Surveying with Construction Applications

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Surveying with Construction Applications

Contents

PART I SURVEYING PRINCIPLES 

1 Surveying Fundamentals 2
1.1 Surveying Defined 2
1.2 Surveying: General Background 4
1.3 Control Surveys 4
1.4 Preliminary Surveys 4
1.5 Surveying Instruments 5
1.6 Construction Surveys 6
1.7 Distance Measurement 7
1.8 Angle Measurement 9
1.9 Position Measurement 9
1.10 Units of Measurement 11
1.11 Stationing 11
1.12 Types of Construction Projects 13
1.13 Random and Systematic Errors 13
1.14 Accuracy and Precision 14
1.15 Mistakes 15
1.16 Field Notes 15
Review Questions 17

2 Leveling

2.1 General Background 18
2.2 Theory of Differential Leveling 19
2.3 Curvature and Refraction 20
v2.4 Types of Surveying Levels 25
2.5 Leveling Rods 31
2.6 Definitions for Differential Leveling 34
2.7 Techniques of Leveling 35
2.8 Benchmark Leveling (Vertical Control Surveys) 39
2.9 Profile and Cross-Section Leveling 41
2.10 Reciprocal Leveling 46
2.11 Peg Test 47
2.12 Three-Wire Leveling 49
2.13 Trigonometric Leveling 50
2.14 Level Loop Adjustments 51
2.15 Suggestions for Rod Work 52
2.16 Suggestions for Instrument Work 53
2.17 Mistakes in Leveling 54
Problems 55

3 Distance Measurement 

3.1 Methods of Linear Measurement 61
3.2 Gunter’s Chain 63
3.3 Tapes 63
3.4 Steel Tapes 64
3.5 Taping Accessories and Their Use 67
3.6 Taping Techniques 71
3.7 Taping Corrections 74
3.8 Systematic Taping Errors and Corrections 75
3.9 Random Taping Errors 79
3.10 Techniques for “Ordinary” Taping Precision 80
3.11 Mistakes in Taping 81
3.12 Field Notes for Taping 82
3.13 Electronic Distance Measurement 84
3.14 Electronic Angle Measurement 84
3.15 Principles of EDM 86
3.16 EDM Characteristics 88
3.17 Prisms 89
3.18 EDM Instrument Accuracies 90
3.19 EDM Without Reflecting Prisms 91
Problems 93

4 Introduction to Total Stations and Theodolites 

4.1 General Background 96
4.2 Reference Directions for Vertical Angles 96
4.3 Meridians 96
4.4 Horizontal Angles 98
vi Contents4.5 Theodolites 99
4.6 Electronic Theodolites 100
4.7 Total Station 103
4.8 Theodolite/Total Station Setup 104
4.9 Geometry of the Theodolite and Total Station 105
4.10 Adjustment of the Theodolite and Total Station 105
4.11 Laying Off Angles 111
4.12 Prolonging a Straight Line (Double Centering) 112
4.13 Bucking-in (Interlining) 112
4.14 Intersection of Two Straight Lines 113
4.15 Prolonging a Measured Line by Triangulation over an Obstacle 114
4.16 Prolonging a Line Past an Obstacle 116

5 Total Station Operations 

5.1 General Background 118
5.2 Total Station Capabilities 118
5.3 Total Station Field Techniques 124
5.4 Field Procedures for Total Stations in Topographic Surveys 132
5.5 Field-Generated Graphics 138
5.6 Construction Layout Using Total Stations 140
5.7 Motorized Total Stations 145
5.8 Summary of Modern Total Station Characteristics and Capabilities 152
5.9 Instruments Combining Total Station Capabilities and GPS Receiver
Capabilities 153
5.10 Portable/Handheld Total Stations 154
Review Questions 156

6 Traverse Surveys and Computations 

6.1 General Background 157
6.2 Balancing Field Angles 160
6.3 Meridians 161
6.4 Bearings 162
6.5 Azimuths 165
6.6 Latitudes and Departures 169
6.7 Traverse Precision and Accuracy 175
6.8 Compass Rule Adjustment 177
6.9 Effects of Traverse Adjustments on Measured Angles and Distances 178
6.10 Omitted Measurement Computations 179
6.11 Rectangular Coordinates of Traverse Stations 181
6.12 Area of a Closed Traverse by the Coordinate Method 184
Review Questions 186
Problems 187

7 Satellite Positioning 

7.1 General Background 190
7.2 U.S. Global Positioning System 194
7.3 Receivers 196
7.4 Satellite Constellations 198
7.5 GPS Satellite Signals 200
7.6 GPS Position Measurements 202
7.7 Errors 210
7.8 Continuously Operating Reference Stations 211
7.9 Canadian Active Control System 213
7.10 Survey Planning 213
7.11 GPS Field Procedures 218
7.12 GPS Applications 224
7.13 Vertical Positioning 231
7.14 Conclusion 235
7.15 GPS Glossary 235
7.16 Recommended Readings 238

8 An Introduction to Geomatics 

8.1 Geomatics Defined 240
8.2 Branches of Geomatics 240
8.3 Data Collection Branch 242
8.4 Design and Plotting 248
8.5 Contours 258
8.6 Aerial Photography 265
8.7 Airborne and Satellite Imagery 276
8.8 Remote-Sensing Satellites 287
8.9 Geographic Information System 289
8.10 Database Management 294
8.11 Metadata 295
8.12 Spatial Entities or Features 296
8.13 Typical Data Representation 298
8.14 Spatial Data Models 298
8.15 GIS Data Structures 300
8.16 Topology 303
8.17 Remote Sensing Internet Websites and Further Reading 304

9 Horizontal Control Surveys 

9.1 General Background 311
9.2 Plane Coordinate Grids 320
9.3 Lambert Projection Grid  326
9.4 Transverse Mercator Grid 327
viii Contents9.5 UTM Grid 329
9.6 Use of Grid Coordinates 336
9.7 Illustrative Examples 344
9.8 Horizontal Control Techniques 351
9.9 Project Control 353
Review Questions 361
Problems 363
PART II CONSTRUCTION APPLICATIONS 365
II.1 Introduction 365
II.2 General Background 365
II.3 Grade 367

10 Machine Guidance and Control 

10.1 General Background 368
10.2 Motorized Total Station Guidance and Control 371
10.3 Satellite Positioning Guidance and Control 373
10.4 Three-Dimensional Data Files 375
10.5 Summary of the 3D Design Process 377
10.6 Website References for Data Collection, DTM, and Civil Design 379
Review Questions 379

11 Highway Curves 

11.1 Route Surveys 380
11.2 Circular Curves: General Background 381
11.3 Circular Curve Geometry 382
11.4 Circular Curve Deflections 388
11.5 Chord Calculations 390
11.6 Metric Considerations 391
11.7 Field Procedure (Steel Tape and Theodolite) 391
11.8 Moving up on the Curve 392
11.9 Offset Curves 393
11.10 Compound Circular Curves 401
11.11 Reverse Curves 402
11.12 Vertical Curves: General Background 403
11.13 Geometric Properties of the Parabola 405
11.14 Computation of the High or the Low Point on a Vertical Curve 406
11.15 Computing a Vertical Curve 406
11.16 Design Considerations 409
11.17 Spiral Curves: General Background 411
11.18 Spiral Curve Computations 413
11.19 Spiral Layout Procedure Summary 421
11.20 Approximate Solution for Spiral Problems 428
Contents ix11.21 Superelevation: General Background 429
11.22 Superelevation Design 430
Review Questions 436
Problems 437

12 Highway Construction Surveys 

12.1 Preliminary (Preengineering) Surveys 442
12.2 Highway Design 446
12.3 Highway Construction Layout 448
12.4 Clearing, Grubbing, and Stripping Topsoil 452
12.5 Placement of Slope Stakes 453
12.6 Layout for Line and Grade 457
12.7 Grade Transfer 460
12.8 Ditch Construction 462
Review Questions 463

13 Municipal Street Construction Surveys 

13.1 General Background 464
13.2 Classification of Roads and Streets 465
13.3 Road Allowances 466
13.4 Road Cross Sections 466
13.5 Plan and Profile 466
13.6 Establishing Centerline (cL) 469
13.7 Establishing Offset Lines and Construction Control 471
13.8 Construction Grades for a Curbed Street 474
13.9 Street Intersections 478
13.10 Sidewalk Construction 480
13.11 Site Grading 481
Problems 483

14 Pipeline and Tunnel Construction Surveys

14.1 Pipeline Construction 489
14.2 Sewer Construction 491
14.3 Layout for Line and Grade 493
14.4 Catch-Basin Construction Layout 502
14.5 Tunnel Construction Layout 503
Problems 508

15 Culvert and Bridge Construction Surveys 

15.1 Culvert Construction 514
15.2 Culvert Reconstruction 514
15.3 Bridge Construction: General Background 517
15.4 Contract Drawings 521
15.5 Layout Computations 526
15.6 Offset Distance Computations 526
15.7 Dimension Verification 527
15.8 Vertical Control 529
15.9 Cross Sections for Footing Excavations 530
Review Questions 531

16 Building Construction Surveys 

16.1 Building Construction: General Background 532
16.2 Single-Story Construction 532
16.3 Multistory Construction 544
Review Questions 551
17 Quantity and Final Surveys 552
17.1 Construction Quantity Measurements: General Background 552
17.2 Area Computations 553
17.3 Area by Graphical Analysis 560
17.4 Construction Volumes 566
17.5 Cross Sections, End Areas, and Volumes 568
17.6 Prismoidal Formula 573
17.7 Volume Computations by Geometric Formulas 574
17.8 Final (As-Built) Surveys 574
Appendix A Trigonometry and Coordinate Geometry Review 579
A.1 Trigonometric Definitions and Identities 579
A.2 Coordinate Geometry 583
Appendix B Surveying and Mapping Websites 592
Appendix C Glossary 594
Appendix D Typical Field Projects 605
D.1 Field Notes 605
D.2 Project 1: Building Measurements 606
D.3 Project 2: Experiment to Determine “Normal Tension” 608
D.4 Project 3: Field Traverse Measurements with a 
Steel Tape 609
D.5 Project 4: Differential Leveling 610
D.6 Project 5: Traverse Angle Measurements and Closure
Computations 612
D.7 Project 6: Topographic Survey 613
D.8 Project 7: Building Layout 620
D.9 Project 8: Horizontal Curve 621
D.10 Project 9: Pipeline Layout 622
Contents xiAppendix E Answers to Selected Problems 624
Steel Tape Corrections 630
F.1 Erroneous Tape-Length correction 630
F.2 Temperature Corrections 631
F.3 Tension and Sag Corrections 633
Problems 636
Appendix G Early Surveying 637
G.1 Evolution of Surveying 637
G.2 Dumpy Level 643
G.3 The Engineers’Vernier Transit 645
G.4 Optical Theodolite 653
G.5 Stadia 659
Problems 671
Appendix H Illustrations of Machine Control and of Various 
Data-Capture Techniques 673

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