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NATURAL RESOURCES                                           9
Definition – Scope and importance – Need for public awareness – Forest resources – Use
and over – Exploitation – Deforestation – Case studies – Timber extraction – Mining –
Dams  and  their  ground  water  –  Floods  –  Drought  –  Conflicts  over  water  –  Dams  –
Benefits and problems – Mineral resources – Use effects on forests and tribal people –
Water resources – Use and over-utilization of surface and exploitation – Environmental
effects  of  extracting  and  using  mineral  resources  –  Case  studies  –  Food  resources  –
World  food  problems  –  Changes  caused  by  agriculture  and  overgrazing  –  Effects  of
modern  agriculture  –  Fertilizer  –  Pesticide  problems  –  Water  logging,  salinity  –  Case
studies  –  Energy  resources  –  Growing  energy  needs  –  Renewable  and  non  renewable
energy sources – Use of alternate energy sources – Case studies – Land resources – Land
as  a  resource  –  Land  degradation  –  Man  induced  landslides  –  Soil  erosion  and
desertification  –  Role  of  an  individual  in  conservation  of  natural  resources  –  Equitable
use of resources for sustainable lifestyles. 

UNIT II          ECOSYSTEMS AND BIODIVERSITY                              9
Concepts  of  an  ecosystem  –  Structure  and  function  of  an  ecosystem  –  Producers,
consumers and decomposers – Energy flow in the ecosystem – Ecological succession –
Food  chains,  food  webs  and  ecological  pyramids  –    Introduction,  types,  characteristic
features, structure and function of the (A) forest ecosystem (B) grassland ecosystem (C)
desert  ecosystem  (D)  aquatic  ecosystems  (Ponds,  Streams,  Lakes,  Rivers,  Oceans,
Estuaries)  –  Introduction  to  biodiversity  –  Definition  genetic,  species  and  ecosystem
diversity – Biogeographical classification of India – Value of biodiversity – Consumptive
use, productive use, social, ethical, aesthetic and option values – Biodiversity at global,
national and local levels – India as a mega-diversity nation – Hot-Spots of biodiversity –
Threats  to  biodiversity:  habitat  loss,  poaching  of  wildlife,  man-wildlife  conflicts  –
Endangered and endemic species of India – Conservation of biodiversity: In-situ and ex-
situ conservation of biodiversity. 

UNIT III        ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION                                    9
Definition  –  Causes,  Effects  and  Control  Measures  of:-  (A)  Air  Pollution  (B)  Water
Pollution  (C)  Soil  Pollution  (D)  Marine  Pollution  (E)  Noise  Pollution  (F)  Thermal
Pollution (G) Nuclear Hazards – Solid Waste Management:- Causes, Effects and Control
Measures  of  Urban  and  Industrial  Wastes  –  Role  of  an  Individual  in  Prevention  of
Pollution – Pollution Case Studies – disaster Management:- Floods, Earthquake, Cyclone
and Landslides  UNIT IV        SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT                           9 
From  unsustainable  to  sustainable  development  –  Urban  problems  related  to  energy  –
Water  conservation,  rain  water  harvesting,  watershed  management  –  Resettlement  and
rehabilitation of people, its problems and concerns, case studies – Environmental ethics:-
issues  and  possible  solutions  –  Climate  change,  global  warming,  acid  rain,  ozone  layer
depletion,  nuclear  accidents  and  holocaust,  case  studies  –  Wasteland  reclamation  –
Consumerism  and  waste  products  –  Environment  production  act  –  Air  (Prevention  and
control  of  pollution)  act  –  Water  (Prevention  and  control  of  pollution)  act  –  Wildlife
protection   act   –   Forest   conservation   act   –   Issues   involved   in   enforcement   of
environmental legislation – Public awareness.

UNIT V          HUMAN POPULATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT                        9
Population  growth,  variation  among  nations  –  Population  explosion  –  Family  welfare
programme – Environment and human health – Human rights – Value education – HIV
/AIDS – Women and child welfare – Role of information technology in environment and
human health – Case studies.
Field study of local area to document environmental assets – River/forest/grassland/hill/
Field  study  of  common  plants,  insects  and  birds  –  Field  study  of  simple  ecosystems  –
Pond, river, hill slopes, etc.
Field study of local polluted site – Urban/rural/industrial/agricultural.

                                                                                                      Total: 45
1.         Masters,  G.M.,  “Introduction  to  Environmental  Engineering  and  Science”,  2nd
Edition, Pearson Education, 2007.
2.         Townsend,  C.,  Harper,  J.  and  Begon,  M.,  “Essentials  of  Ecology”,  Blackwell
Science, 2003.

1.        Cunningham,  Cooper,  W.P.  and  Gorhani,  T.H.,  “Environmental  Encyclopedia”,
Jaico Publishing House, 2001.
2.        Erach, B., “The Biodiversity of India”, Mapin Publishing Pvt. Ltd.,2006 
3.        Wages, K.D., “Environmental Management”, W.B. Saunders Co., 1998

About Author:

I am Thomas Britto here to share my experiences in the civil engineering field to all my readers.Today many students are struggling to buy books at high prices. So I decided to start a blog and share my experience and knowledge with all my readers.

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