Quality Tools for Managing Construction Projects

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Quality Tools for  Managing Construction Projects

Contents

List of Illustrations
List of Tables
Foreword
Acknowledgments
About the Author.
Introduction
List of Abbreviations

1.  Overview of Quality in Construction Projects

1.1  Quality History
1.2  Construction Projects
1.3  Quality Definition for Construction Projects
1.4  Construction Project Life Cycle
1.5  Quality Standards
1.6  Quality Management System
1.7  Integrated Quality Management

2.  Quality Tools

2.1  Introduction
2.2  Quality Classic Tools
2.2.1  Cause and Effect Diagram
2.2.2  Check Sheet
2.2.3  Control Chart
2.2.4  Flowchart
2.2.5  Histogram....................29
2.2.6  Pareto Chart.................30
2.2.7  Pie Chart.......................30
2.2.8  Run Chart..................... 31
2.2.9  Scatter Diagram...........32
2.2.10  Stratification .................32
2.3  Management and Planning Tools.......................34
2.3.1  Activity Network Diagram....................34
2.3.2  Affinity Diagram ........37
2.3.3  Interrelationship Digraph.......................41
2.3.4  Matrix Diagram...........41
2.3.5  Prioritization Matrix...43
2.3.6  Process Decision Program......................44
2.3.7  Tree Diagram...............44
2.4  Process Analysis Tools............45
2.4.1  Benchmarking.............45
2.4.2  Cause and Effect Diagram......................47
2.4.3  Cost of Quality............47
2.4.4  Critical to Quality.......48
2.4.5  Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) ......................48
2.4.6  5 Whys Analysis..........48
2.4.7  5W2H............................48
2.4.8  Process Mapping/Flowcharting............51
2.5  Process Improvement Tools....53
2.5.1  Root Cause Analysis...53
2.5.2  PDCA Cycle.................53
2.5.3  SIPOC Analysis...........53
2.5.4  Six Sigma-DMAIC.......53
2.5.5  Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) ......................54
2.5.6  Statistical Process Control......................54
2.6  Innovation and Creative Tools............................56
2.6.1  Brainstorming...........56
2.6.2  Delphi Technique........57
2.6.3  5W2H............................60
2.6.4  Mind Mapping............60
2.6.5  Nominal Group Technique....................60
2.6.6  Six Sigma-DMADV..... 61
2.6.7  TRIZ.............................. 61
2.7  Lean Tools..62
2.7.1  Cellular Design...........62
2.7.2  Concurrent Engineering.........................63
2.7.3  5S....63
2.7.4  Just in Time (JIT).........64
2.7.5  Kanban.........................64
2.7.6  Kaizen...........................64
2.7.7  Mistake Proofing .........66
2.7.8  Outsourcing.................66
2.7.9  Poka Yoke.....................67
2.7.10  Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED) .............................67
2.7.11  Value Stream Mapping............................68
2.7.12  Visual Management....68
2.7.13  Waste Reduction.......68
2.8  Cost of Quality.........................69
2.8.1  Introduction.................69
2.8.2  Categories of Costs.....69
2.8.3  Quality Cost in Construction.................70
2.9  Quality Function Deployment (QFD)................72
2.10  Six Sigma.... 74
2.10.1  Introduction................. 74
2.10.2  Six Sigma Methodology..........................75
2.10.2.1  Leadership Principles.............. 76
2.10.2.2  Six Sigma Team.........................78
2.10.3  Analytic Tool Sets.......80
2.10.3.1  Ford Global 8D Tool.................80
2.10.3.2  DMADV Tool Set Phases.........80
2.10.3.3  DMAIC Tool.81
2.10.3.4  DMADDD Tool.........................81
2.11  TRIZ............87
2.11.1  TRIZ Methodology.....87
2.11.2  Application of TRIZ....89
2.11.3  TRIZ Process................89

3.  Quality Tools for Construction Projects

3.1  Introduction..............................91
3.2  Project Development................91
3.3  Project Planning.......................92
3.4  Project Monitoring and Control..........................94
3.5  Quality Management...............96
3.5.1  Project Quality Management Plan........99
3.6  Risk Management.................. 101
3.6.1  Construction Project Risks................... 103
3.6.1.1  Risk Register........................... 104
3.6.2  Reduction in Construction Project Risks ......................... 105
3.6.3  Monitoring and Controlling Project Risks ....................... 112
3.7  Procurement/Contract Management............... 112
3.7.1  Need Analysis........... 121
3.7.2  Feasibility Study........ 121
3.7.3  Project Delivery Systems......................122
3.7.4  Types of Contracts/Pricing...................125
3.7.5  Selection of Project Delivery Teams (Designer/Consultant, Contractor)
3.7.5.1  Request for Information (RFI) ............................133
3.7.5.2  Request for Qualification (RFQ)/Prequalification Questionnaire (PQQ)
3.7.5.3  Request for Proposal (RFP)... 137
3.7.5.4  Request for Quotation (RFQ) 137
3.7.6  Contract Management........................... 143
3.7.6.1  Service Delivery Management ........................... 145
3.7.6.2  Relationship Management.... 146
3.7.6.3  Contract Administration....... 146
3.7.7  Contract Closeout..... 148
3.8  Safety Management............... 148
3.8.1  Causes of Accidents.. 149
3.8.2  Total Safety Management..................... 153
3.8.3  Safety Management Plan......................154
3.9  Quality Assessment/Measurement................. 155
3.9.1  Internal Quality System........................ 157
3.9.1.1  Quality Assessment by Designer ....................... 157
3.9.1.2  Quality Assessment by Contractor .................... 157
3.9.2  External Quality System....................... 157
3.10  Training and Development... 164
3.10.1  Needs Assessment.... 167
3.10.1.1  Organizational Objectives.... 168
3.10.1.2  Occupational Objectives........ 168
3.10.1.3  Individual Objectives............. 168
3.10.1.4  Data Collection....................... 169
3.10.2  Development.............. 169
3.10.3  Training Implementation...................... 170
3.10.4  Assessment................ 170
3.10.5  Follow-up................... 171
3.11  Customer Satisfaction............ 172

4.  Application of Construction Tools in Construction Projects

4.1  Construction Projects............ 181
4.2  Project Inception.................. 181
4.2.1  Identification of Need ............................ 182
4.2.2  Feasibility Study........ 182
4.2.3  Selection of Project Delivery System... 184
4.3  Conceptual Design................. 185
4.3.1  Client Brief (Terms of Reference)......... 185
4.3.2  Identification of Project Team (Designer) ......................... 188
4.3.2.1  Project Team (Designer) Organization .............. 188
4.3.3  Data Collection.......... 190
4.3.4  Owner/Client Requirements................ 192
4.3.5  Development of Alternatives............... 196
4.3.5.1  Functional/Technical............. 197
4.3.5.2  Time Schedule.........................200
4.3.5.3  Financial Implication/Resources .......................200
4.3.6  Development of Concept Design.........202
4.3.6.1  Concept Design Deliverables204
4.3.7  Cost of Quality during Design Phase.205
4.4  Schematic Design...................207
4.4.1  Schematic Design Deliverables............209
4.4.2  General Scope of Work/Basic Design. 212
4.4.3  Regulatory Approval 212
4.4.4  Schedule..................... 213
4.4.5  Budget......................... 213
4.4.6  Contract Terms and Conditions........... 213
4.4.7  Value Engineering Study...................... 214
4.5  Design Development............. 214
4.5.1  Detail Design of the Works.................. 216
4.5.1.1  Design Quality Check........... 218
4.5.2  Regulatory/Authorities’ Approval......227
4.5.3  Contract Documents and Specifications ...........................228
4.5.3.1  Particular Specifications ........228
4.5.4  Detail Plan...............229
4.5.5  Budget.........................229
4.5.6  Cash Flow................... 231
4.5.7  Final Design............... 231
4.5.8  Six Sigma DMADV Tool for Design Development ......... 231
4.6  Construction Documents......233
4.7  Bidding/Tendering................233
4.8  Construction...........................236
4.8.1  Supervision Team.....236
4.8.2  Mobilization...............240
4.8.2.1  Communication System........ 241
4.8.2.2  Responsibility Matrix............242
4.8.2.3  Selection of Subcontractor.....242
4.8.3  Execution of Works...252
4.8.3.1  Materials and Shop Drawing Submittals .........252
4.8.3.2  Contractor’s Quality Control Plan (CQCP) .......258
4.8.3.3  Method Statement.................. 261
4.8.4  Planning and Scheduling..................... 261
4.8.4.1  Six Sigma for Development of Construction Schedule......271
4.8.5  Management Resources/Procurement .............................273
4.8.5.1  Project Core Team Members.273
4.8.5.2  Equipment Schedule.............. 274
4.8.5.3  Procurement............................275
4.8.6  Monitoring and Control........................277
4.8.6.1  Cost Control............................279
4.8.6.2  Work Progress.........................287
4.8.6.3  Quality Control.......................299
4.8.6.4  Site Safety... 311
4.8.7  Inspection................... 315
4.9  Testing, Commissioning, and Handover......... 316
4.10  Operation and Maintenance. 316
4.10.1  Categories of Maintenance................... 320
4.10.1.1  Preventive Maintenance........ 320
4.10.1.2  Scheduled Maintenance........ 320
4.10.1.3  Breakdown Maintenance...... 321
4.10.1.4  Routine Maintenance............. 321
4.10.1.5  Replacement of Obsolete Items .......................... 321
4.10.1.6  Predictive Testing and Inspection .....................322
4.10.2  O&M Program...........322
4.11.1  Assessment Categories.......................... 324
4.11.1.1  Cost of Poor Quality.............. 324
4.11.1.2  Organization’s Standing in the Marketplace ...325
4.11.1.3  Quality Cultures in the Organization ...............325
4.11.1.4  Operation of Quality Management System ...... 326
4.11.2  Self-Assessment......... 326
Appendix A:  Application of Six Sigma DMADV Tool to Develop
Designs for Construction Projects (Buildings) ................... 327
Appendix B:  Application of Six Sigma DMADV Tool in
Development of Contractor’s Construction Schedule ........341
Appendix C:  Application of Six Sigma DMAIC Tool in
Construction Projects

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