Structural Load Determination

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Structural Load Determination


TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION

1.1  OVERVIEW.

1.2  SCOPE......   1-2 

1.3  REFERENCES .........   1-4 

CHAPTER 2 – LOAD COMBINATIONS 

2.1  INTRODUCTION ....   2-1 

2.  LOAD EFFECTS......   2-1 

2.3  LOAD COMBINATIONS USING STRENGTH DESIGN OR LOAD 

AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN ..... 2-2 

2.4  LOAD COMBINATIONS USING ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN . 2-4 

2.5  LOAD COMBINATIONS WITH OVERSTRENGTH FACTOR .....   2-8 

2.6  LOAD COMBINATIONS FOR EXTRAORDINARY EVENTS...... 2-11 

2.7  EXAMPLES ............. 2-11 

  2.7.1  Example 2.1 – Column in Office Building, Strength Design 

Load Combinations for Axial Loads ....   2-12 

  2.7.2  Example 2.2 – Column in Office Building, Strength Design 

Load Combinations for Axial Loads and Bending Moments ....   2-13 

  2.7.3  Example 2.3 – Beam in University Building, Strength Design 

Load Combinations for Shear Forces and Bending Moments...   2-14 

  2.7.4  Example 2.4 – Beam in University Building, Basic Allowable Stress  

    Design Load Combinations for Shear Forces and Bending Moments.......   2-16 

  2.7.5  Example 2.5 – Beam in University Building, Alternative Basic Allowable 

    Stress Design Load Combinations for Shear Forces and Bending Moments ............   2-18 

  2.7.6  Example 2.6 – Collector Beam in Residential Building, Load Combinations using 

    Strength Design and Basic Load Combinations for Strength Design with 

    Overstrength Factor for Axial Forces, Shear Forces, and Bending Moments ...........   2-19 

  2.7.7  Example 2.7 – Collector Beam in Residential Building, Load Combinations using 

    Allowable Stress Design (Basic Load Combinations) and Basic Combinations 

     for Allowable Stress Design with Overstrength Factor for Axial Forces, Shear 

    Forces, and Bending Moments ........   2-21 

2.7.8  Example 2.8 – Collector Beam in Residential Building, Load Combinations using 

    Allowable Stress Design (Alternative Basic Load Combinations) and Basic 

    Combinations for Allowable Stress Design with Overstrength Factor for Axial 

    Forces, Shear Forces, and Bending Moments ......   2-22 

2.7.9  Example 2.9 – Timber Pile in Residential Building, Basic Allowable Stress Design 

    Load Combinations for Axial Forces ...   2-23 

CHAPTER 3 – DEAD, LIVE, AND RAIN LOADS 

3.1  DEAD LOADS......... 3-1 

3.2  LIVE LOADS........... 3-2 

3.2.1  General ....... 3-2 

3.2.2  Reduction in Live Loads . 3-3 

3.2.3  Distribution of Floor Loads.............   3-9 

3.2.4  Roof Loads . 3-10 

3.2.5  Crane Loads 3-11 

3.2.6  Interior Walls and Partitions............ 3-12 

3.3  RAIN LOADS .......... 3-12 

3.4  EXAMPLES ............. 3-13 

3.4.1  Example 3.1 – Live Load Reduction, General Method of IBC 1607.9.1 .. 3-14 

3.4.2  Example 3.2 – Live Load Reduction, Alternate Method of IBC 1607.9.2  3-24 

3.4.3  Example 3.3 – Live Load Reduction on a Girder. 3-32 

3.4.4  Example 3.4 – Rain Load, IBC 1611.... 3-33 

CHAPTER 4 – SNOW LOADS

4.1  INTRODUCTION ....   4-1 

4.2  FLOWCHARTS .......   4-4 

4.3  EXAMPLES ............. 4-14 

4.3.1  Example 4.1 – Warehouse Building, Roof Slope of 1/2 on 12.. 4-14 

4.3.2  Example 4.2 – Warehouse Building, Roof Slope of 1/4 on 12..   4-19 

4.3.3  Example 4.3 – Warehouse Building (Roof Slope of 1/2 on 12) and Adjoining Office Building (Roof Slope of 1/2 on 12) ... 4-20 

4.3.4  Example 4.4 – Six-Story Hotel with Parapet Walls..............   4-28 

4.3.5  Example 4.5 – Six-Story Hotel with Rooftop Unit...............   4-33 

4.3.6  Example 4.6 – Agricultural Building....   4-35 

4.3.7  Example 4.7 – University Facility with Sawtooth Roof.......   4-39 

4.3.8  Example 4.8 – Public Utility Facility with Curved Roof......   4-42 

CHAPTER 5 – WIND LOADS

5.1  INTRODUCTION ....   5-1 

5.2  FLOWCHARTS .......   5-3 

  5.2.1  Allowed Procedures.........   5-5

  5.2.2  Method 1 – Simplified Procedure.... 5-7 

  5.2.3  Method 2 – Analytical Procedure....   5-11 

  5.2.4  Alternate All-heights Method..........   5-30 

5.3  EXAMPLES ............. 5-32 

  5.3.1  Example 5.1 – Warehouse Building using Method 1, Simplified Procedure    

5.3.2  Example 5.2 – Warehouse Building using Low-rise Building Provisions of  Method 2, Analytical Method..........   5-43 

  5.3.3  Example 5.3 – Warehouse Building using Provisions of Method 2, Analytical Procedure......   5-52 

  5.3.4  Example 5.4 – Warehouse Building using Alternate All-heights Method.   5-60 

  5.3.5  Example 5.5 – Residential Building using Method 2, Analytical Procedure............. 5-69 

  5.3.6  Example 5.6 – Six-Story Hotel using Method 2, Analytical Procedure .... 5-87 

  5.3.7  Example 5.7 – Six-Story Hotel Located on an Escarpment using Method 2, Analytical Procedure . 5-98 

  5.3.8  Example 5.8 – Six-Story Hotel using Alternate All-heights Method 

  5.3.9  Example 5.9 – Fifteen-Story Office Building using Method 2,  Analytical Procedure ....... 5-110 

  5.3.10  Example 5.10 – Agricultural Building using Method 2, Analytical Procedure......... 5-125 

5.3.11  Example 5.11 – Freestanding Masonry Wall using Method 2, Analytical Procedure .......   5-131 

CHAPTER 6 – EARTHQUAKE LOADS 

6.1  INTRODUCTION .... 6-1 

6.2  SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA.....   6-2 

  6.2.1  Seismic Ground Motion Values ...... 6-2 

  6.2.2  Occupancy Category and Importance Factor ....... 6-4 

  6.2.3  Seismic Design Category  6-5 

  6.2.  Design Requirements for SDC A .... 6-5 

6.3  SEISMIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR BUILDING STRUCTURES

  6.3.1  Basic Requirements......... 6-6 

  6.3.2  Seismic Force-Resisting Systems.... 6-6 

  6.3.3  Diaphragm Flexibility, Configuration Irregularities, and Redundancy .....   6-7 

  6.3.4  Seismic Load Effects and Combinations.............. 6-12 

  6.3.5  Direction of Loading ....... 6-13 

  6.3.6  Analysis Procedure Selection .......... 6-15 

  6.3.7  Modeling Criteria ............ 6-15 

  6.3.8  Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure    6-15 

  6.3.  Modal Response Spectral Analysis . 6-18 

  6.310  Diaphragms, Chords, and Collectors.... 6-18 

  6.3.11  Structural Walls and Their Anchorage . 6-20 

  6.3.12  Drift and Deformation ..... 6-20 

  6.3.13  Foundation Design .......... 6-20 

  6.3.14  Simplified Alternative Structural Design Criteria for Simple 

Bearing Wall or Building Frame Systems............ 6-21 

6.4  SEISMIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR NONSTRUCTURAL COMPONENTS.......... 6-22   6.4.1  General ....... 6-22 

  6.4.2  Seismic Demands on Nonstructural Components  6-23 

  6.4.3  Nonstructural Component Anchorage.. 6-23 

  6.4.4  Architectural Components............... 6-23 

  6.4.5  Mechanical and Electrical Components ............... 6-24 

6.5  SEISMIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR NONBUILDING STRUCTURES ..

  6.5.1  General ....... 6-24 

  6.5.2  Reference Documents...... 6-25 

  6.5.3  Nonbuilding Structures Supported by Other Structures .......   6-25 

  6.5.4  Structural Design Requirements...... 6-25 

  6.5.5  Nonbuilding Structures Similar to Buildings ....... 6-25 

  6.5.6  Nonbuilding Structures Not Similar to Buildings. 6-26 

  6.5.7 Tanks and Vessels ........... 6-26 

6.6  FLOWCHARTS ....... 6-26 

  6.6.1  Seismic Design Criteria... 6-28 

  6.6.2  Seismic Design Requirements for Building Structures ........ 6-38 

  6.6.3  Seismic Design Requirements for Nonstructural Components . 6-55 

  6.6.4  Seismic Design Requirements for Nonbuilding Structures .. 6-57 

6.7  EXAMPLES ............. 6-61 

  6.7.1  Example 6.1 – Residential Building, Seismic Design Category 6-61 

  6.7.2  Example 6.2 – Residential Building, Permitted Analytical Procedure......   6-64 

  6.7.3  Example 6.3 – Office Building, Seismic Design Category ..   6-70 

  6.7.4  Example 6.4 – Office Building, Permitted Analytical Procedure.............. 6-74 

  6.7.5  Example 6.5 – Office Building, Allowable Story Drift........ 6-84 

  6.7.6  Example 6.6 – Office Building, P-delta Effects ... 6-86 

  6.7.7  Example 6.7 – Health Care Facility, Diaphragm Design Forces............... 6-88 

  6.7.8  Example 6.8 – Health Care Facility, Nonstructural Component ...............   6-93 

  6.7.9  Example 6.9 – Residential Building, Vertical Combination  of Structural Systems....... 6-95 

  6.7.10  Example 6.10 – Warehouse Building, Design of Roof 

Diaphragm, Collectors, and Wall Panels.............. 6-102 

  6.7.11  Example 6.11 – Retail Building, Simplified Design Method ....   6-112 

  6.7.12  Example 6.12 – Nonbuilding Structure  6-121

CHAPTER 7 – FLOOD LOADS

7.1  INTRODUCTION ....   7-1 

7.2  FLOOD HAZARD AREAS ..........   7-1 

7.3  DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION ............... 7-3   7.3.1  General ....... 7-3 

  7..2  Flood Loads 7-4 

74  EXAMPLES ............. 7-10 

  7.4.  Example 7.1 – Residential Building Located in a Non-Coastal A Zone ... 7-10 

  7.4.2  Example 7.2 – Residential Building Located in a Coastal A Zone............   7-14 

  7.4.3  Example 7.3 – Residential Building Located in a V Zone ... 7-18 

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