Water And Wastewater Engineering Design Principles and Practice

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Water And Wastewater Engineering Design Principles and Practice


CONTENTS

1  The Design and Construction Processes   

   1-1  Introduction  1-2
   1-2  Project Participants   1-2
   1-3  The Professional–Client Relationship and The Code of Ethics   1-3
   1-4  Responsible Care  1-9 
   1-5  Overall Design Process   1-10
   1-6  Overall Construction Process   1-19
   1-7  Hints from the Field   1-23
   1-8  Chapter Review   1-24
   1-9  Problems  1-24
   1-10  Discussion Questions   1-25
   1-11  References  1-26

2  General Water Supply Design Considerations  

   2-1  Water Demand   2-2
   2-2  Water Source Evaluation   2-7
   2-3  Water Quality   2-22
   2-4  Evaluation of Process Options   2-37
   2-5  Plant Sizing and Layout   2-37
   2-6  Plant Location   2-39
   2-7  Chapter Review   2-39
   2-8  Problems  2-40
   2-9  Discussion Questions   2-45
   2-10  References  2-46

3  Intake Structures   

   3-1  Introduction  3-2
   3-2  Design Elements  3-2 
   3-3  Design Criteria   3-8
   3-4  Operational Considerations  3-31 
   3-5  Operation and Maintenance   3-34
   3-6  Chapter Review   3-35
   3-7  Problems  3-36
   3-8  Discussion Questions   3-41
   3-9  References  3-41

4  Wells 

   4-1  Introduction  4-2
   4-2  Design Elements   4-2
4-3  Well Protection   4-3
   4-4  Well Design   4-15
   4-5  Chapter Review   4-41
   4-6  Problems  4-42
   4-7  Discussion Questions   4-51
   4-8  References  4-51

5  Chemical Handling and Storage   

   5-1  Introduction  5-2
   5-2  Redundancy and Capacity Provisions   5-2
   5-3  Delivery, Handling, and Storage   5-2
   5-4  Chemical Feed and Metering Systems   5-7
   5-5  Chemical Compatibility   5-14
   5-6  Materials Compatibility   5-14
   5-7  Designing for Safety and Hazardous Conditions   5-17
   5-8  Operation and Maintenance   5-17
   5-9  Chapter Review  5-21
   5-10  Problems  5-22
   5-11  Discussion Questions   5-24
   5-12  References  5-25

6  Coagulation and Flocculation

   6-1  Introduction  6-2
   6-2  Characteristics of Particles   6-3
   6-3  Coagulation Theory   6-5
   6-4  Coagulation Practice   6-22
   6-5  Flocculation Theory   6-23
   6-6  Mixing Theory   6-24
   6-7  Mixing Practice   6-26
   6-8  Operation and Maintenance   6-49
   6-9  Chapter Review   6-49
   6-10  Problems  6-50
   6-11  Discussion Questions   6-57
   6-12  References  6-58

7  Lime-Soda Softening  

   7-1  Hardness  7-2
   7-2  Lime-Soda Softening   7-6
   7-3  Softening Processes   7-11
   7-4  Chemical Dosages Based on Stoichiometry   7-15
   7-5  Concurrent Removal of Other Constituents   7-26
   7-6  Process Configurations and Design Criteria   7-27
   7-7  Operation and Maintenance   7-34
   7-8  Stabilization  7-34
   7-9  Chapter Review   7-39
7-10  Problems  7-40
   7-11   Discussion Questions  7-46
   7-12   References  7-47

8  Ion Exchange   

   8-1  Introduction  8-2
   8-2  Fundamental Concepts of Ion Exchange   8-2
   8-3  Process Operation   8-10
   8-4  Ion Exchange Practice   8-13
   8-5  Operation and Maintenance   8-24
   8-6  Chapter Review   8-25
   8-7  Problems  8-25
   8-8  Discussion Question   8-28
   8-9  References  8-29

9  Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration  

   9-1  Introduction  9-2
   9-2  Theory  9-3
   9-3  Properties of RO and NF Membranes   9-6
   9-4   RO and NF Practice  9-8
   9-5  Electrodialysis  9-18
   9-6  Chapter Review   9-18
   9-7  Problems  9-19
   9-8  Discussion Question   9-20
   9-9   References  9-20

10  Sedimentation  

  10-1  Introduction  10-2
  10-2  Sedimentation Theory   10-2
  10-3  Sedimentation Practice   10-20
  10-4  Sedimentation Basin Design   10-25
  10-5  Operation and Maintenance   10-38
  10-6  Chapter Review   10-39
  10-7  Problems  10-40
  10-8  Discussion Questions   10-43
  10-9  References  10-44

11  Granular Filtration   

  11-1  Introduction  11-2
  11-2  An Overview of the Filtration Process   11-2
  11-3  Filter Media Characteristics   11-5
  11-4  Granular Filtration Theory   11-9
  11-5  Theory of Granular Filter Hydraulics   11-12
  11-6  Granular Filtration Practice   11-20
11-7  Operation and Maintenance   11-45
  11-8  Chapter Review   11-46
  11-9  Problems  11-47
  11-10  Discussion Questions   11-54
  11-11  References  11-55

12  Membrane Filtration  

  12-1  Introduction  12-2
  12-2  Membrane Filtration Theory   12-3
  12-3  Properties of MF and UF Membranes   12-7
  12-4  MF and UF Practice   12-13
  12-5  Chapter Review   12-19
  12-6  Problems  12-19
  12-7  Discussion Questions   12-21
  12-8  References  12-21

13  Disinfection and Fluoridation   

  13-1  Introduction  13-2
  13-2  Disinfection  13-2
 13-3  Emergency Disinfection  13-42
  13-4  Fluoridation  13-42
  13-5  Operation and Maintenance   13-46
  13-6  Chapter Review   13-47
  13-7  Problems  13-48
  13-8  Discussion Questions   13-55
  13-9  References  13-55

14  Removal of Specific Constituents   

  14-1  Introduction  14-2
  14-2  Arsenic  14-2
  14-3  Carbon Dioxide   14-6
  14-4  Fluoride  14-8
  14-5  Iron and Manganese   14-11
  14-6  Nitrate   14-14
  14-7  Natural Organic Material (NOM)   14-15
  14-8  Perchlorate  14-18
  14-9  Pharmaceuticals and Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds (EDCs)   14-20
  14-10   Radionuclides   14-21
  14-11  Synthetic Organic Chemicals (SOCs) and Volatile Organic Compounds  (VOCs)  14-22
  14-12  Taste and Odor (T&O)   14-31
  14-13  Chapter Review   14-36
  14-14  Problems  14-37
  14-15  Discussion Questions   14-40
  14-16  References  14-40

15  Water Plant Residuals Management  

  15-1  Introduction  15-2
 15-2  Solids Computations  15-3
  15-3  Solids Production and Characteristics   15-6
  15-4  Minimization of Residuals Generation   15-11
  15-5  Recovery of Treatment Chemicals   15-13
  15-6  Residuals Conveyance   15-15
  15-7  Management of Sludges   15-15
  15-8  Management of Liquid Residuals   15-44
  15-9  Disposal of Specific Residuals Constituents   15-45
  15-10  Ultimate Disposal   15-49
  15-11  Chapter Review   15-51
  15-12  Problems  15-52
  15-13  Discussion Questions   15-57
  15-14  References  15-58

  16  Drinking Water Plant Process Selection and Integration   

  16-1  Introduction  16-2
  16-2  Process Selection   16-2
  16-3  Process Integration   16-16
  16-4  Security  16-31
  16-5  Chapter Review   16-35
  16-6  Problems  16-36
  16-7  Discussion Questions   16-47
  16-8  References  16-47

17  Storage and Distribution Systems  

  17-1  Introduction  17-2
  17-2  Demand Estimates   17-2
  17-3  Service Pressures   17-9
  17-4  Pipe Network Design   17-10
  17-5  Storage Tank Design   17-22
  17-6  Pump Selection   17-32
  17-7  Network Analysis   17-36
  17-8  Sanitary Protection   17-38
  17-9  Chapter Review   17-40
  17-10  Problems  17-41
  17-11  Discussion Questions   17-50
  17-12  References  17-51

18  General Wastewater Collection and Treatment Design Considerations   

  18-1  Wastewater Sources and Flow Rates   18-2
  18-2  Wastewater Characteristics   18-7
18-3  Wastewater Treatment Standards   18-11
  18-4  Sludge Disposal Regulations   18-14
  18-5  Plant Sizing and Layout   18-20
  18-6  Plant Location   18-22
  18-7  Chapter Review   18-22
  18-8  Problems  18-23
  18-9  Discussion Questions   18-27
  18-10  References  18-28

19  Sanitary Sewer Design  

  19-1  Introduction  19-2
  19-2  Predesign Activities   19-9
  19-3  Gravity Sewer Collection System Design   19-9
  19-4  Alternatives Sewers   19-28
  19-5  Pump Station Design   19-31
  19-6  Operation and Maintenance   19-39
  19-7  Sewer Safety   19-40
  19-8  Chapter Review   19-41
  19-9  Problems  19-42
  19-10  Discussion Questions  19-48
 19-11  References  19-48

20  Headworks and Preliminary Treatment   

  20-1  Introduction  20-2
  20-2  Pump Station   20-2
  20-3  Flow Measurement   20-5
  20-4  Bar Racks and Screens   20-9
  20-5  Coarse Solids Reduction   20-23
  20-6  Grit Removal   20-25
  20-7  Flow Equalization   20-36
  20-8  Alternative Preliminary Process Arrangements   20-46
  20-9  Chapter Review   20-47
  20-10  Problems  20-48
  20-11  Discussion Questions   20-52
  20-12  References  20-52

21  Primary Treatment   

  21-1  Introduction  21-2
  21-2  Sedimentation Theory   21-2
  21-3  Sedimentation Practice   21-3
  21-4  Sedimentation Basin Design   21-6
  21-5  Other Primary Treatment Alternatives   21-25
  21-6  Chapter Review   21-26
  21-7  Problems  21-27
  21-8  References  21-30

22  Wastewater Microbiology 

  22-1  Introduction  22-2
  22-2  Role of Microorganisms   22-2
  22-3  Classification of Microorganisms   22-2
  22-4  Microbial Biochemistry   22-4
  22-5  Population Dynamics   22-10
  22-6  Decomposition of Waste   22-15
  22-7  Microbiology of Secondary Treatment Unit Processes  22-16 
  22-8  Operation and Maintenance   22-24
  22-9  Chapter Review   22-25
  22-10  Problems  22-26
  22-11  Discussion Questions   22-28
  22-12  References  22-28

23  Secondary Treatment by Suspended Growth Biological Processes   

  23-1  Introduction  23-2
  23-2  Processes for BOD Removal and Nitrification   23-2
  23-3  Processes for Denitrification   23-8
  23-4  Processes for Phosphorus Removal   23-10
  23-5  Biological Treatment with Membrane Separation   23-12
  23-6  Suspended Growth Design Principles   23-14
  23-7  Suspended Growth Design Practice   23-39
  23-8  Membrane Bioreactor Design Practice   23-95
  23-9  Chapter Review   23-98
  23-10  Problems  23-99
  23-11  Discussion Questions   23-109
  23-12  References  23-113

24  Secondary Treatment by Attached Growth and Hybrid Biological Processes  

  24-1  Introduction  24-2
  24-2  Attached Growth Processes   24-2
  24-3  Attached Growth Design Principles   24-4
  24-4  Attached Growth Design Practice   24-6
  24-5  Hybrid Processes   24-12
  24-6  Chapter Review   24-14
  24-7  Problems  24-15
  24-8  References  24-16

25  Secondary Settling, Disinfection, and Postaeration  

  25-1  Introduction  25-2
  25-2  Secondary Settling   25-2
  25-3  Disinfection  25-15
  25-4  Postaeration  25-21
  25-7  Discussion Questions   25-24
  25-8  References  25-25

26  Tertiary Treatment 

  26-1  Introduction  26-2
  26-2  Chemical Precipitation of Phosphorus   26-2
  26-3  Granular Filtration   26-5
  26-4  Membrane Filtration   26-10
  26-5  Carbon Adsorption   26-12
  26-6  Chapter Review   26-15
  26-7  Problems  26-16
  26-8  References  26-17

27  Wastewater Plant Residuals Management  

  27-1  Sludge Handling Alternatives   27-2
  27-2  Sources and Characteristics of Solids and Biosolids   27-3
  27-3  Solids Computations   27-6
  27-4  Grit Handling and Sludge Pumping   27-11
  27-5  Management of Solids   27-17
  27-6  Storage and Thickening of Sludges   27-18
  27-7  Alkaline Stabilization   27-23
  27-8  Aerobic Digestion   27-27
  27-9  Anaerobic Digestion   27-33
  27-10  Sludge Conditioning   27-52
  27-11  Dewatering  27-53
 27-12  Alternative Disposal Techniques  27-58
  27-13  Land Application and Biosolids   27-59
  27-14  Chapter Review   27-60
  27-15  Problems  27-61
  27-16  References  27-68

28  Clean Water Plant Process Selection and Integration   

  28-1  Introduction  28-2
  28-2  Process Selection   28-2
  28-3  Simulation Modeling   28-24
  28-4  Process Integration   28-25

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