Pile Design and Construction Practice

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Pile Design and Construction Practice


Contents

1 General principles and practices 1
1.1 Function of piles 1
1.2 Historical 1
1.3 Calculations of load-carrying capacity 2
1.4 Dynamic piling formulae 4
1.5 Code of practice requirements 5
1.6 Responsibilities of engineer and contractor 7
1.7 References 9

2 Types of pile 

2.1 Classification of piles 10
2.2 Driven displacement piles 14
2.3 Driven and cast-in-place displacement piles 50
2.4 Replacement piles 58
2.5 Composite piles 65
2.6 Minipiles and micropiles 66
2.7 Factors governing choice of type of pile 66
2.8 Reuse of existing piled foundations 69
2.9 References 69

3 Piling equipment and methods 

3.1 Equipment for driven piles 72
3.2 Equipment for installing driven and cast-in-place piles 104
3.3 Equipment for installing bored and cast-in-place piles 106
3.4 Procedure in pile installation 124
3.5 Constructing piles in groups 137
3.6 References 137

4 Calculating the resistance of piles to compressive loads 

4.1 General considerations 139
4.2 Calculations for piles in fine-grained soils 151
4.3 Piles in coarse-grained soils 165
4.4 Piles in soils intermediate between sands and clays 188
4.5 Piles in layered fine- and coarse-grained soils 189
4.6 The settlement of the single pile at the working load for piles in soil 192
4.7 Piles bearing on rock 196
4.8 Piles in fill – negative skin friction 212
4.9 References 220
4.10 Worked examples 223

5 Pile groups under compressive loading

5.1 Group action in piled foundations 240
5.2 Pile groups in fine-grained soils 243
5.3 Pile groups in coarse-grained soils 263
5.4 Eurocode 7 recommendations for pile groups 272
5.5 Pile groups terminating in rock 272
5.6 Pile groups in filled ground 276
5.7 Effects on pile groups of installation methods 278
5.8 Precautions against heave effects in pile groups 281
5.9 Pile groups beneath basements 282
5.10 The optimization of pile groups to reduce differential settlements in clay 287
5.11 References 288
5.12 Worked examples 290

6 The design of piled foundations to resist uplift and lateral loading 

6.1 The occurrence of uplift and lateral loading 305
6.2 Uplift resistance of piles 308
6.3 Single vertical piles subjected to lateral loads 327
6.4 Lateral loads on raking piles 352
6.5 Lateral loads on groups of piles 353
6.6 References 356
6.7 Worked examples 357

7 Some aspects of the structural design of piles and pile groups 

7.1 General design requirements 375
7.2 Designing reinforced concrete piles for lifting after fabrication 376
7.3 Designing piles to resist driving stresses 379
7.4 The effects on bending of piles below ground level 383
7.5 The design of axially loaded piles as columns 383
7.6 Lengthening piles 385
7.7 Bonding piles with caps and ground beams 386
7.8 The design of pile caps 388
7.9 The design of pile capping beams and connecting ground beams 393
7.10 References 396

8 Piling for marine structures

8.1 Berthing structures and jetties 398
8.2 Fixed offshore platforms 416
8.3 Pile installations for marine structures 418
8.4 References 424
8.5 Worked examples 425

9 Miscellaneous piling problems 

9.1 Piling for machinery foundations 434
9.2 Piling for underpinning 437
9.3 Piling in mining subsidence areas 445
9.4 Piling in frozen ground 449
9.5 Piled foundations for bridges on land 453
9.6 Piled foundations for over-water bridges 463
9.7 Piled foundations in karst 472
9.8 Energy piles 474
9.9 References 475
9.10 Worked example 477

10 The durability of piled foundations

10.1 General 478
10.2 Durability and protection of timber piles 479
10.3 Durability and protection of concrete piles 486
10.4 Durability and protection of steel piles 492
10.5 References 497
11 Ground investigations, piling contracts, pile testing 498
11.1 Ground investigations 498
11.2 Piling contracts and specifications 508
11.3 Control of pile installation 514
11.4 Load testing of piles 520
11.5 Tests for the structural integrity of piles 535
11.6 References 537
Appendix: properties of materials 539
A.1 Coarse-grained soils 539
A.2 Fine-grained and organic soils 539
A.3 Rocks and other materials 540
A.4 Engineering classification of chalk 540

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