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 Scope and objectives – Methods of exploration-averaging and boring – Water boring and
rotatory drilling – Depth of boring – Spacing of bore hole - Sampling – Representative
and  undisturbed  sampling  –  Sampling  techniques  –  Split  spoon  sampler,  thin  tube
sampler, stationary piston sampler  – Bore log report – Penetration tests (SPT and SCPT)                              
–  Data  interpretation  (Strength  parameters  and  Liquefaction  potential)  –  Selection  of
foundation based on soil condition.

UNIT II          SHALLOW FOUNDATION                                       9
Introduction–Location and depth of foundation – Codal provisions – Bearing capacity of
shallow  foundation  on  homogeneous  deposits  –  Terzaghi’s  formula  and  BIS  formula  –
Factors  affecting  bearing  capacity  –  Problems-bearing  Capacity  from  insitu  tests  (SPT,
SCPT  and  plate  load)  –  Allowable  bearing  pressure,  settlement  –  Components  of
settlement – Determination of settlement of foundations on granular and clay deposits –
Allowable  settlements  –  Codal  provision  –  Methods  of  minimizing  settlement  –
Differential settlement.

UNIT III        FOOTINGS AND RAFTS                                 9
Types  of  foundation  –  Contact  pressure  distribution  below  footings  and  raft  –  Isolated
and  combined  footings  –  Types  –  Proportioning  –  Mat  foundation  –  Types  –  Use  –
Proportioning – Floating foundation.

UNIT IV        PILES                                     9
Types of piles and their function – Factors influencing the selection of pile – Carrying
capacity of single pile in granular and cohesive soil – Static formula – Dynamic formulae
(Engineering news and Hiley’s) – Capacity from insitu tests (SPT and SCPT) – Negative
skin  friction  –  Uplift  capacity  –  Group  capacity  by  different  methods  (Feld’s  rule,
Converse  Labarra  formula  and  block  failure  criterion)  –  Settlement  of  pile  groups  –
Interpretation  of  pile  load  test  –  Forces  on  pile  caps  –  Under  reamed  piles  –  Capacity
under compression and uplift.

UNIT V          RETAINING WALLS                                                           9
Plastic equilibrium in soils – Active and passive states – Rankine’s theory – Cohesionless
and  cohesive  soil    –  Coloumb’s  wedge  theory  –  Condition  for  critical  failure  plane  –
Earth pressure on retaining walls of simple configurations – Graphical methods (Rebhann
and Culmann) – Pressure on the wall due to line load – Stability of retaining walls.
Total: 45 

1.        Murthy, V.N.S., “Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering”, UBS Publishers
Distribution Ltd, 1999.
2.        Gopal  Ranjan  Rao,  A.S.R.,”Basic  and  Applied  Soil  Mechanics”,  Wiley  Eastern
Ltd., 2003.

1.         Das, B.M., “Principles of Foundation Engineering, 5th Edition, Thomson Books,
2.         Kaniraj, S.R., “Design Aids in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering”, Tata
McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd., 2002.
3.        Bowles, J.E., “Foundation Analysis and Design”, McGraw-Hill, 1994

About Author:

I am Thomas Britto here to share my experiences in the civil engineering field to all my readers.Today many students are struggling to buy books at high prices. So I decided to start a blog and share my experience and knowledge with all my readers.

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