Quality Management in Construction Projects

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Quality Management in Construction Projects

Contents

Foreword 
Acknowledgments
About the Author 
Introduction 
Abbreviations

  1  Overview of Quality 

1.1  Quality History 
1.2  Quality Definition
1.3  Quality Inspection 
1.4  Quality Control 
1.5  Quality Assurance 
1.6  Quality Engineering
1.7  Quality Management 
1.8  Quality Gurus 
1.8.1  Philip B. Crosby
1.8.2  W. Edwards Deming 
1.8.2.1  PDCA Cycle
1.8.2.2  Statistical Process Control 
1.8.2.3  14 Principles for Transformation
1.8.2.4  The Seven-Point Action Plan 
1.8.3  Armand V. Feigenbaum
1.8.4  Kaoru Ishikawa 
1.8.5  Joseph M. Juran 
1.8.6  John S. Oakland 
1.8.7  Shigeo Shingo 
1.8.8  Genichi Taguchi 
1.8.9  Summary of Philosophies
1.9  Total Quality Management 
1.9.1  Changing Views of Quality 
1.9.2  Principles of Total Quality Management
1.10  Quality Function Deployment .57
1.11  Six Sigma 
1.11.1  Introduction 
1.11.2  Six Sigma Methodology
1.11.2.1  Leadership Principles 
1.11.2.2  Six Sigma Team
1.11.3  Analytic Tool Sets 
1.11.3.1  The DMAIC Process
1.11.4  Six Sigma in Construction Projects 
1.11.4.1  The DMADV Process
1.12  TRIZ 
1.12.1  TRIZ Methodology
1.12.2  Application of TRIZ 
1.12.3  TRIZ Process
1.13  Quality in Use of CAD Software
1.13.1  Building Information Modeling 
1.14  Value Methodology
1.14.1  Value 
1.14.2  Value Engineering
1.14.2.1  Objective of Value Engineering 
1.14.2.2  Value Engineering Team 
1.14.2.3  Approach 
1.14.2.4  Timings of Value Engineering
1.14.2.5  Stages of Value Engineering Study 
1.14.2.6  Function Analysis System Technique 
1.14.2.7  The Benefits of Value Engineering  

  2  Integrated Quality Management 

2.1  Introduction ..................97
2.2  Quality Standards ........97
2.3  Standards Organizations ..........99
2.4  International Organization for Standardization (ISO) ................ 102
2.5  ISO 9000 Quality Management System ....... 107
2.5.1  Quality System Documentation ...... 108
2.6  ISO Certification  ......... 109
2.7  ISO 14000 Environmental Management System ... 116
2.7.1  Benefits of ISO 14000  .. 116
2.8  Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS) 18000 ............ 116
2.8.1  Benefits of OHSAS Management System  .. 117
2.9  Integrated Quality Management .................. 117

  3  Construction Projects

3.1  Project Definition  ....... 121
3.2  Construction Projects 122
3.3  Construction and Manufacturing ................126
3.4  Quality Cost ................129
3.4.1  Introduction ...129
3.4.2  Categories of Costs .....129
3.4.3  Reasons for Poor Quality .................. 131
3.4.4  Quality Cost in Construction ...........134
3.4.5  Quality Performance Management System ..................... 137 
3.5  Systems Engineering . 138
3.5.1  Introduction ... 138
3.5.2  System Definition  ........ 139
3.5.3  Systems Engineering .. 140
3.6  Construction Project Life Cycle .................... 141

  4  Quality in Construction Projects 

4.1  Quality in Construction Projects .................. 149
4.1.1  Design/Bid/Build ....... 160
4.1.2  Design/Build . 161
4.1.3  Project Manager .......... 162
4.1.4  Construction Manager ...................... 162
4.1.5  Guaranteed Maximum Price ............ 163
4.1.6  Build–Own–Operate–Transfer ......... 165
4.1.7  The Turnkey Contract  165
4.2  Conceptual Design ..... 168
4.2.1  Identification of Need  . 169
4.2.2  Feasibility ....... 170
4.2.3  Identification of Project Team  .......... 172
4.2.4  Identification of Alternatives  ............ 174
4.2.5  Financial Implications/Resources ... 175
4.2.6  Time Schedule .. 179
4.2.7  Development of Concept Design ..... 179
4.3  Preliminary Design ... 183
4.3.1  General Scope of Works/Basic Design ...... 184
4.3.2  Regulatory Approval .. 185
4.3.3  Budget ............. 185
4.3.4  Schedule ......... 185
4.3.5  Contract Terms and Conditions ....... 186
4.3.6  Value Engineering Study .................. 186
4.4  Detailed Design .......... 186
4.4.1  Detail Design of the Works .............. 187
4.4.1.1  Architectural Design ......... 189
4.4.1.2  Concrete Structure ............. 191
4.4.1.3  Elevator Works .................... 192
4.4.1.4  HVAC Works  193
4.4.1.5  Fire Protection System ....... 194
4.4.1.6  Plumbing Works ................. 194
4.4.1.7  Drainage System ................. 194
4.4.1.8  Electrical System ................. 195
4.4.1.9  Fire Alarm System .............. 196
4.4.1.10  Telephone/Communication System .................. 196
4.4.1.11  Public Address System ...... 196
4.4.1.12  Audiovisual System ........... 197
4.4.1.13  Security System/CCTV ..... 197 
4.4.1.14  Security System Access Control .. 198
4.4.1.15  Landscape ..... 198
4.4.1.16  External Works (Infrastructure and Road) ....... 199
4.4.1.17  Bridges ..........200
4.4.1.18  Highways ...... 201
4.4.1.19  Furnishings/Furniture (Loose) ...202
4.4.2  Regulatory/Authorities’ Approval ..207
4.4.3  Contract Documents and Specifications....207
4.4.4  Detail Plan...... 215
4.4.5  Budget ............. 217
4.4.6  Cash Flow ....... 217
4.4.7  Tender/Bidding  218
4.5  Construction ...............222
4.5.1  Mobilization ...225
4.5.2  Execution of Works .....226
4.5.3  Planning and Scheduling .................230
4.5.4  Management Resources/Procurement ...... 241
4.5.5  Monitoring and Control .................... 247
4.5.5.1  Subcontractors Submittal and Approval 
4.5.5.2  Shop Drawings and Materials Logs—E1 ..........253
4.5.5.3  Procurement Log—E2 .......256
4.5.5.4  Equipment and Manpower Logs 256
4.5.5.5  Project Payment/Progress Curve (S-Curve) .....257
4.5.5.6  Time Control 258
4.5.5.7  Cash and Time Control......258
4.5.5.8  Progress Reports and Meetings ..258
4.5.5.9  Variation Orders .................266
4.5.6  Quality Control  274
4.5.6.1  Shop Drawings Approval .278
4.5.6.2  Materials Approval ............288
4.5.6.3  Contractor’s Quality Control Plan .....................305
4.5.6.4  Site Safety ..... 318
4.5.6.5  5S for Construction Projects ........323
4.5.7  Inspection ....... 324
4.6  Testing, Commissioning, and Handover ..... 326
4.6.1  Testing ............ 326
4.6.2  Commissioning 330
4.6.3  Authorities’ Approval 330
4.6.4  As-Built Drawings ......330
4.6.5  Technical Manuals and Documents  331
4.6.6  Training of User’s Personnel ............332
4.6.7  Handover of Facility to Owner/End User .332
4.6.8  Move-In Plan .333
4.6.9  Substantial Completion .....................335 

  5  Operation and Maintenance

5.1  Operation and Maintenance ...339
5.2  Categories of Maintenance .....339
5.2.1  Preventive Maintenance ...................340
5.2.2  Scheduled Maintenance ....................340
5.2.3  Breakdown Maintenance ..................340
5.2.4  Routine Maintenance .340
5.2.5  Replacement of Obsolete Items ........340
5.2.6  Predictive Testing and Inspection ...340
5.3  O&M Program ............341

  6  Facility Management

6.1  Facility Management .347
6.2  Facility Management Outsourcing ...............350
6.3  Computer-Aided Facility Management (CAFM) ...352
6.4  Benefits of FM  .............352
6.5  Quality Requirements of FM ..354

  7  Assessment of Quality 

7.1  Introduction ................357
7.2  Assessment Categories .357
7.2.1  Cost of Poor Quality ...357
7.2.2  Organization’s Standing in the Marketplace ...................358
7.2.3  Quality Cultures in the Organization .......358
7.2.4  Operation of Quality Management System ..................... 361
7.3  Self-Assessment ..........362
Appendix A: Design Review Checklists ....................365
Appendix B: Major Activities in Building Construction Projects ........... 381
Appendix C: Content of Contractor’s Quality Control Plan ..................... 391

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