing tender documents 69
6.6 Considering tenders 71
Opening tenders 71
Contents viiQualification attached to tenders 72
Checking tenders 72
6.7 Checking prices and comparing tenders 73
6.8 Choosing a tender 75
6.9 Offer by a tenderer to complete early 76
6.10 Procedure for accepting a tender 76
Publications giving guidance on tendering 78
Appendix: UK Regulations 79

7 The contractor’s site organization 

7.1 Contractor’s site personnel 80
7.2 The agent 81
7.3 Site field personnel 82
7.4 Site office personnel 83
7.5 Accounting methods 84
7.6 Providing constructional plant and equipment 85
7.7 The contractor’s use of sub-contractors 86
7.8 Recent measures to alleviate sub-contract disputes 87

8 The employer and his engineer 

8.1 Introduction 89
8.2 The role of the employer’s engineer under ICE conditions 89
8.3 A note on alternative provisions of the ECC conditions 91
8.4 Limitations to the engineer’s powers under ICE conditions 91
8.5 The engineer’s duty to provide all necessary drawings  92
to the contractor
8.6 Quality assurance considerations 93
References 95

9 The resident engineer’s duties 

9.1 The engineer’s representative on site – the resident engineer 96
9.2 Powers not delegated to the resident engineer 96
9.3 Usual powers delegated to the resident engineer 97
9.4 Some common problems 98
9.5 Some important points the resident engineer should watch 99
9.6 The resident engineer’s duties with regard to safety 100
9.7 Relationship between the resident engineer and  100
the contractor’s agent
9.8 Handling troubles 101
9.9 More difficult cases of trouble 102
9.10 The resident engineer’s staff 104
9.11 Gifts and hospitality 106

10 Health and safety regulations 

10.1 Legal framework 107
10.2 The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 1994 107
viii Contents10.3 The Health and Safety Plan required under CDM Regulations 109
10.4 The Health and Safety File required under CDM Regulations 110
10.5 Training 111
10.6 Approved Code of Practice under CDM Regulations 111
10.7 The Management of Health and Safety at  112
Work Regulations 1999
10.8 Risk assessment 113
Reasonably practicable 114
10.9 The Construction (Health, Safety and Welfare)  115
Regulations 1996
10.10 Other major regulations 115
Publications 119

11 Starting the construction work 

11.1 Pre-commencement meeting and start-up arrangements 120
11.2 The contractor’s initial work 121
11.3 The resident engineer’s work 122
Work before going to site 122
The site office 123
11.4 Early matters to discuss with the agent 124
11.5 Some early tasks for the resident engineer 125
11.6 Meeting the employer 125
11.7 Setting up the clerical work 126

12 Site surveys, investigations and layout 

12.1 Responsibility 128
12.2 Levelling 129
12.3 Plane surveying 129
12.4 Setting out verticality, tunnels and pipelines 130
12.5 Setting out floor levels 131
12.6 Site investigations 132
12.7 Trial pits 132
12.8 Exploratory holes 133
Rotary core drilling 133
Light cable percussion drilling 134
Percussion drilling 135
12.9 Other means of ground investigation 135
12.10 Judging the safe bearing value of a foundation 136
12.11 Testing apparatus for a site soils laboratory 136
For moisture content determinations 136
For grading analyses of soils 137
For in situ density test (sand replacement method) 137
For compaction tests 137
12.12 Site layout considerations 138
Haulage roads 138
Planning bulk excavation 139
Contents ixConcrete production plant 139
Power generators and compressors 139
Extra land 140
Main offices 140
12.13 Temporary works 140
12.14 Work in public roads 140
12.15 Site drainage 141
References 143

13 The resident engineer’s office records 

13.1 Records and their importance 144
13.2 The correspondence filing system 144
General files (Series 1–9) 145
Head office (Series 10–19) 145
Separate supply contracts and sub-contractors (Series 20–29) 145
Main contractor (Series 30–39) 145
13.3 CVIs from contractor and instructions to contractor 146
13.4 Register of drawings 147
13.5 Daily and other progress records 147
13.6 Quantity records 149
13.7 The contractor’s interim payment applications 152
13.8 Authorization of dayworks 153
13.9 Filing system for dayworks sheets 155
13.10 Check of materials on site 157
13.11 Price increase records 157
13.12 Supply contract records 158
13.13 Registers of test results 161
13.14 Photographs 162
13.15 Record drawings 162
13.16 Other records 163

14 Programme and progress charts 

14.1 Responsibilities for programming the construction 165
14.2 Difficulties with nominated sub-contractors or suppliers 166
14.3 The role of the resident engineer 166
14.4 Watching and recording progress 167
14.5 Network diagrams and critical path planning 171
14.6 The part played by the agent in achieving progress 174
14.7 Completion 175
14.8 Estimating extension of time 175
14.9 Estimating probable final cost of works 176

15 Measurement and bills of quantities 

15.1 Principles of pricing and payment 178
15.2 Methods of measurement for bills of quantities 179
15.3 The ICE standard method of measurement 180
15.4 Problems with classes of work and number of items 181
15.5 Accuracy of quantities: provisional quantities 182
15.6 Billing of quantities for building work 183
15.7 Some problems of billing 184
Excavation 184
Working space 185
Pipelines 185
Earthwork construction 186
Concrete 186
Brickwork 187
15.8 Use of nominated sub-contractors 187
15.9 Prime cost items 188
15.10 The preliminaries bill and method-related items 189
Temporary works 189
Items added 191
Method-related items 191
Division of items in the preliminaries bill 192
Problems with Civil Engineering Standard Method  193
of Measurement
15.11 Adjustment item to the total price 194
15.12 Preamble to bill of quantities 195
15.13 List of principal quantities 195

16 Interim monthly payments

16.1 Handling interim payments 196
16.2 Agreeing quantities for payment 197
16.3 Payment for extra work, dayworks and claims 198
16.4 Payment of lump sums, method related items and  199
any adjustment item
16.5 Payment for materials on site 200
16.6 Payment for materials manufactured off site 201
16.7 Payment for manufactured items shipped overseas 202
16.8 Price adjustment 202
16.9 Cost reimbursement 203
16.10 Retention and other matters 204

17 Variations and claims 

17.1 Who deals with variations and claims 206
17.2 Payment for increased quantities 207
17.3 Ordered variations 208
17.4 Rates for ordered variations 210
17.5 Variations proposed by the contractor 211
17.6 Claims from the contractor 212
17.7 Sheets submitted ‘for record purposes only’ 213
17.8 Clause 12 claims for unforeseen conditions 214
17.9 Payment for unforeseen conditions 215
Contents xi17.10 Delay claims 217
17.11 Estimating delay costs 218
17.12 Quotations from a contractor for undertaking variations 219
17.13 Time limits and interest payable on late payments 220
17.14 Adjudication 221
17.15 Alternative dispute resolution 222
17.16 Arbitration 223
17.17 Minimizing claims and disputes 223

18 Earthworks and pipelines

18.1 Excavating and earth-placing machinery 225
18.2 Controlling excavation 227
18.3 Haulage of excavated material 228
18.4 Placing and compacting fill 229
18.5 Watching fill quality 230
18.6 Site roads 231
18.7 Trenching for pipelines 232
18.8 Thrust blocks and testing pipelines 233
18.9 Handling and jointing large pipes and fittings 234

19 Site concreting and reinforcement 

19.1 Development of concrete practice 236
19.2 Standards for concrete quality 238
19.3 Practical compliance with concrete standards 240
19.4 Grading of aggregates and their suitable mixing 242
19.5 Workability of concrete and admixtures 243
19.6 Practical points in producing good concrete 245
19.7 Some causes of unsatisfactory concrete test results 247
19.8 Site checks on concrete quality 248
19.9 Conveyance and placing of concrete 250
19.10 Construction and other joints 251
19.11 Concrete finish problems 252
19.12 Handling and fixing steel reinforcement 253
References 256

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Advanced Concrete Technology

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Advanced Concrete Technology

CONTENTS

1 Introduction to Concrete 

1.1 Concrete Definition and Historical Development 1
1.2 Concrete as a Structural Material 7
1.3 Characteristics of Concrete 10
1.4 Types of Concrete 14
1.5 Factors Influencing Concrete Properties 16
1.6 Approaches to Study Concrete 19
Discussion Topics 21
References 22

2 Materials for Making Concrete

2.1 Aggregates 23
2.2 Cementitious Binders 31
2.3 Admixtures 68
2.4 Water 85
Discussion Topics 88
Problems 89
References 90

3 Fresh Concrete 

3.1 Workability of Fresh Concrete 94
3.2 Mix Design 107
3.3 Procedures for Concrete Mix Design 116
3.4 Manufacture of Concrete 122
3.5 Delivery of Concrete 123
3.6 Concrete Placing 125
3.7 Early-Age Properties of Concrete 135
Discussion Topics 137
Problems 137
References 138

4 Structure of Concrete 

4.1 Introduction 140
4.2 Structural Levels 141
4.3 Structure of Concrete in Nanometer Scale: C–S–H Structure 145
4.4 Transition Zone in Concrete 152
4.5 Microstructural Engineering 156
Discussion Topics 162
References 163

5 Hardened Concrete 

5.1 Strengths of Hardened Concrete 164
5.2 Stress–Strain Relationship and Constitutive Equations 189
5.3 Dimensional Stability—Shrinkage and Creep 197
5.4 Durability 216
Discussion Topics 246
Problems 246
References 248

6 Advanced Cementitious Composites 

6.1 Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites 251
6.2 High-Strength Cementitious Composites 270
6.3 Polymers in Concrete 281
6.4 Shrinkage-Compensating Concrete 292
6.5 Self-Compacting Concrete 296
6.6 Engineered Cementitious Composite 310
6.7 Tube-Reinforced Concrete 312
6.8 High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete 316
6.9 Structural Lightweight Concrete 317
6.10 Heavyweight Concrete 317
Discussion Topics 317
Problems 319
References 320

7 Concrete Fracture Mechanics 

7.1 Introduction 326
7.2 Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics 330
7.3 The Crack Tip Plastic Zone 337
7.4 Crack Tip Opening Displacement 340
7.5 Fracture Process in Concrete 342
7.6 Nonlinear Fracture Mechanics for Concrete 346
7.7 Two-Parameter Fracture Model 348
7.8 Size Effect Model 355
7.9 The Fictitious Model by Hillerborg 364
7.10 R-Curve Method for Quasi-Brittle Materials 369
Discussion Topics 374
Problems 375
References 379

8 Nondestructive Testing in Concrete Engineering 

8.1 Introduction 381
8.2 Review of Wave Theory for a 1D Case 394
8.3 Reflected and Transmitted Waves 403
8.4 Attenuation and Scattering 406
8.5 Main Commonly Used NDT-CE Techniques 407
8.6 Noncontacting Resistivity Measurement Method 458
Discussion Topics 468
Problems 469
References 472

9 The Future and Development Trends of Concrete 

9.1 Sustainability of Concrete 476
9.2 Deep Understanding of the Nature of Hydration 483
9.3 Load-Carrying Capability–Durability Unified Service Life Design Theory 485
9.4 High Toughness and Ductile Concrete 487

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Reinforced Concrete Design Principles and Practice

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Reinforced Concrete Design Principles and Practice 


Explains the basic principles and techniques involved in the design of reinforced concrete structures. This work highlights detailing aspects of reinforcement. It incorporates earthquake resistant design. It is suitable for undergraduate civil engineering students and practising engineers.

Contents of the Book

1. Continuous Beams
2. Bunkers and Silos
3. Chimneys
4. Curved Beams
5. Towers
6. Elevated Water Tanks
7. Box-Culverts
8. Portal Frames
9. Multistory Building Frames
10. Shells
11. Hyperbolic Paraboloid Shells
12. Hyperbolic Cooling Towers
13. Folded Plates
14. Grid or Coffered Floors
15. Virendeel Griders
16. Trusses
17. Poles
18. Depp Beams
19. Pipes
20. Bridge Deck System

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Standard Handbook for Civil Engineers

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Standard Handbook for Civil Engineers


A revision of the classic reference covering all important principles and techniques needed by practicing civil engineers. The 5th Edition incorporates changes in design and construction practices, especially in design specifications for construction materials, buildings and bridges, safety and health concerns, and the most current codes changes including ACI, AISC, ASTM, NDS for wood structures, etc. The Handbook covers systems design, community and regional planning, the latest design methods for buildings, airports, highways, tunnels and bridges. It includes sections on construction equipment, construction management, materials, specifications, structural theory, geotechnical engineering, wood, concrete, steel design and construction.

This new, completely updated, and expanded Fifth Edition features:


* The most recent code changes, including AIC, AISC, ASTM, NDS for Wood Structures, and more
* Current EPA and OSHA regulations
* Additional information on design build delivery systems
* Increased coverage of stormwater runoff
* Over 700 tables, formulas, and drawings to make every explanation and procedure crystal clear
* Sections on construction management; materials specifications; structural theory; wood and concrete, steel design and construction; and much more
* The latest design methods for buildings, airports, highways, tunnels, and bridges
Turn to this one-stop review of the field for simplified solutions to the hundreds of practical problems you face in your day-to-day civil engineering practice.

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Planning and Design of Airports

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Planning and Design of Airports


Contents

Preface
Acknowledgments   
Part 1  Airport Planning

1  The Nature of Civil Aviation and Airports      

Introduction
Commercial Service Aviation     
Passenger Air Carriers   
International Air Transportation     
Air Cargo 
General Aviation 
Civil Aviation Airports 
Historical Review of the Legislative Role in Aviation
Air Commerce Act of 1926   
Civil Aeronautics Act of 1938 
Federal Airport Act of 1946   
Federal Aviation Act of 1958 
Creation of the U.S. Department of Transportation 
Airport and Airway Development Act of 1970 
Airline Deregulation Act of 1978     
Impact of Airline Deregulation   
The Airport and Airway Improvement Act of 1982 
The Aviation Safety and Capacity Act of 1990 
AIR-21: The Wendell Ford Aviation
Investment Act for the 21st Century   
The Aviation and Transportation Security Act of 2001   
Vision 100 Century of Aviation Act of 2003 
NextGen Financing Reform Act of 2007/
FAA Reauthorization Act of 2009 
State Roles in Aviation and Airports 
Aviation Organizations and Their Functions   
Federal Agencies of the United States Government   
Federal Aviation Administration     
Transportation Security Administration 
Environmental Protection Agency 
National Transportation Safety Board State Agencies 
The International Civil Aviation Organization   
Industry and Trade Organizations   
References
Web References.

2  Aircraft Characteristics Related to Airport Design   

Dimensional Standards
Landing Gear Confi gurations 
Aircraft Weight  . .   61
Engine Types  . . . .   63
Atmospheric Conditions Affecting
Aircraft Performance    . . . .   69
Air Pressure and Temperature    70
Wind Speed and Direction     73
Aircraft Performance Characteristics    75
Aircraft Speed       75
Payload and Range    . .   77
Runway Performance     79
Declared Distances   . . .   82
Wingtip Vortices   . . . . .   89
References . .   90

3  Air Traffi c Management 

Introduction  . . . . .   95
A Brief History of Air Traffi c Management    .   96
The Organizational Hierarchy of Air Traffi c
Management in the United States   .  97
The Air Traffi c Control System Command Center   .   97
Air Route Traffi c Control Centers    . . .   97
Terminal Approach Control Facilities      98
Airport Traffi c Control Tower   .  99
Flight Service Stations     100
Air Traffi c Management Rules   . . .   100
Airspace Classifi cations and Airways    101
Airways  . .   106
Colored Airways   . . . . .   107
Victor Airways      108
Jet Routes  .   108
Area Navigation   . . . . .   108
Air Traffi c Separation Rules   .   110
Vertical Separation in the Airspace    . .   111
Assigned Flight Altitudes   .   111
Longitudinal Separation in the Airspace   . . .   111
Lateral Separation in the Airspace    . . .   113
Navigational Aids    114
Ground-Based Systems   . . .   114
Satellite-Based Systems: Global
Positioning System     124
The Modernization of Air Traffi c Management   . . . .   127
NextGen  . .   129
SWIM  . . . .   129
NextGen Data Communications      130
NextGen Enabled Weather      130
References . .   130

4  Airport Planning Studies   

Introduction  . . . . .   133
Types of Studies  .   135
The Airport System Plan   . .   135
Airport Site Selection   .   137
The Airport Master Plan   . .   138
The Airport Project Plan   . .   141
Continuing Planning Process     146
References . .   147

5  Forecasting for Airport Planning 

Introduction  . . . . .   149
Levels of Forecasting    .   151
Forecasting Methods    .   152
Time Series Method    . .   154
Market Share Method     156
Econometric Modeling     158
Forecasting Requirements and Applications      162
The Airport System Plan   . .   164
The Airport Master Plan   . .   164
The Future Aviation Forecasting Environment   . . . .   168
References . .   169
Part 2  Airport Design

6  Geometric Design of the Airfield    

Airport Design Standards   . . .   173
Airport Classifi cation    .   174
Utility Airports      176
Transport Airports   . . .   177
Runways   .   177
Runway Confi gurations   . . . .   177
Single Runway      178
Parallel Runways   . . . .   178
Intersecting Runways     181
Open-V Runways   . . . .   181
Combinations of Runway Configurations   . . . .  181
Runway Orientation    .   183
The Wind Rose      186
Estimating Runway Length   . .  191
Runway System Geometric Specifications  . . . .  201
Parallel Runway System Spacing      205
Sight Distance and Longitudinal Profile   . . . .   207
Transverse Gradient   . .   213
Airfi eld Separation Requirements
Related to Runways     213
Obstacle Clearance Requirements    . . .   213
FAR Part 77    . . .   216
ICAO Annex 14    . . . . .   221
TERPS  . . . .   222
Runway End Siting Requirements    . . .   223
Taxiways and Taxilanes   . . . . .   228
Widths and Slopes   . . .   228
Taxiway and Taxilane Separation
Requirements   . . . . .   229
Sight Distance and Longitudinal Profi le   . . . .   234
Exit Taxiway Geometry   . . .   234
Location of Exit Taxiways   .   238
Design of Taxiway Curves
and Intersections   . .   244
End-Around Taxiways     249
Aprons   . . .   250
Holding Aprons   . . . . .   250
Terminal Aprons and Ramps   .  252
Terminal Apron Surface Gradients    . .   254
Control Tower Visibility Requirements    .   254
References . .   255

7  Structural Design of Airport Pavements  

Introduction  . . . . .   257
Soil Investigation and Evaluation     259
The CBR Test    . .   263
The Plate Bearing Test     263
Young’s Modulus (E Value)   . .  266
Effect of Frost on Soil Strength   . . .   266
Subgrade Stabilization      267
FAA Pavement Design Methods   .   268
Equivalent Aircraft Method   . .  269
Cumulative Damage Failure Method      270
Design of Flexible Pavements     271
CBR Method    . .   272
Layered Elastic Design    273
Design of Rigid Pavements   . .   275
Westergaard’s Analysis   . . .   275
Finite Element Theory     276
Joints and Joint Spacing   . . . . .   277
Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavements   . . . .   279
Design of Overlay Pavements   . . .   282
Pavements for Light Aircraft     286
Pavement Evaluation and Pavement
Management Systems   . . . .   287
References . .   288

8  Airport Lighting, Marking, and Signage 

Introduction  . . . . .   291
The Requirements for Visual Aids     292
The Airport Beacon   . .   293
Obstruction Lighting   .   293
The Aircraft Landing Operation    .   293
Alignment Guidance   .   294
Height Information   . .   294
Approach Lighting    . . .   296
System Confi gurations    296
Visual Approach Slope Aids   .   301
Visual Approach Slope Indicator      301
Precision Approach Path Indicator    . .   302
Threshold Lighting    . . .   303
Runway Lighting    303
Runway Edge Lights   .   304
Runway Centerline and Touchdown
Zone Lights    .   304
Runway End Identifi er Lights 
Taxiway Lighting    310
Taxiway Edge Lights   .   311
Runway Guard Lights     313
Runway Stop Bar   . . . .   314
Runway and Taxiway Marking   . .   315
Runways  .   315
Runway Designators   .   315
Runway Threshold Markings   .  320
Centerline Markings   .   320
Aiming Points    .   320
Touchdown Zone Markings   . .  321
Side Stripes    . . .   321
Displaced Threshold Markings    .   321
Blast Pad Markings   . .   322
Taxiway Markings   . . .   323
Centerline and Edge Markings    323
Taxiway Hold Markings   . .   325
Taxiway Shoulders   . . .   326
Enhanced Taxiway Markings     328
Closed Runway and Taxiway Markings   . . . .   328
Airfi eld Signage   . . . . .   329
Runway Distance Remaining Signs    . .   330
Taxiway Guidance Sign System    .   331
Taxiway Designations     331
Types of Taxiway Signs   . . .   333
Signing Conventions   .   337
Sign Size and Location     338
Sign Operation      340
References . .   341

9  Airport Drainage   

Purpose of Drainage  . .   343
Design Storm for Surface Runoff      343
Determining the Intensity-Duration
Pattern for the Design Storm    .   344
Determining the Amount of Runoff by
the FAA Procedure   .   347
Determining the Amount of Runoff by
the Corps of Engineers Procedure    .   358
Layout of Surface Drainage   . .  368
References . .   380

10  Planning and Design of the Terminal Area      

Introduction  . . . . .   383
The Passenger Terminal System   . .   383
Components of the System     383 
Design Considerations      387
Terminal Demand Parameters    393
Facility Classifi cation   .   394
Overall Space Approximations    396
Level of Service Criteria   . .   397
The Terminal Planning Process   . .   399
Space Programming   . .   400
Other Areas    . . .   415
Overall Space Requirements   . .  416
Concept Development     416
Horizontal Distribution Concepts    . . .   417
Vertical Distribution Concepts    423
Schematic Design   . . . .   426
Analysis Methods   . . . .   427
Design Development   .   441
The Apron Gate System   . . . . .   442
Number of Gates   . . . .   442
Ramp Charts    . .   448
Gate Size  .   453
Aircraft Parking Type   .   455
Apron Layout    .   456
Apron Circulation   . . . .   457
Passenger Conveyance to Aircraft    . . .   457
Apron Utility Requirements   . .  458
References . .   461
Part 3  Special Topics in Airport Planning and Design

11  Airport Security Planning 

Introduction  . . . . .   467
History of Airport Security   . .   468
Airport Security Program   . . .   470
Security at Commercial Service Airports    . . .   472
Passenger Screening   . .   473
Baggage Screening   . . .   475
Employee Identifi cation   . .   476
Perimeter Security    . . .   477
Vulnerability Assessment   . . .   477
Security at General Aviation Airports    481
Future Security  . .   481
References . .   482
12  Airport Airside Capacity and Delay    483
Introduction  . . . . .   483
Capacity and Delay Defi ned   .   484
Capacity and Delay in Airfi eld Planning   . . .   485
Approaches to the Analysis of Capacity and Delay   . . . .  486
Factors That Affect Airfi eld Capacity      489
Formulation of Runway Capacity through
Mathematical Theory   . . . .   490
Mathematical Formulation of Delay    .   490
Formulation of Runway Capacity through
the Time-Space Concept   . .   492
Formulation of Ultimate Capacity     497
Mathematical Formulation of
Ultimate Capacity   .   497
Application of Techniques for Ultimate
Hourly Capacity    . . .   514
Parameters Required for Runway
Capacity  . . . .  514
Computation of Delay on Runway Systems      520
Graphical Methods for Approximating
Delay  . .   525
Application of Techniques for Annual
Service Volume    532
Simulation Models   . . .   537
Gate Capacity  . . .   538
Analytical Models for Gate Capacity      539
References . .   541

13  Finance Strategies for Airport Planning   

Introduction  . . . . .   543
Background  . . . . .   543
Federal Funding Programs in the United States   . . . . .  544
The Airport Development Aid
Program     . . .   547
The Passenger Facility Charge
Program     . . .   556
State and Local Participation in Financing
Airport Improvements   . . .   557
Bond Financing  . .   558
General Obligation Bonds      558
General Airport Revenue Bonds       559
Special Facility Bonds     559
PFC Bonds    560
CFC Bonds    560
Privatization of Airports   . . . .   560
Financial Planning    . . .   562
Rate Setting    . . .   564
Evaluation of the Financial Plan   . .   571
References . .   571 

14  Environmental Planning 

Introduction  . . . . .   573
Policy Considerations      574
Pollution Factors  .   576
Air Quality    576
Water Quality    .   577
Aircraft and Airport Noise     579
Sound Pressure and Sound Pressure Level   . . .  580
Aircraft Noise Effects and Land-Use
Compatibility    . . . .   592
Determining the Extent of the Problem   . . . .   598
Finding Solutions   . . . .   604
Noise Regulations   . . . .   609
Construction Impacts   .   615
Social Factors  . . . .   616
Land Development   . . .   616
Displacement and Relocation   .  617
Parks, Recreational Areas, Historical Places,
Archeological Resources,
and Natural and Scenic Beauty    . . .   617
Consistency with Local Planning      618
Ecological Factors    619
Wildlife, Waterfowl, Flora, Fauna,
Endangered Species     619
Wetlands and Coastal Zones   . .  619
Flood Hazards    .   620
Engineering and Economic Factors   . .  620
Costs of Construction and Operation      620
Economic Benefi ts and Fiscal Requirements   . . .  624
Energy and Natural Resources    624
Summary   .   625
References . .   625

15  Heliports  

Introduction  . . . . .   629
Heliports   .   629
The Nature of Helicopter Transportation   . . .   629
Characteristics of Helicopters   .  630
Factors Related to Heliport Site Selection   . . .    631
References . .   648

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Aircraft Interior Comfort and Design

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Aircraft Interior Comfort and Design


Contents

Foreword 
About the Authors 

Chapter 1  What Every Manufacturer and Airline Should Know about Comfort

Two Comfort Stories 
Role of Comfort in Sales 
The Difficulty of Making People Feel Comfortable  
The Good News: It Is Possible to Make People 
Feel More Comfortable 
Comfort Theory
Comfort Manifestations 
Inputs Leading to (Dis)comfort 
History .
State of Mind 
Visual Input
Smell 
Noise 
Temperature and Humidity 
Pressure and Touch 
Posture and Movements 
Persons Influencing the Input 
References 

Chapter 2  Other Aircraft Interior Comfort Studies 

Lack of Many Substantial Studies on Aircraft Comfort  
A Classic Study 
German Study on Aircraft Interior Comfort 
Experience Preceding the Flight
Experience during the Flight 
Experience after the Flight  
A Study Regarding Service, Perceived Value, and Satisfaction in Taiwan .
A German Study of Noise 
A Dutch Study Regarding Aircraft Interior Comfort 
A U.S. Study Regarding Passenger Experience 
Some Conclusions
References 

Chapter 3  The Voices of over 10,000 Customers

Technology Versus Passenger 28
Innovations Have Their Effects ..28
Study Methodology ................29
Factors Correlating with Comfort .30
Leg Room .33
Hygiene ..34
Crew ....34
Luggage Room ...................37
Neighbour .37
Seat .....38
Flying Time 40
In-Flight Entertainment .....40
Delay ... 41
Lost Luggage .42
Aircraft Type .42
Direct versus No Direct Flight .43
Reflection  .44
References ..45

Chapter 4  New Demands for Aircraft Seats Based on Recent Research

Using Research for Seat Design .48
Seat Design and Health ..........48
Aircraft Seats Should Fit ........49
Pitch Watchers .52
Designing an Aircraft Seat Is Difficult .................. 53
Ideal Pressure Distribution ..... 53
Seating and Shear Forces .......55
Comfort and Seating ..............56
Specific Dynamic Seat Characteristics ..................58
Comfort and “Wow” ...............58
Feet off the Ground ................60
Backrest Angle  61
Seating and Electronics ..........62
Other Features: Headrests and Massage ................63
Opportunity for Designers .....64
References ..64

Chapter 5  The Ultra Comfortable Flight Experience

Introduction 68
The Flight Experience ............68
At Home 68
Forty-Eight Hours before the Flight ..................72
To the Airport 72
At the Airport 72
The Lounge .73
Airport Plus 73
At the Gate  74
The Plane Entrance ........... 75
The Long Haul Flight ........78
Business Class ...................80
Inexpensive Flight ............. 81
In-Flight Entertainment (IFE) .. 81
Cleanliness . 81
Crew ....82
Arrival 82
References ..83

Chapter 6  Illustrations and Comments on Aircraft Interior Comfort 

and Design ..85
Introduction 86
Leg Room 86
Service .....89
Hygiene ....90
Luggage Room 92
Neighbour 93
Seat ..........95
IFE ......... 103
Delay/Waiting  105
Other Illustrations ................106
Design ....106
Safety .....109
Business Class .. 111

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