Standard Specifications for Road, Bridge, and Municipal Construction

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Standard Specifications for Road, Bridge, 

and Municipal Construction


Contents

Division 1  General Requirements ............................1-1

1-01 Definitions and Terms .......... 1-1
1-01.1  General ................... 1-1
1-01.2  Abbreviations ......... 1-1
1-01.2(1)  Associations and Miscellaneous ... 1-1
1-01.2(2)  Items of Work and Units of Measurement 1-2
1-01.3  Definitions .............. 1-3
1-02  Bid Procedures and Conditions ......1-7
1-02.1  Prequalification of Bidders 1-7
1-02.2  Plans and Specifications .....1-8
1-02.3  Estimated Quantities ..........1-8
1-02.4  Examination of Plans, Specifications, and Site of Work  . 1-8
1-02.4(1)  General ...........1-8
1-02.4(2)  Subsurface Information ............... 1-10
1-02.5  Proposal Forms .... 1-10
1-02.6  Preparation of Proposal ....1-10
1-02.7  Bid Deposit .......... 1-11
1-02.8  Noncollusion Declaration and Lobbying Certification  . 1-11
1-02.8(1)  Noncollusion Declaration ........... 1-11
1-02.8(2)  Lobbying Certification  ................ 1-12
1-02.9  Delivery of Proposal ........1-12
1-02.10  Withdrawing, Revising, or Supplementing Proposal ..1-13
1-02.11  Combination and Multiple Proposals .............. 1-13
1-02.12  Public Opening of Proposals ........................... 1-14
1-02.13  Irregular Proposals ...........1-14
1-02.14  Disqualification of Bidders  1-15
1-02.15  Pre-Award Information ....1-15
1-03  Award and Execution of Contract 1-16
1-03.1  Consideration of Bids ......1-16
1-03.1(1)  Identical Bid Totals ..................... 1-16
1-03.2  Award of Contract  1-16
1-03.3  Execution of Contract ......1-17
1-03.4  Contract Bond ...... 1-17
1-03.5  Failure to Execute Contract ............................ 1-17
1-03.6  Return of Bid Deposit ......1-18
1-03.7  Judicial Review .... 1-18
1-04  Scope of the Work .............. 1-19
1-04.1  Intent of the Contract .......1-19
1-04.1(1)  Bid Items Included in the Proposal .........1-19
1-04.1(2)  Bid Items Not Included in the Proposal ..1-19
1-04.2  Coordination of Contract Documents, Plans, Special Provisions,
Specifications, and Addenda  ........................... 1-19
1-04.3  Vacant ................... 1-19
1-04.4  Changes ................ 1-20
1-04.4(1)  Minor Changes ............................ 1-21
1-04.5  Procedure and Protest by the Contractor ........ 1-21
1-04.6  Variation in Estimated Quantities ................... 1-22
1-04.7  Differing Site Conditions (Changed Conditions)........1-23
1-04.8  Progress Estimates and Payments ................... 1-24
1-04.9  Use of Buildings or Structures ........................ 1-24
1-04.10  Use of Materials Found on the Project ........... 1-24
1-04.11  Final Cleanup ....... 1-24
1-05  Control of Work ................. 1-25
1-05.1  Authority of the Engineer 1-25
1-05.2  Authority of Assistants and Inspectors ........... 1-25
1-05.3  Plans and Working Drawings .......................... 1-26
1-05.4  Conformity With and Deviations From Plans and Stakes ......................... 1-26
1-05.5  Vacant ................... 1-27
1-05.6  Inspection of Work and Materials ................... 1-27
1-05.7  Removal of Defective and Unauthorized Work ..........1-28
1-05.8  Vacant ................... 1-28
1-05.9  Equipment ............ 1-28
1-05.10  Guarantees ............ 1-28
1-05.11  Final Inspection .... 1-28
1-05.12  Final Acceptance .. 1-28
1-05.13  Superintendents, Labor, and Equipment of Contractor . 1-29
1-05.13(1)  Emergency Contact List .............. 1-29
1-05.14  Cooperation With Other Contractors .............. 1-30
1-05.15  Method of Serving Notices  1-30
1-06  Control of Material ............ 1-31
1-06.1  Approval of Materials Prior to Use ................. 1-31
1-06.1(1)  Qualified Products List (QPL) .... 1-31
1-06.1(2)  Request for Approval of Material (RAM)  1-31
1-06.1(3)  Aggregate Source Approval (ASA) Database ........................ 1-32
1-06.1(4)  Fabrication Inspection Expense .. 1-32
1-06.2  Acceptance of Materials ..1-33
1-06.2(1)  Samples and Tests for Acceptance ..........1-33
1-06.2(2)  Statistical Evaluation of Materials for Acceptance ................ 1-34
1-06.2(2)A  General .................. 1-34
1-06.2(2)B  Financial Incentive  1-36
1-06.2(2)C  Removed and Rejected Materials .................... 1-37
1-06.2(2)D  Quality Level Analysis ......1-37
1-06.3  Manufacturer’s Certificate of Compliance  ...... 1-39
1-06.4  Handling and Storing Materials ...................... 1-39
1-06.5  Owners Manuals and Operating Instructions .. 1-39
1-06.6  Vacant ................... 1-39
1-07  Legal Relations and Responsibilities to the Public .... 1-40
1-07.1  Laws to be Observed ........1-40
1-07.2  State Taxes ........... 1-41
1-07.2(1)  State Sales Tax: Work Performed on City, County, or
Federally-Owned Land WAC 458-20-171 – Use Tax ............ 1-41
1-07.2(2)  State Sales Tax: Work on State-Owned or Private Land
WAC 458-20-170 – Retail Sales Tax ......1-41
1-07.2(3)  Services ........1-42
1-07.3  Forest Protection and Merchantable Timber Requirements ....................... 1-42
1-07.3(1)  Forest Fire Prevention ................. 1-42
1-07.3(2)  Merchantable Timber Requirements .......1-42
1-07.4  Sanitation ............. 1-42
1-07.4(1)  General .........1-42
1-07.4(2)  Health Hazards ............................ 1-42
1-07.5  Environmental Regulations  1-42
1-07.5(1)  General .........1-42
1-07.5(2)  State Department of Fish and Wildlife ....1-43
1-07.5(3)  State Department of Ecology ...... 1-43
1-07.5(4)  Air Quality ...1-44
1-07.6  Permits and Licenses ........1-44
1-07.7  Load Limits .......... 1-44
1-07.7(1)  General .........1-44
1-07.7(2)  Load-Limit Restrictions .............. 1-45
1-07.8  High-Visibility Apparel ....1-46
1-07.8(1)  Traffic Control Personnel ............ 1-46
1-07.8(2)  Non-Traffic Control Personnel .... 1-46
1-07.9  Wages ................... 1-46
1-07.9(1)  General .........1-46
1-07.9(2)  Posting Notices ........................... 1-48
1-07.9(3)  Apprentices ..1-48
1-07.9(4)  Disputes........1-49
1-07.9(5)  Required Documents ................... 1-49
1-07.9(6)  Audits ...........1-49
1-07.10  Worker’s Benefits . 1-49
1-07.11  Requirements for Nondiscrimination .............. 1-50
1-07.11(1)  General Application .................... 1-50
1-07.11(2)  Contractual Requirements ........... 1-50
1-07.11(2)A  Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO)
Responsibilities ..... 1-51
1-07.11(3)  Equal Employment Opportunity Officer .1-52
1-07.11(4)  Dissemination of Policy .............. 1-52
1-07.11(4)A  Supervisory Personnel ......1-52
1-07.11(4)B  Employees, Applicants, and Potential 
Employees ............. 1-53
1-07.11(5)  Sanctions ......1-53
1-07.11(6)  Incorporation of Provisions ......... 1-53
1-07.11(7)  Vacant ...........1-53
1-07.11(8)  Vacant ...........1-53
1-07.11(9)  Subcontracting, Procurement of Materials, and Leasing
of Equipment 1-53
1-07.11(10) Records and Reports ................... 1-54
1-07.11(10)A General .................. 1-54
1-07.11(10)B Required Records and Retention ..................... 1-54
1-07.12  Federal Agency Inspection . 1-54
1-07.13  Contractor’s Responsibility for Work ............. 1-54
1-07.13(1)  General .........1-54
1-07.13(2)  Relief of Responsibility for Completed Work ....................... 1-55
1-07.13(3)  Relief of Responsibility for Damage by Public Traffic  ......... 1-55
1-07.13(4)  Repair of Damage ....................... 1-55
1-07.14  Responsibility for Damage  1-56
1-07.15  Temporary Water Pollution/Erosion Control .. 1-58
1-07.15(1)  Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan ........... 1-58
1-07.16  Protection and Restoration of Property ........... 1-60
1-07.16(1)  Private/Public Property ............... 1-60
1-07.16(2)  Vegetation Protection and Restoration ....1-61
1-07.16(2)A  Wetland and Sensitive Area Protection ............ 1-61
1-07.16(3)  Fences, Mailboxes, Incidentals ... 1-62
1-07.16(4)  Archaeological and Historical Objects ...1-62
1-07.16(4)A  Inadvertent Discovery of Human Skeletal 
Remains ................. 1-62
1-07.16(5)  Payment ........1-62
1-07.17  Utilities and Similar Facilities ........................ 1-62
1-07.17(1)  Utility Construction, Removal, or Relocation by the 
Contractor ....1-63
1-07.17(2)  Utility Construction, Removal, or Relocation by Others ....... 1-63
1-07.18  Public Liability and Property Damage Insurance .......1-63
1-07.19  Gratuities .............. 1-66
1-07.20  Patented Devices, Materials, and Processes ... 1-66
1-07.21  Rock Drilling Safety Requirements ................ 1-66
1-07.22  Use of Explosives  1-66
1-07.23  Public Convenience and Safety ...................... 1-67
1-07.23(1)  Construction Under Traffic  ......... 1-67
1-07.23(2)  Construction and Maintenance of Detours ............................ 1-69
1-07.24  Rights of Way ....... 1-69
1-07.25  Opening of Sections to Traffic  ........................ 1-69
1-07.26  Personal Liability of Public Officers ............... 1-69
1-07.27  No Waiver of State’s Legal Rights .................. 1-70
1-08  Prosecution and Progress .. 1-71
1-08.1  Subcontracting ..... 1-71
1-08.1(1)  Subcontract Completion and Return of Retainage Withheld . 1-72
1-08.2  Assignment .......... 1-73
1-08.3  Progress Schedule  1-73
1-08.3(1)  General Requirements ................. 1-73
1-08.3(2)  Progress Schedule Types ............. 1-74
1-08.3(2)A  Type A Progress Schedule .1-74
1-08.3(2)B  Type B Progress Schedule 1-74
1-08.3(2)C  Vacant .................... 1-74
1-08.3(2)D  Weekly Look-Ahead Schedule ......................... 1-75
1-08.3(3)  Schedule Updates ........................ 1-75
1-08.3(4)  Measurement 1-75
1-08.3(5)  Payment ........1-75
1-08.4  Prosecution of Work .........1-76
1-08.5  Time for Completion ........1-76
1-08.6  Suspension of Work .........1-77
1-08.7  Maintenance During Suspension .................... 1-78
1-08.8  Extensions of Time ..........1-78
1-08.9  Liquidated Damages ........1-80
1-08.10  Termination of Contract ...1-81
1-08.10(1)  Termination for Default .............. 1-81
1-08.10(2)  Termination for Public Convenience ......1-82
1-08.10(3)  Termination for Public Convenience Payment Request ........ 1-82
1-08.10(4)  Payment for Termination for Public Convenience ................. 1-83
1-08.10(5)  Responsibility of the Contractor and Surety .......................... 1-83
1-09  Measurement and Payment...........1-84
1-09.1  Measurement of Quantities  1-84
1-09.2  Weighing Equipment........1-85
1-09.2(1)  General Requirements for Weighing Equipment ................... 1-85
1-09.2(2)  Specific Requirements for Batching Scales ........................... 1-86
1-09.2(3)  Specific Requirements for Platform Scales ............................ 1-86
1-09.2(4)  Specific Requirements for Belt Conveyor Scales .................. 1-87
1-09.2(5)  Measurement 1-87
1-09.2(6)  Payment ........1-88
1-09.3  Scope of Payment  1-88
1-09.4  Equitable Adjustment .......1-89
1-09.5  Deleted or Terminated Work ........................... 1-89
1-09.6  Force Account ...... 1-90 
1-09.7  Mobilization ......... 1-93
1-09.8  Payment for Material on Hand ........................ 1-93
1-09.9  Payments .............. 1-94
1-09.9(1)  Retainage ......1-95
1-09.10  Payment for Surplus Processed Materials ....... 1-96
1-09.11  Disputes and Claims ........1-96
1-09.11(1)  Disputes Review Board ............... 1-96
1-09.11(1)A  Disputes Review Board Membership .............. 1-97
1-09.11(1)B  Disputes Review Board Procedures ................. 1-98
1-09.11(2)  Claims ..........1-99
1-09.11(3)  Time Limitation and Jurisdiction ..........1-101
1-09.12  Audits ................. 1-101
1-09.12(1)  General .......1-101
1-09.12(2)  Claims ........1-101
1-09.12(3)  Required Documents for Audits  1-102
1-09.13  Claims Resolution ..........1-102
1-09.13(1)  General .......1-102
1-09.13(2)  Nonbinding Alternative Disputes Resolution (ADR) .......... 1-103
1-09.13(3)  Claims $250,000 or Less ........... 1-103
1-09.13(3)A  Administration of Arbitration ........................ 1-103
1-09.13(3)B  Procedures to Pursue Arbitration ................... 1-103
1-09.13(4)  Claims in Excess of $250,000 ... 1-104
1-10 Temporary Traffic Control ..........1-105
1-10.1  General ............... 1-105
1-10.1(1)  Materials ....1-105
1-10.1(2)  Description .1-105
1-10.2  Traffic Control Management ......................... 1-106
1-10.2(1)  General .......1-106
1-10.2(1)A  Traffic Control Management .......................... 1-107
1-10.2(1)B  Traffic Control Supervisor  1-107
1-10.2(2)  Traffic Control Plans ................. 1-108
1-10.2(3)  Conformance to Established Standards 1-109
1-10.3  Traffic Control Labor, Procedures, and Devices .......1-110
1-10.3(1)  Traffic Control Labor ................ 1-110
1-10.3(1)A  Flaggers and Spotters ......1-110
1-10.3(1)B  Other Traffic Control Labor ........................... 1-110
1-10.3(2)  Traffic Control Procedures .........1-111
1-10.3(2)A  One-Way Traffic Control ...1-111
1-10.3(2)B  Rolling Slowdown .............1-111
1-10.3(2)C  Lane Closure Setup/Takedown ...................... 1-112
1-10.3(2)D  Mobile Operations ..........1-112
1-10.3(2)E  Patrol and Maintain Traffic Control 
Measures ............. 1-112
1-10.3(3)  Traffic Control Devices ............. 1-113
1-10.3(3)A  Construction Signs ..........1-113
1-10.3(3)B  Sequential Arrow Signs ...1-113
1-10.3(3)C  Portable Changeable Message Sign ............... 1-114
1-10.3(3)D  Barricades ........... 1-114
1-10.3(3)E  Traffic Safety Drums .......1-114
1-10.3(3)F  Barrier Drums ..... 1-114
1-10.3(3)G  Traffic Cones and Tall Channelizing Devices 1-115
1-10.3(3)H  Tubular Markers .. 1-115
1-10.3(3)I  Warning Lights and Flashers.......................... 1-115
1-10.3(3)J  Transportable Attenuator .1-115
1-10.3(3)K  Portable Temporary Traffic Control Signal ....
1-10.4  Measurement ...... 1-116
1-10.4(1)  Lump Sum Bid for Project (No Unit Items) ........................ 1-116
1-10.4(2)  Item Bids With Lump Sum for Incidentals .......................... 1-116
1-10.4(3)  Reinstating Unit Items With Lump Sum Traffic Control ..... 1-117
1-10.4(4)  Owner-Provided Resources....... 1-117
1-10.5  Payment .............. 1-118
1-10.5(1)  Lump Sum Bid for Project (No Unit Items) ........................ 1-118
1-10.5(2)  Item Bids With Lump Sum for Incidentals .......................... 1-118
1-10.5(3)  Reinstating Unit Items With Lump Sum Traffic Control ..... 1-119  Contents
2014 Standard Specifications  M 41-10  Page 9

Division 2  Earthwork .....2-1

2-01  Clearing, Grubbing, and Roadside Cleanup ................ 2-1
2-01.1  Description ............. 2-1
2-01.2  Disposal of Usable Material and Debris ........... 2-1
2-01.2(1)  Disposal Method No. 1 – Open Burning ..2-1
2-01.2(2)  Disposal Method No. 2 – Waste Site ........2-1
2-01.2(3)  Disposal Method No. 3 – Chipping ..........2-2
2-01.3  Construction Requirements 2-2
2-01.3(1)  Clearing ..........2-2
2-01.3(2)  Grubbing ........2-2
2-01.3(3)  Vacant . 2-3
2-01.3(4)  Roadside Cleanup ......................... 2-3
2-01.4  Measurement .......... 2-3
2-01.5  Payment .................. 2-3
2-02  Removal of Structures and Obstructions...................... 2-4
2-02.1  Description ............. 2-4
2-02.2  Vacant ..................... 2-4
2-02.3  Construction Requirements 2-4
2-02.3(1)  Removal of Foundations ............... 2-4
2-02.3(2)  Removal of Bridges, Box Culverts, and Other Drainage
Structures .......2-4
2-02.3(3)  Removal of Pavement, Sidewalks, Curbs, and Gutters ........... 2-5
2-02.4  Vacant ..................... 2-5
2-02.5  Payment .................. 2-5
2-03  Roadway Excavation and Embankment ....................... 2-6
2-03.1  Description ............. 2-6
2-03.2  Vacant ..................... 2-6
2-03.3  Construction Requirements 2-6
2-03.3(1)  Widening of Cuts .......................... 2-6
2-03.3(2)  Rock Cuts .......2-6
2-03.3(3)  Excavation Below Subgrade ......... 2-8
2-03.3(4)  Sluicing ..........2-9
2-03.3(5)  Slope Treatment ............................ 2-9
2-03.3(6)  Deposit of Rock for the Contracting Agency’s Use ................. 2-9
2-03.3(7)  Disposal of Surplus Material ........ 2-9
2-03.3(7)A  General .................... 2-9
2-03.3(7)B  Haul ......................... 2-9
2-03.3(7)C  Contractor-Provided Disposal Site................... 2-10
2-03.3(8)  Wasting Material ......................... 2-10
2-03.3(9)  Roadway Ditches ........................ 2-10
2-03.3(10)  Selected Material ........................ 2-10
2-03.3(11)  Slides  2-11
2-03.3(12)  Overbreak .....2-11
2-03.3(13)  Borrow .........2-11
2-03.3(14)  Embankment Construction .......... 2-12
2-03.3(14)A  Rock Embankment Construction ..................... 2-12
2-03.3(14)B  Earth Embankment Construction ..................... 2-13
2-03.3(14)C  Compacting Earth Embankments .................... 2-13
2-03.3(14)D  Compaction and Moisture Control Tests ......... 2-14
2-03.3(14)E  Unsuitable Foundation Excavation .................. 2-15
2-03.3(14)F  Displacement of Unsuitable Foundation 
Materials ............... 2-15
2-03.3(14)G  Backfilling  ............. 2-15
2-03.3(14)H  Prefabricated Vertical Drains ..
2-03.3(14)I  Embankments at Bridge and Trestle Ends ....... 2-16
2-03.3(14)J  Gravel Borrow Including Haul ........................ 2-17
2-03.3(14)K  Select or Common Borrow Including Haul ..... 2-17
2-03.3(14)L  Embankment Widening for Guardrail .............. 2-17
2-03.3(14)M  Excavation of Channels and Ditches ............... 2-17
2-03.3(15)  Aeration ........2-18
2-03.3(16)  End Slopes ...2-18
2-03.3(17)  Snow Removal ............................ 2-18
2-03.3(18)  Stepped Slope Construction ........ 2-18
2-03.4  Measurement ........ 2-19
2-03.5  Payment ................ 2-20
2-04  Haul ......2-22
2-04.1  Description ........... 2-22
2-04.2  Vacant ................... 2-22
2-04.3  Vacant ................... 2-22
2-04.4  Measurement ........ 2-22
2-04.5  Payment ................ 2-22
2-05  Vacant ...2-23
2-06  Subgrade Preparation........ 2-24
2-06.1  Description ........... 2-24
2-06.2  Vacant ................... 2-24
2-06.3  Construction Requirements  2-24
2-06.3(1)  Subgrade for Surfacing ............... 2-24
2-06.3(2)  Subgrade for Pavement ............... 2-24
2-06.4  Vacant ................... 2-24
2-06.5  Measurement and Payment  2-25
2-06.5(1)  Subgrade Constructed Under Same Contract ........................ 2-25
2-06.5(2)  Subgrade Not Constructed Under Same Contract ................. 2-25
2-07  Watering . 2-26
2-07.1  Description ........... 2-26
2-07.2  Vacant ................... 2-26
2-07.3  Construction Requirements  2-26
2-07.4  Measurement ........ 2-26
2-07.5  Payment ................ 2-26
2-08  Vacant ...2-27
2-09  Structure Excavation ......... 2-28
2-09.1  Description ........... 2-28
2-09.2  Materials .............. 2-28
2-09.3  Construction Requirements  2-28
2-09.3(1)  General Requirements ................. 2-28
2-09.3(1)A  Staking, Cross-Sectioning, and Inspecting ...... 2-28
2-09.3(1)B  Depth of Excavation .........2-28
2-09.3(1)C  Removal of Unstable Base Material ................ 2-28
2-09.3(1)D  Disposal of Excavated Material ....................... 2-28
2-09.3(1)E  Backfilling  ............. 2-29
2-09.3(1)F  Items to Remain .... 2-30
2-09.3(2)  Classification of Structure Excavation  ....2-30
2-09.3(3)  Construction Requirements, Structure Excavation, Class A .. 2-30
2-09.3(3)A  Preservation of Channel ....2-30
2-09.3(3)B  Excavation Using Open Pits – Extra 
Excavation ............. 2-31
2-09.3(3)C  Preparation for Placing Foundations ................ 2-32
2-09.3(3)D  Shoring and Cofferdams ...2-32
2-09.3(3)E  Bearing Tests ......... 2-35
2-09.3(4)  Construction Requirements, Structure Excavation, Class B .
2-09.4  Measurement ........ 2-35
2-09.5  Payment ................ 2-36
2-10  Vacant ...2-38
2-11  Trimming and Cleanup ..... 2-39
2-11.1  Description ........... 2-39
2-11.2  Vacant ................... 2-39
2-11.3  Construction Requirements  2-39
2-11.4  Vacant ................... 2-39
2-11.5  Payment ................ 2-39
2-12  Construction Geosynthetic  2-40
2-12.1  Description ........... 2-40
2-12.2  Materials .............. 2-40
2-12.3  Construction Requirements  2-40
2-12.3(1)  Underground Drainage ................ 2-41
2-12.3(2)  Separation ....2-41
2-12.3(3)  Soil Stabilization ......................... 2-41
2-12.3(4)  Permanent Erosion Control and Ditch Lining ....................... 2-41
2-12.4  Measurement ........ 2-42
2-12.5  Payment ................ 2-42Contents
Page 12  2014 Standard Specifications  M 41-10

Division 3   Aggregate Production and Acceptance 3-1

3-01  Production From Quarry and Pit Sites ......................... 3-1
3-01.1  Description ............. 3-1
3-01.2  Material Sources, General Requirements ......... 3-1
3-01.2(1)  Approval of Source ....................... 3-1
3-01.2(2)  Preparation of Site ......................... 3-1
3-01.2(3)  Stripping Quarries and Pits ........... 3-1
3-01.2(4)  Production Requirements .............. 3-1
3-01.2(5)  Final Cleanup .3-2
3-01.3  State Furnished Material Sources ..................... 3-2
3-01.3(1)  Quality and Extent of Material ..... 3-2
3-01.3(2)  When More Than One Site is Provided ....3-2
3-01.3(3)  Reject Materials ............................ 3-3
3-01.3(4)  Surplus Screenings ........................ 3-3
3-01.3(5)  Moving Plant ..3-3
3-01.4  Contractor Furnished Material Sources ............ 3-4
3-01.4(1)  Acquisition and Development ....... 3-4
3-01.4(2)  Surplus Screenings ........................ 3-5
3-01.4(3)  Substitution of Gravel Deposit in Lieu of Ledge Rock
or Talus Source Provided by the Contracting Agency ............. 3-5
3-01.4(4)  Gravel Base ....3-5
3-01.5  Measurement .......... 3-5
3-01.6  Payment .................. 3-5
3-02  Stockpiling Aggregates ........ 3-6
3-02.1  Description ............. 3-6
3-02.2  General Requirements ........3-6
3-02.2(1)  Stockpile Sites Provided by the Contracting Agency .............. 3-6
3-02.2(2)  Stockpile Site Provided by the Contractor 3-6
3-02.2(3)  Stockpiling Aggregates for Future Use .....3-6
3-02.2(4)  Stockpiling Aggregates for Immediate Use  3-6
3-02.2(5)  Preparation of Site ......................... 3-7
3-02.2(6)  Construction of Stockpiles ............ 3-7
3-02.2(7)  Removing Aggregates From Stockpiles ....3-7
3-02.3  Additional Requirements for Specific Aggregates ........3-8
3-02.3(1)  Washed Aggregates ....................... 3-8
3-02.4  Measurement .......... 3-8
3-02.5  Payment .................. 3-8
3-03  Site Reclamation ................... 3-9
3-03.1  Description ............. 3-9
3-03.2  General Requirements ........3-9
3-03.2(1)  Contracting Agency-Provided Sites ..........3-9
3-03.2(2)  Contractor-Provided Sites ............. 3-9
3-03.2(3)  Out-of-State Sites .......................... 3-9
3-03.3  Reclamation Plans .. 3-9
3-03.3(1)  Contracting Agency-Provided Sites ..........3-9
3-03.3(2)  Contractor-Provided Sites ........... 3-10
3-03.4  Construction Requirements  3-10
3-03.4(1)  Erosion Control ........................... 3-10
3-03.4(2)  Deviations From Approved Reclamation Plans ..................... 3-10
3-03.5  Payment ................ 3-10
3-03.5(1)  Contracting Agency-Provided Sites ........3-10
3-03.5(2)  Contractor-Provided Sites ........... 3-10 gate ... 3-11
3-04.1  Description ........... 3-11
3-04.2  Materials .............. 3-11
3-04.3  Construction Requirements  3-11
3-04.3(1)  General .........3-11
3-04.3(2)  Point of Acceptance .................... 3-11
3-04.3(3)  Sampling ......3-11
3-04.3(4)  Testing Results ............................ 3-11
3-04.3(5)  Nonstatistical Evaluation ............ 3-11
3-04.3(6)  Statistical Evaluation .................. 3-12
3-04.3(7)  Rejected Work  3-12
3-04.3(7)A  General .................. 3-12
3-04.3(7)B  Rejection by Contractor ....3-12
3-04.3(7)C  Rejection Without Testing .3-12
3-04.3(7)D  Lots and Sublots  ... 3-12
3-04.3(8)  Price Adjustments for Quality of Aggregate .......................... 3-13
3-04.4  Vacant ................... 3-13
3-04.5  Payment ................ 3-13Contents
Page 14  2014 Standard Specifications  M 41-10

Division 4  Bases ..............4-1

4-01  Vacant .....4-1
4-02  Gravel Base ........................... 4-2
4-02.1  Description ............. 4-2
4-02.2  Materials ................ 4-2
4-02.3  Construction Requirements 4-2
4-02.4  Measurement .......... 4-2
4-02.5  Payment .................. 4-2
4-03  Vacant .....4-3
4-04  Ballast and Crushed Surfacing .......4-4
4-04.1  Description ............. 4-4
4-04.2  Materials ................ 4-4
4-04.3  Construction Requirements 4-4
4-04.3(1)  Equipment ......4-4
4-04.3(2)  Subgrade ........4-4
4-04.3(3)  Mixing  4-4
4-04.3(4)  Placing and Spreading ................... 4-5
4-04.3(5)  Shaping and Compaction .............. 4-5
4-04.3(6)  Keystone ........4-5
4-04.3(7)  Miscellaneous Requirements ........ 4-6
4-04.3(8)  Weather Limitations ...................... 4-6
4-04.3(9)  Hauling ...........4-6
4-04.3(10)  Hours of Work 4-6
4-04.3(11)  Permeable Ballast .......................... 4-6
4-04.4  Measurement .......... 4-6
4-04.5  Payment .................. 4-7 

Division 5  Surface Treatments and Pavements ......5-1

5-01  Cement Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation ................. 5-1
5-01.1  Description ............. 5-1
5-01.2  Materials ................ 5-1
5-01.3  Construction Requirements 5-1
5-01.3(1)  Vacant . 5-1
5-01.3(1)A  Concrete Mix Designs .........5-1
5-01.3(1)B  Equipment ............... 5-2
5-01.3(2)  Material Acceptance ...................... 5-2
5-01.3(2)A  Concrete Patching Material .5-2
5-01.3(2)B  Portland Cement Concrete ..5-2
5-01.3(3)  Vacant . 5-3
5-01.3(4)  Replace Portland Cement Concrete Panel 5-3
5-01.3(5)  Partial Depth Spall Repair ............ 5-4
5-01.3(6)  Dowel Bar Retrofit ........................ 5-5
5-01.3(7)  Sealing Existing Concrete Random Cracks  5-6
5-01.3(8)  Sealing Existing Transverse and Longitudinal Joints .............. 5-6
5-01.3(9)  Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Grinding ....................... 5-6
5-01.3(9)A  Surface Finish ......... 5-7
5-01.3(10)  Pavement Smoothness .................. 5-7
5-01.3(11)  Concrete Slurry and Grinding Residue .....5-7
5-01.4  Measurement .......... 5-7
5-01.5  Payment .................. 5-7
5-02  Bituminous Surface Treatment .......5-9
5-02.1  Description ............. 5-9
5-02.1(1)  New Construction ......................... 5-9
5-02.1(2)  Seal Coats .......5-9
5-02.1(3)  Pavement Sealers – Fog Seal ........ 5-9
5-02.2  Materials ................ 5-9
5-02.3  Construction Requirements 5-9
5-02.3(1)  Equipment ......5-9
5-02.3(2)  Preparation of Roadway Surface  5-10
5-02.3(2)A  New Construction . 5-10
5-02.3(2)B  Seal Coats .............. 5-10
5-02.3(2)C  Pavement Sealing – Fog Seal ........................... 5-10
5-02.3(2)D  Soil Residual Herbicide ....5-10
5-02.3(3)  Application of Emulsified Asphalt and Aggregate  ................. 5-10
5-02.3(4)  Vacant ...........5-12
5-02.3(5)  Application of Aggregates .......... 5-12
5-02.3(6)  Additional Emulsified Asphalt and Aggregate  ....................... 5-13
5-02.3(7)  Patching and Correction of Defects ........5-13
5-02.3(8)  Progress of Work ......................... 5-13
5-02.3(9)  Protection of Structures ............... 5-13
5-02.3(10)  Unfavorable Weather .................. 5-14
5-02.3(11)  Temporary Raised Pavement Markings ..5-14
5-02.4  Measurement ........ 5-14
5-02.5  Payment ................ 5-14
5-03  Vacant ...5-16
5-04  Hot Mix Asphalt ................. 5-17
5-04.1  Description ........... 5-17
5-04.2  Materials .............. 5-17
5-04.3  Construction Requirements  5-17
5-04.3(1)  Hot Mix Asphalt Mixing Plant .... 5-17
5-04.3(2)  Hauling Equipment ..................... 5-18
5-04.3(3)  Hot Mix Asphalt Pavers .............. 5-18
5-04.3(3)A  Material Transfer Device/Vehicle .................... 5-19
5-04.3(4)  Rollers ..........5-19
5-04.3(5)  Conditioning of Existing Surface  5-20
5-04.3(5)A  Preparation of Existing Surfaces ...................... 5-20
5-04.3(5)B  Preparation of Untreated Roadway .................. 5-20
5-04.3(5)C  Crack Sealing ........ 5-21
5-04.3(5)D  Soil Residual Herbicide ....5-21
5-04.3(5)E  Pavement Repair ... 5-21
5-04.3(6)  Vacant ...........5-21
5-04.3(7)  Preparation of Aggregates ........... 5-22
5-04.3(7)A  Mix Design............ 5-22
5-04.3(8)  Mixing ..........5-23
5-04.3(8)A  Acceptance Sampling and Testing – 
HMA Mixture........ 5-23
5-04.3(9)  Spreading and Finishing ............. 5-25
5-04.3(10)  Compaction ..5-25
5-04.3(10)A  General .................. 5-25
5-04.3(10)B  Control .................. 5-25
5-04.3(11)  Reject Work ..5-26
5-04.3(11)A  General .................. 5-26
5-04.3(11)B  Rejection by Contractor ....5-27
5-04.3(11)C  Rejection Without Testing .5-27
5-04.3(11)D  General .................. 5-27
5-04.3(12)  Joints  5-28
5-04.3(12)A  Transverse Joints ... 5-28
5-04.3(12)B  Longitudinal Joints 5-28
5-04.3(13)  Surface Smoothness .................... 5-28
5-04.3(14)  Planing Bituminous Pavement .... 5-29
5-04.3(15)  HMA Road Approaches .............. 5-29
5-04.3(16)  Weather Limitations .................... 5-29
5-04.3(17)  Paving Under Traffic  ................... 5-30
5-04.3(18)  Vacant ...........5-30
5-04.3(19)  Sealing of Pavement Surfaces  .... 5-30
5-04.3(20)  Anti-Stripping Additive .............. 5-30
5-04.3(21)  Vacant ...........5-30
5-04.4  Measurement ........ 5-30
5-04.5  Payment ................ 5-31
5-04.5(1)  Quality Assurance Price Adjustments .....5-32
5-04.5(1)A  Price Adjustments for Quality of HMA 
Mixture .................. 5-32
5-04.5(1)B  Price Adjustments for Quality of
HMA Compaction . 5-33 
5-05  Cement Concrete Pavement ..........5-34
5-05.1  Description ........... 5-34
5-05.2  Materials .............. 5-34
5-05.3  Construction Requirements  5-34
5-05.3(1)  Concrete Mix Design for Paving  5-34
5-05.3(2)  Consistency ..5-35
5-05.3(3)  Equipment ....5-35
5-05.3(3)A  Batching Plant and Equipment ......................... 5-36
5-05.3(3)B  Mixing Equipment  5-36
5-05.3(3)C  Finishing Equipment .........5-36
5-05.3(3)D  Joint Sawing Equipment ...5-36
5-05.3(3)E  Smoothness Testing Equipment ....................... 5-37
5-05.3(4)  Measuring and Batching Materials .........5-37
5-05.3(4)A  Acceptance of Portland Cement Concrete
Pavement ............... 5-37
5-05.3(5)  Mixing Concrete ......................... 5-39
5-05.3(5)A  Limitations of Mixing .......5-39
5-05.3(6)  Subgrade ......5-40
5-05.3(7)  Placing, Spreading, and Compacting Concrete ...................... 5-40
5-05.3(7)A  Slip-Form Construction ....5-40
5-05.3(7)B  Stationary Side Form Construction .................. 5-41
5-05.3(8)  Joints  5-42
5-05.3(8)A  Contraction Joints . 5-42
5-05.3(8)B  Sealing Sawed Contraction Joints .................... 5-42
5-05.3(8)C  Construction Joints 5-42
5-05.3(8)D  Isolation Joints ...... 5-42
5-05.3(9)  Vacant ...........5-42
5-05.3(10)  Tie Bars and Corrosion Resistant Dowel Bars ....................... 5-43
5-05.3(11)  Finishing ......5-43
5-05.3(12)  Surface Smoothness .................... 5-44
5-05.3(13)  Curing ..........5-46
5-05.3(13)A  Curing Compound . 5-46
5-05.3(13)B  White Polyethylene Sheeting ........................... 5-47
5-05.3(13)C  Wet Curing ............ 5-47
5-05.3(14)  Cold Weather Work ..................... 5-47
5-05.3(15)  Concrete Pavement Construction in Adjacent Lanes ............. 5-47
5-05.3(16)  Protection of Pavement ............... 5-47
5-05.3(17)  Opening to Traffic  ....................... 5-48
5-05.3(18)  Vacant ...........5-48
5-05.3(19)  Vacant ...........5-48
5-05.3(20)  Vacant ...........5-48
5-05.3(21)  Vacant ...........5-48
5-05.3(22)  Repair of Defective Pavement Slabs .......5-48
5-05.4  Measurement ........ 5-49
5-05.5  Payment ................ 5-49
5-05.5(1)  Pavement Thickness .................... 5-50
5-05.5(1)A  Thickness Deficiency of 0.05 Foot or Less ...... 5-51
5-05.5(1)B  Thickness Deficiency of More Than 0.05 Foot 5-51Contents
Page 18  2014 Standard Specifications  M 41-10

Division 6  Structures ......6-1

6-01  General Requirements for Structures ........................... 6-1
6-01.1  Description ............. 6-1
6-01.2  Foundation Data ..... 6-1
6-01.3  Clearing the Site ..... 6-1
6-01.4  Appearance of Structures ...6-1
6-01.5  Vacant ..................... 6-1
6-01.6  Load Restrictions on Bridges Under Construction .......6-1
6-01.7  Navigable Streams . 6-2
6-01.8  Approaches to Movable Spans .......................... 6-2
6-01.9  Working Drawings . 6-2
6-01.10  Utilities Supported by or Attached to Bridges .. 6-3
6-01.11  Name Plates ........... 6-3
6-01.12  Final Cleanup ......... 6-3
6-01.13  Vacant ..................... 6-4
6-01.14  Premolded Joint Filler ........6-4
6-01.15  Normal Temperature ..........6-4
6-02  Concrete Structures ............. 6-5
6-02.1  Description ............. 6-5
6-02.2  Materials ................ 6-5
6-02.3  Construction Requirements 6-5
6-02.3(1)  Classification of Structural Concrete  ........6-5
6-02.3(2)  Proportioning Materials ................ 6-5
6-02.3(2)A  Contractor Mix Design .......6-6
6-02.3(2)B  Commercial Concrete .........6-7
6-02.3(2)C  Vacant ...................... 6-7
6-02.3(2)D  Lean Concrete ......... 6-7
6-02.3(3)  Admixtures .....6-7
6-02.3(4)  Ready-Mix Concrete ..................... 6-8
6-02.3(4)A  Qualification of Concrete Suppliers ................... 6-8
6-02.3(4)B  Jobsite Mixing ......... 6-9
6-02.3(4)C  Consistency ............. 6-9
6-02.3(4)D  Temperature and Time For Placement ............. 6-10
6-02.3(5)  Acceptance of Concrete .............. 6-10
6-02.3(5)A  General .................. 6-10
6-02.3(5)B  Certification of Compliance   6-11
6-02.3(5)C  Conformance to Mix Design ............................ 6-12
6-02.3(5)D  Test Methods ......... 6-12
6-02.3(5)E  Point of Acceptance ..........6-12
6-02.3(5)F  Water/Cement Ratio Conformance .................. 6-13
6-02.3(5)G  Sampling and Testing Frequency for
Temperature, Consistency, and Air Content..... 6-13
6-02.3(5)H  Sampling and Testing for Compressive
Strength and Initial Curing 6-13
6-02.3(5)I  Vacant .................... 6-14
6-02.3(5)J  Vacant .................... 6-14
6-02.3(5)K  Rejecting Concrete  6-14
6-02.3(5)L  Concrete With Non-Conforming Strength ....... 6-14
6-02.3(6)  Placing Concrete ......................... 6-14
6-02.3(6)A  Weather and Temperature Limits to Protect
Concrete ................ 6-16
6-02.3(6)B  Placing Concrete in Foundation Seals ............. 6-19
6-02.3(6)C  Dewatering Concrete Seals and Foundations .. 6-19
6-02.3(6)D  Protection Against Vibration ............................ 6-19
6-02.3(7)  Concrete Exposed to Sea Water .. 6-20
6-02.3(8)  Concrete Exposed to Alkaline Soils or Water ........................ 6-21
6-02.3(9)  Vibration of Concrete .................. 6-21
6-02.3(10)  Bridge Decks and Bridge Approach Slabs  6-21
6-02.3(10)A  Preconstruction Meeting ...6-21
6-02.3(10)B  Screed Rail Supports .........6-22
6-02.3(10)C  Finishing Equipment .........6-22
6-02.3(10)D  Concrete Placement, Finishing, and Texturing 6-23
6-02.3(10)E  Sidewalk  ............... 6-24
6-02.3(10)F  Bridge Approach Slab Orientation and 
Anchors ................. 6-24
6-02.3(11)  Curing Concrete .......................... 6-25
6-02.3(11)A  Curing and Finishing Concrete Traffic and
Pedestrian Barrier .. 6-26
6-02.3(12)  Construction Joints...................... 6-27
6-02.3(12)A  Construction Joints in New Construction ........ 6-27
6-02.3(12)B  Construction Joints Between Existing and
New Construction . 6-28
6-02.3(13)  Expansion Joints ......................... 6-28
6-02.3(14)  Finishing Concrete Surfaces ....... 6-28
6-02.3(14)A  Class 1 Surface Finish .......6-29
6-02.3(14)B  Class 2 Surface Finish .......6-29
6-02.3(14)C  Pigmented Sealer for Concrete Surfaces .......... 6-29
6-02.3(15)  Date Numerals ............................ 6-30
6-02.3(16)  Plans for Falsework and Formwork ........6-30
6-02.3(16)A  Nonpreapproved Falsework and Formwork 
Plans ...................... 6-32
6-02.3(16)B  Preapproved Formwork Plans .......................... 6-33
6-02.3(17)  Falsework and Formwork ........... 6-33
6-02.3(17)A   Design Loads ........ 6-34
6-02.3(17)B  Allowable Design Stresses and Deflections ..... 6-36
6-02.3(17)C  Falsework and Formwork at Special 
Locations ............... 6-37
6-02.3(17)D  Falsework Support Systems: Piling,
Temporary Concrete Footings, Timber
Mudsills, Manufactured Shoring Towers,
Caps, and Posts ..... 6-39
6-02.3(17)E  Stringers, Beams, Joists, Bridge Deck
Support, and Deck Overhangs ......................... 6-46
6-02.3(17)F  Bracing .................. 6-47
6-02.3(17)G  Testing Falsework Devices . 6-51
6-02.3(17)H  Formwork Accessories ......6-52
6-02.3(17)I  Timber Connections ..........6-53
6-02.3(17)J  Face Lumber, Studs, Wales, and Metal Forms . 6-57
6-02.3(17)K  Concrete Forms on Steel Spans ....................... 6-59
6-02.3(17)L  Finishing Machine Support System ................. 6-59
6-02.3(17)M  Restricted Overhead Clearance Sign ............... 6-59
6-02.3(17)N  Removal of Falsework and Forms ................... 6-60
6-02.3(17)O  Early Concrete Test Cylinder Breaks ............... 6-61
6-02.3(18)  Placing Anchor Bolts .................. 6-61
6-02.3(19)  Bridge Bearings .......................... 6-62
6-02.3(19)A  Vacant .................... 6-62
6-02.3(19)B  Bridge Bearing Assemblies . 6-62
6-02.3(20)  Grout for Anchor Bolts and Bridge Bearings ........................ 6-62
6-02.3(21)  Drainage of Box Girder Cells ..... 6-63
6-02.3(22)  Drainage of Substructure ............ 6-63
6-02.3(23)  Opening to Traffic  ....................... 6-63
6-02.3(24)  Reinforcement  6-63
6-02.3(24)A  Field Bending ........ 6-63
6-02.3(24)B  Protection of Materials ......6-65
6-02.3(24)C  Placing and Fastening .......6-65
6-02.3(24)D  Splicing ................. 6-67
6-02.3(24)E  Welding Reinforcing Steel 6-67
6-02.3(24)F  Mechanical Splices ...........6-68
6-02.3(24)G  Job Control Tests ... 6-69
6-02.3(24)H  Epoxy-Coated Steel Reinforcing Bar ............... 6-70
6-02.3(25)  Prestressed Concrete Girders ...... 6-70
6-02.3(25)A  Shop Drawings ...... 6-72
6-02.3(25)B  Casting .................. 6-72
6-02.3(25)C  Prestressing ........... 6-73
6-02.3(25)D  Curing ................... 6-74
6-02.3(25)E  Contractors Control Strength ........................... 6-74
6-02.3(25)F  Prestress Release ... 6-75
6-02.3(25)G  Protection of Exposed Reinforcement ............. 6-76
6-02.3(25)H  Finishing ............... 6-76
6-02.3(25)I  Fabrication Tolerances ......6-76
6-02.3(25)J  Horizontal Alignment ........6-78
6-02.3(25)K  Girder Deflection  .. 6-78
6-02.3(25)L  Handling and Storage ........6-79
6-02.3(25)M  Shipping ................ 6-80
6-02.3(25)N  Prestressed Concrete Girder Erection .............. 6-81
6-02.3(25)O  Deck Bulb Tee Girder Flange Connection ....... 6-83
6-02.3(26)  Cast-In-Place Prestressed Concrete ........6-83
6-02.3(26)A  Shop Drawings ...... 6-83
6-02.3(26)B  General Requirements for Anchorages ............ 6-85
6-02.3(26)C  Normal Anchorage Devices  6-85
6-02.3(26)D  Special Anchorage Devices . 6-86
6-02.3(26)E  Ducts ..................... 6-88
6-02.3(26)F  Prestressing Reinforcement  6-92
6-02.3(26)G  Tensioning ............. 6-92
6-02.3(26)H  Grouting ................ 6-94
6-02.3(27)  Concrete for Precast Units .......... 6-95
6-02.3(27)A  Use of Self-Consolidating Concrete for
Precast Units ......... 6-95
6-02.3(27)B  Submittals for Self-Consolidating Concrete
for Precast Units .... 6-96
6-02.3(27)C  Acceptance Testing of Self-Consolidating
Concrete for Precast Units 6-96
6-02.3(28)  Precast Concrete Panels .............. 6-97
6-02.3(28)A  Shop Drawings ...... 6-97
6-02.3(28)B  Casting  ................. 6-98
6-02.3(28)C  Curing  .................. 6-98
6-02.3(28)D  Contractors Control Strength  .......................... 6-99
6-02.3(28)E  Finishing ............... 6-99
6-02.3(28)F  Tolerances ............. 6-99
6-02.3(28)G  Handling and Storage ........6-99
6-02.3(28)H  Shipping .............. 6-100
6-02.3(28)I  Erection ............... 6-100
6-02.4  Measurement ...... 6-100
6-02.5  Payment .............. 6-101
6-03  Steel Structures ................ 6-103
6-03.1  Description ......... 6-103
6-03.2  Materials ............ 6-103
6-03.3  Construction Requirements ........................... 6-103
6-03.3(1)  Vacant .........6-103
6-03.3(2)  Facilities for Inspection ............. 6-103
6-03.3(3)  Inspector’s Authority................. 6-103
6-03.3(4)  Rejections ...6-104
6-03.3(5)  Mill Orders and Shipping Statements ...6-104
6-03.3(6)  Weighing ....6-104
6-03.3(7)  Shop Plans ..6-104
6-03.3(7)A  Erection Methods  6-105
6-03.3(8)  Substitutions . 6-106
6-03.3(9)  Handling, Storing, and Shipping of Materials ..................... 6-106
6-03.3(10)  Straightening Bent Material ...... 6-106
6-03.3(11)  Workmanship and Finish .......... 6-106
6-03.3(12)  Falsework ...6-106
6-03.3(13)  Fabricating Tension Members ... 6-106
6-03.3(14)  Edge Finishing .......................... 6-107
6-03.3(15)  Planing of Bearing Surfaces ...... 6-107
6-03.3(16)  Abutting Joints .......................... 6-107
6-03.3(17)  End Connection Angles ............. 6-108
6-03.3(18)  Built Members .......................... 6-108
6-03.3(19)  Hand Holes .6-108
6-03.3(20)  Lacing Bars 6-108
6-03.3(21)  Plate Girders . 6-108
6-03.3(21)A  Web Plates ........... 6-108
6-03.3(21)B  Vacant .................. 6-108
6-03.3(21)C  Web Splices and Fillers ...6-108
6-03.3(22)  Eyebars .......6-108
6-03.3(23)  Annealing ...6-108
6-03.3(24)  Pins and Rollers ........................ 6-108
6-03.3(24)A  Boring Pin Holes . 6-109
6-03.3(24)B  Pin Clearances ..... 6-109
6-03.3(25)  Welding and Repair Welding .... 6-109
6-03.3(25)A  Welding Inspection .........6-110
6-03.3(26)  Screw Threads ............................6-111
6-03.3(27)  High-Strength Bolt Holes ..........6-111
6-03.3(27)A  Punched Holes .... 6-112
6-03.3(27)B  Reamed and Drilled Holes  6-112
6-03.3(27)C  Numerically Controlled Drilled Connections 6-112
6-03.3(27)D  Accuracy of Punched, Subpunched, and
Subdrilled Holes .. 6-112
6-03.3(27)E  Accuracy of Reamed and Drilled Holes ........ 6-112
6-03.3(27)F  Fitting for Bolting ...........6-113
6-03.3(28)  Shop Assembly.......................... 6-113
6-03.3(28)A  Method of Shop Assembly  6-113
6-03.3(28)B  Check of Shop Assembly 6-114
6-03.3(29)  Welded Shear Connectors ......... 6-114
6-03.3(30)  Painting ......6-114
6-03.3(30)A  Vacant .................. 6-114
6-03.3(30)B  Vacant .................. 6-114
6-03.3(30)C  Erection Marks .... 6-114
6-03.3(30)D  Machine Finished Surfaces ............................ 6-114Contents
Page 22  2014 Standard Specifications  M 41-10
6-03.3(31)  Alignment and Camber ............. 6-114
6-03.3(31)A  Measuring Camber ..........6-115
6-03.3(32)  Assembling and Bolting ............ 6-115
6-03.3(33)  Bolted Connections ................... 6-116
6-03.3(33)A  Pre-Erection Testing ........6-119
6-03.3(33)B  Bolting Inspection ...........6-120
6-03.3(34)  Adjusting Pin Nuts .................... 6-121
6-03.3(35)  Setting Anchor Bolts ................. 6-121
6-03.3(36)  Setting and Grouting Masonry Plates ...6-121
6-03.3(37)  Setting Steel Bridge Bearings ... 6-122
6-03.3(38)  Placing Superstructure .............. 6-122
6-03.3(39)  Swinging the Span .................... 6-122
6-03.3(40)  Draining Pockets ....................... 6-122
6-03.3(41)  Vacant .........6-122
6-03.3(42)  Surface Condition ..................... 6-123
6-03.3(43)  Castings, Steel Forgings, and Miscellaneous Metals ........... 6-123
6-03.3(43)A  Shop Construction, Castings, Steel Forgings, and Miscellaneous Metals . 6-123
6-03.4  Measurement ...... 6-123
6-03.5  Payment .............. 6-123
6-04  Timber Structures ............ 6-125
6-04.1  Description ......... 6-125
6-04.2  Materials ............ 6-125
6-04.3  Construction Requirements ........................... 6-125
6-04.3(1)  Storing and Handling Material .. 6-125
6-04.3(2)  Workmanship ............................ 6-125
6-04.3(3)  Shop Details . 6-125
6-04.3(4)  Field Treatment of Cut Surfaces, Bolt Holes, and Contact Surfaces .... 6-125
6-04.3(5)  Holes for Bolts, Dowels, Rods, and Lag Screws ................. 6-126
6-04.3(6)  Bolts, Washers, and Other Hardware ....6-126
6-04.3(7)  Countersinking .......................... 6-126
6-04.3(8)  Framing ......6-126
6-04.3(9)  Framed Bents ............................ 6-126
6-04.3(10)  Caps 6-126
6-04.3(11)  Bracing .......6-127
6-04.3(12)  Stringers .....6-127
6-04.3(13)  Wheel Guards and Railings ...... 6-127
6-04.3(14)  Single-Plank Floors ................... 6-127
6-04.3(15)  Laminated Floors ...................... 6-127
6-04.3(16)  Plank Subfloors for Concrete Decks .....6-128
6-04.3(17)  Trusses .......6-128
6-04.3(18)  Painting ......6-128
6-04.4  Measurement ...... 6-128
6-04.5  Payment .............. 6-128
6-05  Piling...6-129
6-05.1  Description ......... 6-129
6-05.2  Materials ............ 6-129
6-05.3  Construction Requirements ........................... 6-129
6-05.3(1)  Piling Terms . 6-129
6-05.3(2)  Ordering Piling .......................... 6-130
6-05.3(3)  Manufacture of Precast Concrete Piling . 6-131
6-05.3(3)A  Casting and Stressing ......6-131
6-05.3(3)B  Finishing ............. 6-132
6-05.3(3)C  Curing ................. 6-132 
6-05.3(4)  Manufacture of Steel Casings for Cast-In-Place 
Concrete Piles ........................... 6-132
6-05.3(5)  Manufacture of Steel Piles ........ 6-133
6-05.3(6)  Splicing Steel Casings and Steel Piles ..6-133
6-05.3(7)  Storage and Handling ................ 6-133
6-05.3(7)A  Timber Piles ........ 6-133
6-05.3(7)B  Precast Concrete Piles .....6-133
6-05.3(7)C  Steel Casings and Steel Piles ......................... 6-133
6-05.3(8)  Pile Tips and Shoes ................... 6-133
6-05.3(9)  Pile Driving Equipment ............ 6-134
6-05.3(9)A  Pile Driving Equipment Approval ................. 6-134
6-05.3(9)B  Pile Driving Equipment Minimum 
Requirements ...... 6-135
6-05.3(9)C  Pile Driving Leads ..........6-136
6-05.3(10)  Test Piles ....6-137
6-05.3(11)  Driving Piles  6-137
6-05.3(11)A  Tolerances ........... 6-137
6-05.3(11)B  Foundation Pit Preparation ............................ 6-138
6-05.3(11)C  Preparation for Driving ...6-138
6-05.3(11)D  Achieving Minimum Tip Elevation and 
Bearing ................ 6-138
6-05.3(11)E  Use of Followers for Driving ......................... 6-139
6-05.3(11)F  Pile Damage ........ 6-139
6-05.3(11)G  Pile Cutoff ........... 6-140
6-05.3(11)H  Pile Driving From or Near Adjacent 
Structures ............ 6-140
6-05.3(12)  Determination of Bearing Values ..........6-140
6-05.3(13)  Treatment of Timber Pile Heads ...........6-141
6-05.3(14)  Extensions and Buildups of Precast Concrete Piles ............. 6-141
6-05.3(15)  Completion of Cast-In-Place Concrete Piles ....................... 6-142
6-05.3(15)A  Reinforcement ..... 6-142
6-05.3(15)B  Placing Concrete . 6-142
6-05.4  Measurement ...... 6-142
6-05.5  Payment .............. 6-142
6-06  Bridge Railings ................. 6-144
6-06.1  Description ......... 6-144
6-06.2  Materials ............ 6-144
6-06.3  Construction Requirements ........................... 6-144
6-06.3(1)  Timber Railings ......................... 6-144
6-06.3(2)  Metal Railings ........................... 6-144
6-06.4  Measurement ...... 6-144
6-06.5  Payment .............. 6-145
6-07  Painting  6-146
6-07.1  Description ......... 6-146
6-07.2  Materials ............ 6-146
6-07.3  Construction Requirements ........................... 6-146
6-07.3(1)  Work Force Qualifications ........ 6-146
6-07.3(1)A  Work Force Qualifications for Shop
Application of Paint ........6-146
6-07.3(1)B  Work Force Qualifications for Field
Application of Paint ........6-146
6-07.3(2)  Submittals ..6-146
6-07.3(2)A  Work Force Qualifications Submittal 
Component .......... 6-147
6-07.3(2)B  Contractor’s Quality Control Program
Submittal Component .....6-147
6-07.3(2)C  Paint System Manufacturer and Paint
System Information Submittal Component ... 6-147
6-07.3(2)D  Hazardous Waste Containment, Collection,
Testing, and Disposal Submittal Component . 6-147
6-07.3(2)E  Cleaning and Surface Preparation
Equipment Submittal Component .................. 6-148
6-07.3(2)F  Paint Application Equipment and
Operations Submittal Component .................. 6-148
6-07.3(2)G  Painting Plan Meeting .....6-148
6-07.3(3)  Quality Control and Quality Assurance 6-149
6-07.3(3)A  Quality Control and Quality Assurance
for Shop Application of Paint ........................ 6-149
6-07.3(3)B  Quality Control and Quality Assurance
for Field Application of Paint ........................ 6-149
6-07.3(4)  Paint System Manufacturer’s Technical Representative ...... 6-149
6-07.3(5)  Pre-Painting Conference ........... 6-150
6-07.3(6)  Paint Containers, Storage, and Handling  6-150
6-07.3(6)A  Paint Containers .. 6-150
6-07.3(6)B  Paint Storage ....... 6-150
6-07.3(7)  Paint Sampling and Testing ....... 6-150
6-07.3(8)  Equipment ..6-151
6-07.3(8)A  Paint Film Thickness Measurement Gages .... 6-151
6-07.3(9)  Painting New Steel Structures .. 6-151
6-07.3(9)A  Paint System........ 6-151
6-07.3(9)B  Paint Color .......... 6-151
6-07.3(9)C  Mixing and Thinning Paint ............................ 6-151
6-07.3(9)D  Coating Thickness ...........6-152
6-07.3(9)E  Surface Temperature Requirements Prior
to Application of Paint ....6-152
6-07.3(9)F  Shop Surface Cleaning and Preparation ........ 6-152
6-07.3(9)G  Application of Shop Primer Coat ................... 6-152
6-07.3(9)H  Containment for Field Coating ...................... 6-152
6-07.3(9)I  Application of Field Coatings ........................ 6-152
6-07.3(10)  Painting Existing Steel Structures .........6-153
6-07.3(10)A  Containment ........ 6-153
6-07.3(10)B  Bird Guano, Fungus, and Vegetation 
Removal .............. 6-154
6-07.3(10)C  Dry Cleaning ....... 6-154
6-07.3(10)D  Surface Preparation Prior to Overcoat 
Painting ............... 6-154
6-07.3(10)E  Surface Preparation – Full Paint Removal ..... 6-154
6-07.3(10)F  Collecting, Testing, and Disposal of
Containment Waste .........6-155
6-07.3(10)G  Treatment of Pack Rust and Gaps .................. 6-156
6-07.3(10)H  Paint System........ 6-156
6-07.3(10)I  Paint Color .......... 6-156
6-07.3(10)J  Mixing and Thinning Paint ............................ 6-156
6-07.3(10)K  Coating Thickness ...........6-157
6-07.3(10)L  Environmental Condition Requirements
Prior to Application of Paint .......................... 6-157
6-07.3(10)M  Steel Surface Condition Requirements
Prior to Application of Paint .......................... 6-158
6-07.3(10)N  Field Coating Application Methods ............... 6-158 
6-07.3(10)O  Applying Field Coatings .6-158
6-07.3(10)P  Field Coating Repair .......6-159
6-07.3(10)Q  Cleanup ............... 6-160
6-07.3(11)  Painting or Powder Coating of Galvanized Surfaces ........... 6-160
6-07.3(11)A  Painting of Galvanized Surfaces .................... 6-160
6-07.3(11)B  Powder Coating of Galvanized Surfaces ....... 6-160
6-07.3(12)  Painting Ferry Terminal Structures .......6-162
6-07.3(13)  Painting Timber Structures ....... 6-162
6-07.4  Measurement ...... 6-163
6-07.5  Payment .............. 6-163
6-08 Waterproofing ................... 6-164
6-08.1  Description ......... 6-164
6-08.2  Materials ............ 6-164
6-08.3  Construction Requirements ........................... 6-164
6-08.3(1)  Storage of Fabric ....................... 6-164
6-08.3(2)  Preparation of Surface ............... 6-164
6-08.3(3)  Application of Waterproofing  ... 6-164
6-08.3(4)  Protection Course ...................... 6-165
6-08.4  Measurement ...... 6-165
6-08.5  Payment .............. 6-165
6-09 Modified Concrete Overlays .......6-166
6-09.1  Description ......... 6-166
6-09.2  Materials ............ 6-166
6-09.3  Construction Requirements ........................... 6-167
6-09.3(1)  Equipment ..6-167
6-09.3(1)A  Power Driven Hand Tools . 6-167
6-09.3(1)B  Rotary Milling Machines 6-167
6-09.3(1)C  Hydro-Demolition Machines ......................... 6-167
6-09.3(1)D  Shot Blasting Machines ..6-167
6-09.3(1)E  Air Compressor ... 6-167
6-09.3(1)F  Vacuum Machine  6-167
6-09.3(1)G  Water Spraying System ...6-168
6-09.3(1)H  Mobile Mixer for Latex Modified Concrete  .. 6-168
6-09.3(1)I  Ready-Mix Trucks for Fly Ash Modified
and Microsilica Modified Concrete  ............... 6-170
6-09.3(1)J  Finishing Machine ..........6-170
6-09.3(2)  Submittals ..6-170
6-09.3(3)  Concrete Overlay Mixes ........... 6-171
6-09.3(3)A  General ................ 6-171
6-09.3(3)B  Concrete Class M  6-171
6-09.3(3)C  Fly Ash Modified Concrete  ............................ 6-171
6-09.3(3)D  Microsilica Modified Concrete  ...................... 6-172
6-09.3(3)E  Latex Modified Concrete  6-172
6-09.3(4)  Storing and Handling ................ 6-172
6-09.3(4)A  Aggregate ............ 6-172
6-09.3(4)B  Latex Admixture . 6-172
6-09.3(4)C  High Molecular Weight Methacrylate Resin
(HMWM) ............ 6-173
6-09.3(5)  Scarifying Concrete Surface ..... 6-173
6-09.3(5)A  General ................ 6-173
6-09.3(5)B  Testing of Hydro-Demolition and Shot
Blasting Machines ...........6-173
6-09.3(5)C  Hydro-Demolishing ........6-173
6-09.3(5)D  Shot Blasting ....... 6-174
6-09.3(5)E  Rotomilling ......... 6-174
6-09.3(5)F  Repair of Steel Reinforcing Bars Damaged
byScarifying Operations .6-174
6-09.3(5)G  Cleanup Following Scarification  .................... 6-174
6-09.3(6)  Further Deck Preparation .......... 6-174
6-09.3(6)A  Equipment for Further Deck Preparation ....... 6-175
6-09.3(6)B  Deck Repair Preparation .6-175
6-09.3(6)C  Placing Deck Repair Concrete ....................... 6-175
6-09.3(7)  Surface Preparation for Concrete Overlay ........................... 6-176
6-09.3(8)  Quality Assurance ..................... 6-177
6-09.3(8)A  Quality Assurance for Microsilica Modified
and Fly Ash Modified Concrete  Overlays ...... 6-177
6-09.3(8)B  Quality Assurance for Latex Modified
Concrete Overlays ...........6-177
6-09.3(9)  Mixing Concrete For Concrete Overlay . 6-178
6-09.3(9)A  Mixing Microsilica Modified or Fly Ash
Modified  Concrete ..........6-178
6-09.3(9)B  Mixing Latex Modified Concrete  ................... 6-178
6-09.3(10)  Overlay Profile and Screed Rails ..........6-178
6-09.3(10)A  Survey of Existing Bridge Deck Prior to
Scarification  ....... 6-178
6-09.3(10)B  Establishing Finish Overlay Profile  ............... 6-179
6-09.3(11)  Placing Concrete Overlay ......... 6-179
6-09.3(12)  Finishing Concrete Overlay ...... 6-180
6-09.3(13)  Curing Concrete Overlay .......... 6-181
6-09.3(14)  Checking for Bond .................... 6-181
6-09.4  Measurement ...... 6-182
6-09.5  Payment .............. 6-182
6-10  Concrete Barrier .............. 6-183
6-10.1  Description ......... 6-183
6-10.2  Materials ............ 6-183
6-10.3  Construction Requirements ........................... 6-183
6-10.3(1)  Precast Concrete Barrier ........... 6-183
6-10.3(2)  Cast-In-Place Concrete Barrier . 6-184
6-10.3(3)  Removing and Resetting Permanent Concrete Barrier ........ 6-185
6-10.3(4)  Joining Precast Concrete Barrier to Cast-In-Place Barrier .. 6-185
6-10.3(5)  Temporary Concrete Barrier ..... 6-185
6-10.3(6)  Placing Concrete Barrier ........... 6-185
6-10.4  Measurement ...... 6-186
6-10.5  Payment .............. 6-186
6-11  Reinforced Concrete Walls ..........6-188
6-11.1  Description ......... 6-188
6-11.2  Materials ............ 6-188
6-11.3  Construction Requirements ........................... 6-188
6-11.3(1)  Submittals ..6-188
6-11.3(2)  Excavation and Foundation Preparation . 6-188
6-11.3(3)  Precast Concrete Wall Stem Panels.......6-188
6-11.3(4)  Cast-In-Place Concrete Construction ....6-190
6-11.3(5)  Backfill, Weepholes, and Gutters ..........6-190
6-11.3(6)  Traffic Barrier and Pedestrian Barrier ...6-190
6-11.4  Measurement ...... 6-190
6-11.5  Payment .............. 6-190 
6-12  Noise Barrier Walls .......... 6-191
6-12.1  Description ......... 6-191
6-12.2  Materials ............ 6-191
6-12.3  Construction Requirements ........................... 6-191
6-12.3(1)  Submittals ..6-191
6-12.3(2)  Work Access and Site Preparation ........6-192
6-12.3(3)  Shaft Construction .................... 6-192
6-12.3(4)  Trench, Grade Beam, or Spread Footing Construction ........ 6-193
6-12.3(5)  Cast-In-Place Concrete Panel Construction ......................... 6-193
6-12.3(6)  Precast Concrete Panel Fabrication and Erection ................ 6-193
6-12.3(7)  Masonry Wall Construction ...... 6-194
6-12.3(8)  Fabricating and Erecting Timber Noise Barrier Wall Panels 6-194
6-12.3(9)  Access Doors and Concrete Landing Pads .......................... 6-194
6-12.3(10)  Finish Ground Line Dressing .... 6-194
6-12.4  Measurement ...... 6-195
6-12.5  Payment .............. 6-195
6-13  Structural Earth Walls .... 6-196
6-13.1  Description ......... 6-196
6-13.2  Materials ............ 6-196
6-13.3  Construction Requirements ........................... 6-196
6-13.3(1)  Quality Assurance ..................... 6-196
6-13.3(2)  Submittals ..6-197
6-13.3(2)A  Design Calculation Content Requirements .... 6-197
6-13.3(2)B  Working Drawing Content Requirements ...... 6-198
6-13.3(3)  Excavation and Foundation Preparation . 6-199
6-13.3(4)  Precast Concrete Facing Panel and Concrete Block 
Fabrication .6-199
6-13.3(5)  Precast Concrete Facing Panel and Concrete Block 
Erection ......6-201
6-13.3(6)  Welded Wire Faced Structural Earth Wall Erection ............. 6-202
6-13.3(7)  Backfill .......6-202
6-13.3(8)  Guardrail Placement .................. 6-203
6-13.3(9)  SEW Traffic Barrier and SEW Pedestrian Barrier ............... 6-203
6-13.4  Measurement ...... 6-203
6-13.5  Payment .............. 6-204
6-14  Geosynthetic Retaining Walls .....6-205
6-14.1  Description ......... 6-205
6-14.2  Materials ............ 6-205
6-14.3  Construction Requirements ........................... 6-205
6-14.3(1)  Quality Assurance ..................... 6-205
6-14.3(2)  Submittals ..6-205
6-14.3(3)  Excavation and Foundation Preparation . 6-206
6-14.3(4)  Erection and Backfill ................. 6-206
6-14.3(5)  Guardrail Placement .................. 6-207
6-14.3(6)  Permanent Facing ...................... 6-207
6-14.3(7)  Geosynthetic Retaining Wall Traffic Barrier and
Geosynthetic Retaining Wall Pedestrian Barrier.................. 6-207
6-14.4  Measurement ...... 6-208
6-14.5  Payment .............. 6-208
6-15  Soil Nail Walls .................. 6-209
6-15.1  Description ......... 6-209
6-15.2  Materials ............ 6-209
6-15.3  Construction Requirements ........................... 6-209
6-15.3(1)  General Description .................. 6-209
6-15.3(2)  Contractor’s Experience Requirements 6-209
6-15.3(3)  Submittals ..6-209
6-15.3(4)  Preconstruction Conference ...... 6-210
6-15.3(5)  Earthwork ...6-210
6-15.3(6)  Soil Nailing 6-211
6-15.3(7)  Shotcrete Facing ........................ 6-212
6-15.3(8)  Soil Nail Testing and Acceptance .........6-212
6-15.3(8)A  Verification Testing  .........6-214
6-15.3(8)B  Proof Testing ....... 6-215
6-15.3(9)  Concrete Fascia Panels ............. 6-216
6-15.4  Measurement ...... 6-216
6-15.5  Payment .............. 6-216
6-16  Soldier Pile and Soldier Pile Tieback Walls .............. 6-217
6-16.1  Description ......... 6-217
6-16.2  Materials ............ 6-217
6-16.3  Construction Requirements ........................... 6-217
6-16.3(1)  Quality Assurance ..................... 6-217
6-16.3(2)  Submittals ..6-217
6-16.3(3)  Shaft Excavation ....................... 6-218
6-16.3(4)  Installing Soldier Piles .............. 6-219
6-16.3(5)  Backfilling Shaft ....................... 6-219
6-16.3(6)  Designing and Installing Lagging and Installing
Permanent Ground Anchors ...... 6-220
6-16.3(6)A  Soil Classification  ...........6-220
6-16.3(6)B  Temporary Lagging .........6-221
6-16.3(6)C  Permanent Lagging .........6-222
6-16.3(6)D  Installing Lagging and Permanent Ground 
Anchors ............... 6-222
6-16.3(7)  Prefabricated Drainage Mat ...... 6-223
6-16.3(8)  Concrete Fascia Panel ............... 6-223
6-16.4  Measurement ...... 6-223
6-16.5  Payment .............. 6-223
6-17  Permanent Ground Anchors .......6-225
6-17.1  Description ......... 6-225
6-17.2  Materials ............ 6-225
6-17.3  Construction Requirements ........................... 6-225
6-17.3(1)  Definitions ..6-225
6-17.3(2)  Contractor Experience Requirements ...6-225
6-17.3(3)  Submittals ..6-226
6-17.3(4)  Preconstruction Conference ...... 6-226
6-17.3(5)  Tendon Fabrication ................... 6-227
6-17.3(6)  Tendon Storage and Handling ... 6-228
6-17.3(7)  Installing Permanent Ground Anchors ..6-228
6-17.3(8)  Testing and Stressing ................ 6-230
6-17.3(8)A  Verification Testing  .........6-231
6-17.3(8)B  Performance Testing .......6-231
6-17.3(8)C  Proof Testing ....... 6-232
6-17.3(9)  Permanent Ground Anchor Acceptance Criteria .................. 6-232
6-17.4  Measurement ...... 6-233
6-17.5  Payment .............. 6-233
6-18  Shotcrete Facing ............... 6-234
6-18.1  Description ......... 6-234
6-18.2  Materials ............ 6-234
6-18.3  Construction Requirements ........................... 6-234
6-18.3(1)  Submittals ..6-234
6-18.3(2)  Mix Design.6-234
6-18.3(3)  Testing ........6-234
6-18.3(3)A  Preproduction Testing .....6-235
6-18.3(3)B  Production Testing ..........6-235
6-18.3(4)  Qualifications of Contractor’s Personnel  6-235
6-18.3(5)  Placing Wire Reinforcement ..... 6-236
6-18.3(6)  Alignment Control .................... 6-236
6-18.3(7)  Shotcrete Application ................ 6-236
6-18.3(8)  Shotcrete Finishing ................... 6-237
6-18.4  Measurement ...... 6-237
6-18.5  Payment .............. 6-237
6-19  Shafts ..6-238
6-19.1  Description ......... 6-238
6-19.2  Materials ............ 6-238
6-19.3  Construction Requirements ........................... 6-238
6-19.3(1)  Quality Assurance ..................... 6-238
6-19.3(1)A  Shaft Construction Tolerances ....................... 6-238
6-19.3(1)B  Nondestructive Testing of Shafts ................... 6-238
6-19.3(1)C  Shaft Preconstruction Conference .................. 6-239
6-19.3(2)  Shaft Construction Submittal .... 6-239
6-19.3(2)A  Construction Experience .6-239
6-19.3(2)B  Shaft Installation Narrative ............................ 6-240
6-19.3(2)C  Shaft Slurry Technical Assistance .................. 6-241
6-19.3(3)  Shaft Excavation ....................... 6-242
6-19.3(3)A  Conduct of Shaft Excavation Operations ....... 6-242
6-19.3(3)B  Temporary and Permanent Shaft Casing ........ 6-242
6-19.3(3)C  Conduct of Shaft Casing Installation and
Removal and Shaft Excavation Operations ... 6-244
6-19.3(3)D  Bottom of Shaft Excavation ........................... 6-244
6-19.3(3)E  Shaft Obstructions ...........6-244
6-19.3(3)F  Voids Between Permanent Casing and
Shaft Excavation . 6-244
6-19.3(3)G  Operating Shaft Excavation Equipment
From an Existing Bridge .6-244
6-19.3(3)H  Seals for Shaft Excavation in Water............... 6-245
6-19.3(3)I  Required Use of Slurry in Shaft Excavation .. 6-245
6-19.3(4)  Slurry Installation Requirements ..........6-245
6-19.3(4)A  Slurry Technical Assistance ........................... 6-245
6-19.3(4)B  Minimum Level of Slurry in the Excavation . 6-245
6-19.3(4)C  Slurry Sampling and Testing .......................... 6-246
6-19.3(4)D  Maintenance of Required Slurry Properties ... 6-246
6-19.3(4)E  Maintenance of a Stable Shaft Excavation .... 6-246
6-19.3(4)F  Disposal of Slurry and Slurry Contacted 
Spoils................... 6-247
6-19.3(5)  Assembly and Placement of Reinforcing Steel .................... 6-247
6-19.3(5)A  Steel Reinforcing Bar Cage Assembly ........... 6-247
6-19.3(5)B  Steel Reinforcing Bar Cage Centralizers ....... 6-247
6-19.3(5)C  Concrete Cover Over Steel Reinforcing Bars 6-248
6-19.3(5)D  Steel Reinforcing Bar Cage Support at Base
of Shaft Excavation .........6-248
6-19.3(6)  Access Tubes for Crosshole Sonic Log (CSL) Testing ........ 6-248
6-19.3(6)A  Shafts Requiring CSL Access Tubes .............. 6-248
6-19.3(6)B  Orientation and Assembly of the CSL
Access Tubes ....... 6-248
6-19.3(6)C  Care for CSL Access Tubes From Erection
Through CSL Testing ......6-249
6-19.3(7)  Placing Concrete ....................... 6-249
6-19.3(7)A  Concrete Class for Shaft Concrete ................. 6-249
6-19.3(7)B  Concrete Placement Requirements ................ 6-249
6-19.3(7)C  Concrete Vibration Requirements .................. 6-249
6-19.3(7)D  Requirements for Placing Concrete 
Underwater .......... 6-249
6-19.3(7)E  Testing and Repair of Shaft Concrete
Placed Underwater ..........6-250
6-19.3(7)F  Cleaning and Removal of Previously
Placed Shaft Concrete .....6-250
6-19.3(7)G  Protection of Fresh and Curing Concrete
From Vibration .... 6-250
6-19.3(7)H  Uniform Yield Form ........6-250
6-19.3(7)I  Requirements for Placing Concrete Above
the Top of Shaft ... 6-250
6-19.3(8)  Casing Removal ........................ 6-250
6-19.3(8)A  Concrete Head Requirements During
Temporary Casing Removal........................... 6-250
6-19.3(8)B  Removing Portions of Permanent Casing
Above the Top of Shaft ...6-250
6-19.3(8)C  Requirements for Leaving Temporary
Casing in Place .... 6-250
6-19.3(9)  Nondestructive Testing of Shafts (Crosshole Sonic Log
(CSL) Testing) ........................... 6-251
6-19.3(9)A  Schedule of CSL Testing .6-251
6-19.3(9)B  Inspection of CSL Access Tubes .................... 6-251
6-19.3(9)C  Engineer’s Final Acceptance of Shafts .......... 6-251
6-19.3(9)D  Requirements to Continue Shaft Excavation
Prior to Acceptance of First Shaft .................. 6-251
6-19.3(9)E  Additional CSL Testing ...6-252
6-19.3(9)F  Contractor’s Investigation and Remedial
Action Plan .......... 6-252
6-19.3(9)G  Rejection of Shafts and Revisions to
Concrete Placement Operations ..................... 6-252
6-19.3(9)H  Cored Holes ........ 6-252
6-19.3(9)I  Requirements for CSL Access Tubes and
Cored Holes After CSL Testing ..................... 6-252
6-19.4  Measurement ...... 6-252
6-19.5  Payment .............. 6-253  Contents

Division 7  Drainage Structures, Storm Sewers, Sanitary Sewers, Water Mains, and Conduits 

7-01  Drains .....7-1
7-01.1  Description ............. 7-1
7-01.2  Materials ................ 7-1
7-01.3  Construction Requirements 7-1
7-01.3(1)  Drain Pipe ......7-2
7-01.3(2)  Underdrain Pipe ............................ 7-2
7-01.4  Measurement .......... 7-2
7-01.5  Payment .................. 7-2
7-02  Culverts ..7-3
7-02.1  Description ............. 7-3
7-02.2  Materials ................ 7-3
7-02.3  Construction Requirements 7-4
7-02.3(1)  Placing Culvert Pipe – General ..... 7-4
7-02.3(2)  Installation of Metal End Sections  7-4
7-02.3(3)  Headwalls .......7-5
7-02.3(4)  Removing and Relaying Culverts . 7-5
7-02.3(5)  Safety Bars for Culvert Pipe ......... 7-5
7-02.4  Measurement .......... 7-5
7-02.5  Payment .................. 7-6
7-03  Structural Plate Pipe, Pipe Arch, Arch, and Underpass ..........7-7
7-03.1  Description ............. 7-7
7-03.2  Materials ................ 7-7
7-03.3  Construction Requirements 7-7
7-03.3(1)  Foundations, General .................... 7-7
7-03.3(1)A  Structural Plate Pipe, Pipe Arch, and Underpass 7-7
7-03.3(1)B  Structural Plate Arch ...........7-8
7-03.3(2)  Assembling ....7-8
7-03.3(3)  Backfilling  ......7-8
7-03.3(4)  Invert Treatment ............................ 7-8
7-03.3(5)  Headwalls .......7-8
7-03.3(6)  Safety Bars for Culvert Pipe ......... 7-8
7-03.4  Measurement .......... 7-8
7-03.5  Payment .................. 7-9
7-04  Storm Sewers ...................... 7-10
7-04.1  Description ........... 7-10
7-04.2  Materials .............. 7-10
7-04.3  Construction Requirements  7-10
7-04.3(1)  Cleaning and Testing ................... 7-10
7-04.3(1)A  General .................. 7-10
7-04.3(1)B  Exfiltration Test – Storm Sewers ..................... 7-10
7-04.3(1)C  Infiltration Test – Storm Sewers ....................... 7-12
7-04.3(1)D  Other Test Allowances – Storm Sewers ........... 7-12
7-04.3(1)E  Low Pressure Air Test for Storm Sewers
Constructed of Air Permeable Materials .......... 7-12
7-04.3(1)F  Low Pressure Air Test for Storm Sewers
Constructed of Non Air Permeable Materials .. 7-12
7-04.4  Measurement ........ 7-13
7-04.5  Payment ................ 7-13
7-05  Manholes, Inlets, Catch Basins, and Drywells ........... 7-14
7-05.1  Description ........... 7-14
7-05.2  Materials .............. 7-14
7-05.3  Construction Requirements  7-14
7-05.3(1)  Adjusting Manholes and Catch Basins to Grade ................... 7-15Contents
Page 32  2014 Standard Specifications  M 41-10
7-05.3(2)  Abandon Existing Manholes ....... 7-15
7-05.3(3)  Connections to Existing Manholes .........7-16
7-05.3(4)  Drop Manhole Connection .......... 7-16
7-05.4  Measurement ........ 7-16
7-05.5  Payment ................ 7-16
7-06  Vacant ...7-18
7-07  Cleaning Existing Drainage Structures....................... 7-19
7-07.1  Description ........... 7-19
7-07.2  Vacant ................... 7-19
7-07.3  Construction Requirements  7-19
7-07.4  Vacant ................... 7-19
7-07.5  Payment ................ 7-19
7-08  General Pipe Installation Requirements ..................... 7-20
7-08.1  Description ........... 7-20
7-08.2  Materials .............. 7-20
7-08.3  Construction Requirements  7-20
7-08.3(1)  Excavation and Preparation of Trench ....7-20
7-08.3(1)A  Trenches ................ 7-20
7-08.3(1)B  Shoring .................. 7-21
7-08.3(1)C  Bedding the Pipe ... 7-21
7-08.3(2)  Laying Pipe ..7-21
7-08.3(2)A  Survey Line and Grade .....7-21
7-08.3(2)B  Pipe Laying – General ......7-22
7-08.3(2)C  Pipe Laying – Concrete .....7-22
7-08.3(2)D  Pipe Laying – Steel or Aluminum .................... 7-22
7-08.3(2)E  Rubber Gasketed Joints .....7-22
7-08.3(2)F  Plugs and Connections ......7-23
7-08.3(2)G  Jointing of Dissimilar Pipe7-23
7-08.3(2)H  Sewer Line Connections ...7-23
7-08.3(2)I  Side Sewer Connections ...7-23
7-08.3(3)  Backfilling  ....7-23
7-08.3(4)  Plugging Existing Pipe ................ 7-24
7-08.4  Measurement ........ 7-24
7-08.5  Payment ................ 7-24
7-09  Water Mains ....................... 7-25
7-09.1  Description ........... 7-25
7-09.1(1)  Definitions ....7-25
7-09.1(1)A  Trench Widths ....... 7-25
7-09.1(1)B  Unsuitable Material ...........7-25
7-09.1(1)C  Gravel Backfill for Pipe Zone Bedding  ........... 7-25
7-09.1(1)D  Pipe Zone Backfill . 7-25
7-09.1(1)E  Trench Backfill ...... 7-25
7-09.2  Materials .............. 7-25
7-09.3  Construction Requirements  7-26
7-09.3(1)  General .........7-26
7-09.3(2)  Ungraded Streets ......................... 7-26
7-09.3(3)  Clearing and Grubbing in Ungraded Streets .......................... 7-26
7-09.3(4)  Removal of Existing Street Improvements ............................ 7-27
7-09.3(5)  Grade and Alignment .................. 7-27
7-09.3(6)  Existing Utilities ......................... 7-27
7-09.3(7)  Trench Excavation ...................... 7-27
7-09.3(7)A  Dewatering of Trench .......7-28
7-09.3(7)B  Rock Excavation ... 7-28
7-09.3(7)C  Extra Trench Excavation ...7-28
7-09.3(8)  Removal and Replacement of Unsuitable Materials .............. 7-28
7-09.3(9)  Bedding the Pipe ......................... 7-29
7-09.3(10)  Backfilling Trenches ................... 7-29
7-09.3(11)  Compaction of Backfill ............... 7-29
7-09.3(12)  General Pipe Installation ............. 7-29
7-09.3(13)  Handling of Pipe ......................... 7-29
7-09.3(14)  Cutting Pipe .7-30
7-09.3(15)  Laying of Pipe on Curves ........... 7-30
7-09.3(15)A  Ductile Iron Pipe ... 7-30
7-09.3(15)B  Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Pipe
(4 Inches and Over) ...........7-30
7-09.3(16)  Cleaning and Assembling Joint ... 7-30
7-09.3(17)  Laying Ductile Iron Pipe With Polyethylene Encasement ..... 7-30
7-09.3(18)  Coupled Pipe 4 Inches in Diameter and Larger ..................... 7-31
7-09.3(19)  Connections ..7-31
7-09.3(19)A  Connections to Existing Mains ........................ 7-31
7-09.3(19)B  Maintaining Service ..........7-32
7-09.3(20)  Detectable Marking Tape ............ 7-32
7-09.3(21)  Concrete Thrust Blocking ........... 7-32
7-09.3(22)  Blowoff Assemblies .................... 7-32
7-09.3(23)  Hydrostatic Pressure Test ............ 7-32
7-09.3(23)A  Testing Extensions From Existing Mains ........ 7-33
7-09.3(23)B  Testing Section With Hydrants Installed .......... 7-34
7-09.3(23)C  Testing Hydrants Installed on Existing Mains . 7-34
7-09.3(24)  Disinfection of Water Mains ....... 7-34
7-09.3(24)A  Flushing................. 7-34
7-09.3(24)B  Requirement of Chlorine ...7-35
7-09.3(24)C  Form of Applied Chlorine .7-35
7-09.3(24)D  Dry Calcium Hypochlorite 7-35
7-09.3(24)E  Liquid Chlorine ..... 7-35
7-09.3(24)F  Chlorine-Bearing Compounds in Water ........... 7-35
7-09.3(24)G  Sodium Hypochlorite ........7-35
7-09.3(24)H  Point of Application ..........7-35
7-09.3(24)I  Rate of Application ...........7-35
7-09.3(24)J  Preventing Reverse Flow ..7-36
7-09.3(24)K  Retention Period .... 7-36
7-09.3(24)L  Chlorinating Valves, Hydrants, and 
Appurtenances ....... 7-36
7-09.3(24)M  Chlorinating Connections to Existing Water
Mains and Water Service Connections ............ 7-36
7-09.3(24)N  Final Flushing and Testing 7-36
7-09.3(24)O  Repetition of Flushing and Testing .................. 7-36
7-09.4  Measurement ........ 7-36
7-09.5  Payment ................ 7-37
7-10  Vacant ...7-38
7-11  Vacant ...7-39
7-12  Valves for Water Mains ..... 7-40
7-12.1  Description ........... 7-40
7-12.2  Materials .............. 7-40
7-12.3  Construction Requirements  7-40
7-12.3(1)  Installation of Valve Marker Post 7-41
7-12.4  Measurement ........ 7-41
7-12.5  Payment ................ 7-41
7-13  Vacant ...7-42
7-14  Hydrants  7-43
7-14.1  Description ........... 7-43Contents
Page 34  2014 Standard Specifications  M 41-10
7-14.2  Materials .............. 7-43
7-14.3  Construction Requirements  7-43
7-14.3(1)  Setting Hydrants .......................... 7-43
7-14.3(2)  Hydrant Connections .................. 7-43
7-14.3(2)A  Hydrant Restraints  7-43
7-14.3(2)B  Auxiliary Gate Valves and Valve Boxes .......... 7-43
7-14.3(2)C  Hydrant Guard Posts .........7-44
7-14.3(3)  Resetting Existing Hydrants ....... 7-44
7-14.3(4)  Moving Existing Hydrants .......... 7-44
7-14.3(5)  Reconnecting Existing Hydrants . 7-44
7-14.3(6)  Hydrant Extensions ..................... 7-44
7-14.4  Measurement ........ 7-44
7-14.5  Payment ................ 7-45
7-15  Service Connections ........... 7-46
7-15.1  Description ........... 7-46
7-15.2  Materials .............. 7-46
7-15.3  Construction Requirements  7-46
7-15.3(1)  Flushing and Disinfection ........... 7-46
7-15.4  Measurement ........ 7-46
7-15.5  Payment ................ 7-47
7-16  Vacant ...7-48
7-17  Sanitary Sewers .................. 7-49
7-17.1  Description ........... 7-49
7-17.2  Materials .............. 7-49
7-17.3  Construction Requirements  7-49
7-17.3(1)  Protection of Existing Sewerage Facilities ............................ 7-49
7-17.3(2)  Cleaning and Testing ................... 7-49
7-17.3(2)A  General .................. 7-49
7-17.3(2)B  Exfiltration Test ..... 7-50
7-17.3(2)C  Infiltration Test ...... 7-50
7-17.3(2)D  Other Test Allowances ......7-51
7-17.3(2)E  Low Pressure Air Test for Sanitary Sewers
Constructed of Air Permeable Materials .......... 7-51
7-17.3(2)F  Low Pressure Air Test for Sanitary Sewers
Constructed of Non Air Permeable Materials .. 7-52
7-17.3(2)G  Deflection Test for Thermoplastic Pipe ............ 7-52
7-17.3(2)H  Television Inspection ........7-53
7-17.4  Measurement ........ 7-53
7-17.5  Payment ................ 7-53
7-18  Side Sewers ......................... 7-54
7-18.1  Description ........... 7-54
7-18.2  Materials .............. 7-54
7-18.3  Construction Requirements  7-54
7-18.3(1)  General .........7-54
7-18.3(2)  Fittings .........7-54
7-18.3(3)  Testing ..........7-54
7-18.3(4)  Extending Side Sewers Into Private Property ........................ 7-54
7-18.3(5)  End Pipe Marker ......................... 7-54
7-18.4  Measurement ........ 7-54
7-18.5  Payment ................ 7-55
7-19  Sewer Cleanouts ................. 7-56
7-19.1  Description ........... 7-56
7-19.2  Materials .............. 7-56
7-19.3  Construction Requirements  7-56
7-19.4  Measurement ........ 7-56
7-19.5  Payment ................ 7-56 

Division 8  Miscellaneous Construction 

8-01  Erosion Control and Water Pollution Control ............. 8-1
8-01.1  Description ............. 8-1
8-01.2  Materials ................ 8-1
8-01.3  Construction Requirements 8-1
8-01.3(1)  General ...........8-1
8-01.3(1)A  Submittals ............... 8-2
8-01.3(1)B  Erosion and Sediment Control (ESC) Lead ....... 8-2
8-01.3(1)C  Water Management . 8-3
8-01.3(1)D  Dispersion/Infiltration  .........8-3
8-01.3(1)E  Detention/Retention Pond Construction ............ 8-3
8-01.3(2)  Seeding, Fertilizing, and Mulching ...........8-4
8-01.3(2)A  Preparation for Application .8-4
8-01.3(2)B  Seeding and Fertilizing .......8-4
8-01.3(2)C  Liming ..................... 8-5
8-01.3(2)D  Mulching ................. 8-5
8-01.3(2)E  Tackifiers ................. 8-5
8-01.3(2)F  Dates for Application of Final Seed,
Fertilizer, and Mulch ...........8-6
8-01.3(2)G  Protection and Care of Seeded Areas ................. 8-6
8-01.3(2)H  Inspection ................ 8-6
8-01.3(2)I  Mowing ................... 8-6
8-01.3(3)  Placing Biodegradable Erosion Control Blanket ..................... 8-7
8-01.3(4)  Placing Compost Blanket .............. 8-7
8-01.3(5)  Plastic Covering ............................ 8-7
8-01.3(6)  Check Dams ...8-7
8-01.3(6)A  Coir Log .................. 8-8
8-01.3(7)  Stabilized Construction Entrance .. 8-8
8-01.3(8)  Street Cleaning . 8-8
8-01.3(9)  Sediment Control Barriers ............ 8-8
8-01.3(9)A  Fencing .................... 8-8
8-01.3(9)B  Gravel Filter, Wood Chip, or Compost Berm .... 8-9
8-01.3(9)C  Vacant ...................... 8-9
8-01.3(9)D  Inlet Protection ...... 8-10
8-01.3(10)  Wattles ..........8-10
8-01.3(11)  Outlet Protection ......................... 8-10
8-01.3(12)  Compost Sock  8-11
8-01.3(13)  Temporary Curb .......................... 8-11
8-01.3(14)  Temporary Pipe Slope Drain ....... 8-11
8-01.3(15)  Maintenance .8-11
8-01.3(16)  Removal .......8-12
8-01.4  Measurement ........ 8-12
8-01.5  Payment ................ 8-12
8-02  Roadside Restoration  ........ 8-15
8-02.1  Description ........... 8-15
8-02.2  Materials .............. 8-15
8-02.3  Construction Requirements  8-15
8-02.3(1)  Responsibility During Construction .......8-15
8-02.3(2)  Roadside Work Plan .................... 8-15
8-02.3(3)  Weed and Pest Control ................ 8-16
8-02.3(3)A  Planting Area Weed Control 8-16
8-02.3(3)B  Chemical Pesticides ..........8-16
8-02.3(4)  Topsoil ..........8-17
8-02.3(4)A  Topsoil Type A ...... 8-17
8-02.3(4)B  Topsoil Type B ...... 8-17
8-02.3(4)C  Topsoil Type C ...... 8-17
8-02.3(5)  Planting Area Preparation ........... 8-18
8-02.3(6)  Soil Amendments ........................ 8-18
8-02.3(7)  Layout of Planting ....................... 8-18
8-02.3(8)  Planting ........8-18
8-02.3(9)  Pruning, Staking, Guying, and Wrapping . 8-19
8-02.3(10)  Fertilizers .....8-19
8-02.3(11)  Bark or Wood Chip Mulch .......... 8-19
8-02.3(12)  Completion of Initial Planting .... 8-19
8-02.3(13)  Plant Establishment ..................... 8-20
8-02.3(14)  Plant Replacement ...................... 8-20
8-02.3(15)  Live Fascines . 8-20
8-02.3(16)  Lawn Installation ........................ 8-21
8-02.3(16)A  Lawn Installation .. 8-21
8-02.3(16)B  Lawn Establishment ..........8-21
8-02.3(16)C  Lawn Mowing ....... 8-22
8-02.4  Measurement ........ 8-22
8-02.5  Payment ................ 8-22
8-03  Irrigation Systems .............. 8-25
8-03.1  Description ........... 8-25
8-03.2  Materials .............. 8-25
8-03.3  Construction Requirements  8-25
8-03.3(1)  Layout of Irrigation System ........ 8-25
8-03.3(1)A  Locating Irrigation Sleeves . 8-25
8-03.3(2)  Excavation ....8-25
8-03.3(3)  Piping ...........8-26
8-03.3(4)  Jointing .........8-26
8-03.3(5)  Installation ....8-27
8-03.3(6)  Electrical Wire Installation ......... 8-27
8-03.3(7)  Flushing and Testing ................... 8-28
8-03.3(8)  Adjusting System ........................ 8-28
8-03.3(9)  Backfill .........8-28
8-03.3(10)  As Built Plans  8-29
8-03.3(11)  System Operation ........................ 8-29
8-03.3(12)  Cross Connection Control Device Installation ...................... 8-29
8-03.3(13)  Irrigation Water Service .............. 8-30
8-03.3(14)  Irrigation Electrical Service ........ 8-30
8-03.4  Vacant ................... 8-30
8-03.5  Payment ................ 8-30
8-04  Curbs, Gutters, and Spillways ......8-31
8-04.1  Description ........... 8-31
8-04.2  Materials .............. 8-31
8-04.3  Construction Requirements  8-31
8-04.3(1)  Cement Concrete Curbs, Gutters, and Spillways ................... 8-31
8-04.3(1)A  Extruded Cement Concrete Curb ..................... 8-32
8-04.3(1)B  Roundabout Cement Concrete Curb 
and Gutter .............. 8-32
8-04.3(2)  Extruded Asphalt Concrete Curbs and Gutters ...................... 8-32
8-04.3(3)  Vacant ...........8-32
8-04.3(4)  Metal Spillways .......................... 8-32
8-04.3(5)  Spillways at Bridge Ends ............ 8-33
8-04.4  Measurement ........ 8-33
8-04.5  Payment ................ 8-33
8-05  Vacant ...8-34
8-06  Cement Concrete Driveway Entrances ....................... 8-35
8-06.1  Description ........... 8-35
8-06.2  Materials .............. 8-35
8-06.3  Construction Requirements  8-35
8-06.4  Measurement ........ 8-35
8-06.5  Payment ................ 8-35
8-07 Precast Traffic Curb .......... 8-36
8-07.1  Description ........... 8-36
8-07.2  Materials .............. 8-36
8-07.3  Construction Requirements  8-36
8-07.3(1)  Installing Curbs ........................... 8-36
8-07.3(2)  Painting of Curbs ........................ 8-36
8-07.4  Measurement ........ 8-37
8-07.5  Payment ................ 8-37
8-08  Rumble Strips ..................... 8-38
8-08.1  Description ........... 8-38
8-08.2  Vacant ................... 8-38
8-08.3  Construction Requirements  8-38
8-08.4  Measurement ........ 8-38
8-08.5  Payment ................ 8-38
8-09  Raised Pavement Markers  8-39
8-09.1  Description ........... 8-39
8-09.2  Materials .............. 8-39
8-09.3  Construction Requirements  8-39
8-09.3(1)  Preliminary Spotting ................... 8-39
8-09.3(2)  Surface Preparation ..................... 8-39
8-09.3(3)  Marker Preparation ..................... 8-39
8-09.3(4)  Adhesive Preparation .................. 8-40
8-09.3(5)  Application Procedure ................ 8-40
8-09.3(5)A  Epoxy Adhesives ... 8-40
8-09.3(5)B  Asphalt Adhesives . 8-40
8-09.3(6)  Recessed Pavement Marker ........ 8-40
8-09.3(7)  Tolerances for Pavement Markers...........8-40
8-09.4  Measurement ........ 8-41
8-09.5  Payment ................ 8-41
8-10  Guide Posts ......................... 8-42
8-10.1  Description ........... 8-42
8-10.2  Materials .............. 8-42
8-10.3  Construction Requirements  8-42
8-10.4  Measurement ........ 8-42
8-10.5  Payment ................ 8-42
8-11  Guardrail ............................ 8-43
8-11.1  Description ........... 8-43
8-11.2  Materials .............. 8-43
8-11.3  Construction Requirements  8-43
8-11.3(1)  Beam Guardrail ........................... 8-43
8-11.3(1)A  Erection of Posts ... 8-43
8-11.3(1)B  Erection of Rail ..... 8-43
8-11.3(1)C  Terminal and Anchor Installation ..................... 8-44
8-11.3(1)D  Removing Guardrail and Guardrail Anchor ..... 8-44
8-11.3(1)E  Raising Guardrail .. 8-44
8-11.3(1)F  Plans ...................... 8-45
8-11.3(1)G  Guardrail Construction Exposed to Traffic  ...... 8-45
8-11.4  Measurement ........ 8-45
8-11.5  Payment ................ 8-45
8-12  Chain Link Fence and Wire Fence . 8-47
8-12.1  Description ........... 8-47
8-12.2  Materials .............. 8-47
8-12.3  Construction Requirements  8-47
8-12.3(1)  Chain Link Fence and Gates ....... 8-47
8-12.3(1)A  Posts ...................... 8-47
8-12.3(1)B  Vacant .................... 8-48
8-12.3(1)C  Tension Wire ......... 8-48
8-12.3(1)D  Chain Link Fabric . 8-48
8-12.3(1)E  Chain Link Gates .. 8-48
8-12.3(2)  Wire Fence and Gates ................. 8-49
8-12.3(2)A  Posts ...................... 8-49
8-12.3(2)B  Barbed Wire and Wire Mesh ............................ 8-50
8-12.3(2)C  Vertical Cinch Stays ..........8-50
8-12.3(2)D  Wire Gates ............. 8-50
8-12.3(2)E  Access Control Gate .........8-50
8-12.4  Measurement ........ 8-50
8-12.5  Payment ................ 8-51
8-13  Monument Cases ................ 8-52
8-13.1  Description ........... 8-52
8-13.2  Materials .............. 8-52
8-13.3  Construction Requirements  8-52
8-13.4  Measurement ........ 8-52
8-13.5  Payment ................ 8-52
8-14  Cement Concrete Sidewalks ..........8-53
8-14.1  Description ........... 8-53
8-14.2  Materials .............. 8-53
8-14.3  Construction Requirements  8-53
8-14.3(1)  Excavation ....8-53
8-14.3(2)  Forms ...........8-53
8-14.3(3)  Placing and Finishing Concrete .. 8-53
8-14.3(4)  Curing ..........8-54
8-14.3(5)  Detectable Warning Surface ........ 8-54
8-14.4  Measurement ........ 8-54
8-14.5  Payment ................ 8-54
8-15  Riprap ..8-55
8-15.1  Description ........... 8-55
8-15.2  Materials .............. 8-55
8-15.3  Construction Requirements  8-55
8-15.3(1)  Excavation for Riprap ................. 8-55
8-15.3(2)  Loose Riprap 8-55
8-15.3(3)  Hand Placed Riprap .................... 8-55
8-15.3(4)  Vacant ...........8-55
8-15.3(5)  Vacant ...........8-55
8-15.3(6)  Quarry Spalls . 8-56
8-15.3(7)  Filter Blanket . 8-56
8-15.4  Measurement ........ 8-56
8-15.5  Payment ................ 8-56
8-16  Concrete Slope Protection . 8-57
8-16.1  Description ........... 8-57
8-16.2  Materials .............. 8-57
8-16.3  Construction Requirements  8-57 
8-16.3(1)  Footing and Preparation of Slope ...........8-57
8-16.3(2)  Placing Semi-Open Concrete Masonry Units ........................ 8-57
8-16.3(3)  Poured in Place Cement Concrete ...........8-57
8-16.3(4)  Pneumatically Placed Concrete ... 8-58
8-16.4  Measurement ........ 8-58
8-16.5  Payment ................ 8-58
8-17  Impact Attenuator Systems ...........8-59
8-17.1  Description ........... 8-59
8-17.2  Materials .............. 8-59
8-17.3  Construction Requirements  8-59
8-17.4  Measurement ........ 8-59
8-17.5  Payment ................ 8-59
8-18  Mailbox Support ................ 8-61
8-18.1  Description ........... 8-61
8-18.2  Materials .............. 8-61
8-18.3  Construction Requirements  8-61
8-18.3(1)  Type 3 Mailbox Support ............. 8-61
8-18.4  Measurement ........ 8-61
8-18.5  Payment ................ 8-61
8-19  Vacant ...8-62
8-20 Illumination, Traffic Signal Systems, Intelligent Transportation
Systems, and Electrical ...... 8-63
8-20.1  Description ........... 8-63
8-20.1(1)  Regulations and Code ................. 8-63
8-20.1(2)  Industry Codes and Standards ..... 8-63
8-20.2  Materials .............. 8-64
8-20.2(1)  Equipment List and Drawings .... 8-64
8-20.3  Construction Requirements  8-65
8-20.3(1)  General .........8-65
8-20.3(2)  Excavating and Backfilling  ......... 8-65
8-20.3(3)  Removing and Replacing Improvements 8-66
8-20.3(4)  Foundations ..8-66
8-20.3(5)  Conduit .........8-67
8-20.3(5)A  General .................. 8-67
8-20.3(5)B  Conduit Type ......... 8-69
8-20.3(5)C  Conduit Size .......... 8-71
8-20.3(5)D  Conduit Placement  8-71
8-20.3(5)E  Method of Conduit Installation ........................ 8-71
8-20.3(6)  Junction Boxes, Cable Vaults, and Pull boxes ....................... 8-74
8-20.3(7)  Messenger Cable, Fittings ........... 8-75
8-20.3(8)  Wiring ..........8-75
8-20.3(9)  Bonding, Grounding ................... 8-78
8-20.3(10)  Service, Transformer, and Intelligent Transportation
System (ITS) Cabinets  ............... 8-79
8-20.3(11)  Testing ..........8-79
8-20.3(12)  Painting ........8-80
8-20.3(13)  Illumination Systems .................. 8-80
8-20.3(13)A  Light Standards ..... 8-80
8-20.3(13)B  Vacant .................... 8-82
8-20.3(13)C  Luminaires ............ 8-82
8-20.3(13)D  Sign Lighting ........ 8-82
8-20.3(13)E  Sign Lighting Luminaires .8-82
8-20.3(14)  Signal Systems ............................ 8-82
8-20.3(14)A  Signal Controllers . 8-82
8-20.3(14)B  Signal Heads ......... 8-82
8-20.3(14)C  Induction Loop Vehicle Detectors.................... 8-82
8-20.3(14)D  Test for Induction Loops and Lead-In Cable ... 8-83
8-20.3(14)E  Signal Standards .... 8-83
8-20.3(15)  Grout  8-84
8-20.3(16)  Reinstalling Salvaged Material  .. 8-84
8-20.3(17)  “As Built” Plans .......................... 8-84
8-20.4  Measurement ........ 8-84
8-20.5  Payment ................ 8-85
8-21  Permanent Signing ............. 8-86
8-21.1  Description ........... 8-86
8-21.2  Materials .............. 8-86
8-21.3  Construction Requirements  8-86
8-21.3(1)  Location of Signs ........................ 8-86
8-21.3(2)  Placement of Signs ...................... 8-86
8-21.3(3)  Sign Covering  8-86
8-21.3(4)  Sign Removal . 8-86
8-21.3(5)  Sign Relocation ........................... 8-87
8-21.3(6)  Sign Refacing . 8-87
8-21.3(7)  Sign Message Revision ............... 8-87
8-21.3(8)  Sign Cleaning . 8-88
8-21.3(9)  Sign Structures ............................ 8-88
8-21.3(9)A  Fabrication of Steel Structures ......................... 8-88
8-21.3(9)B  Erection of Steel Structures  8-88
8-21.3(9)C  Timber Posts ......... 8-88
8-21.3(9)D  Aluminum Structures ........8-89
8-21.3(9)E  Bridge Mounted Sign Brackets ........................ 8-89
8-21.3(9)F  Foundations ........... 8-89
8-21.3(9)G  Sign Structure Identification Information  ........ 8-91
8-21.3(10)  Sign Attachment .......................... 8-91
8-21.3(11)  Multiple Panel Signs ................... 8-91
8-21.3(12)  Steel Sign Posts ........................... 8-91
8-21.4  Measurement ........ 8-92
8-21.5  Payment ................ 8-92
8-22  Pavement Marking ............. 8-93
8-22.1  Description ........... 8-93
8-22.2  Materials .............. 8-93
8-22.3  Construction Requirements  8-93
8-22.3(1)  Preliminary Spotting ................... 8-93
8-22.3(2)  Preparation of Roadway Surfaces ...........8-93
8-22.3(3)  Marking Application ................... 8-94
8-22.3(3)A  Marking Colors ..... 8-94
8-22.3(3)B  Line Patterns ......... 8-94
8-22.3(3)C  Line Surfaces ........ 8-94
8-22.3(3)D  Line Applications .. 8-94
8-22.3(3)E  Installation ............. 8-94
8-22.3(3)F  Application Thickness.......8-95
8-22.3(3)G  Glass beads ............ 8-96
8-22.3(4)  Tolerances for Lines .................... 8-97
8-22.3(5)  Installation Instructions ............... 8-97
8-22.3(6)  Removal of Pavement Markings . 8-97
8-22.4  Measurement ........ 8-97
8-22.5  Payment ................ 8-98
8-23  Temporary Pavement Markings .8-100
8-23.1  Description ......... 8-100 
8-23.2  Materials ............ 8-100
8-23.3  Construction Requirements ........................... 8-100
8-23.3(1)  Preliminary Spotting and Removal .......8-100
8-23.3(2)  Marking Application ................. 8-101
8-23.3(2)A  Temporary Pavement Marking Paint ............. 8-101
8-23.3(2)B  Temporary Pavement Marking Tape .............. 8-101
8-23.3(2)C  Temporary Raised Pavement Markers ........... 8-101
8-23.3(2)D  Tolerance for Lines .........8-101
8-23.4  Measurement ...... 8-101
8-23.5  Payment .............. 8-101
8-24  Rock and Gravity Block Wall and Gabion Cribbing ..........8-102
8-24.1  Description ......... 8-102
8-24.2  Materials ............ 8-102
8-24.3  Construction Requirements ........................... 8-102
8-24.3(1)  Rock Wall ...8-102
8-24.3(1)A  Geometric Tolerances .....8-102
8-24.3(1)B  Excavation ........... 8-102
8-24.3(1)C  Foundation Preparation ...8-102
8-24.3(1)D  Construction Geotextile ..8-103
8-24.3(1)E  Rock Placement and Backfill ......................... 8-103
8-24.3(2)  Gravity Block Wall ................... 8-103
8-24.3(3)  Gabion Cribbing ........................ 8-103
8-24.3(3)A  Foundations ......... 8-103
8-24.3(3)B  Baskets ................ 8-104
8-24.3(3)C  Dimensions ......... 8-104
8-24.3(3)D  Fabrication of Baskets .....8-104
8-24.3(3)E  Filling Baskets .... 8-104
8-24.3(3)F  Unit Weight Requirements and Test............... 8-104
8-24.3(3)G  Gabion Cribbing Erection . 8-105
8-24.4  Measurement ...... 8-105
8-24.5  Payment .............. 8-105
8-25  Glare Screen ..................... 8-106
8-25.1  Description ......... 8-106
8-25.2  Materials ............ 8-106
8-25.3  Construction Requirements ........................... 8-106
8-25.3(1)  Glare Screen Fabric ................... 8-106
8-25.3(2)  Slats  8-106
8-25.3(3)  Posts ...........8-106
8-25.3(4)  Tension Wire  8-106
8-25.4  Measurement ...... 8-106
8-25.5  Payment .............. 8-107
8-26  Vacant .8-108
8-27  Vacant .8-109
8-28  Vacant .8-110
8-29  Wire Mesh Slope Protection ...........8-111
8-29.1  Description ..........8-111
8-29.2  Materials .............8-111
8-29.3  Construction Requirements ............................8-111
8-29.3(1)  Submittals .....8-111
8-29.3(2)  Anchors .........8-111
8-29.3(3)  Wire Rope .....8-111
8-29.3(4)  Wire Mesh .....8-111
8-29.4  Measurement ...... 8-112
8-29.5  Payment .............. 8-112

Division 9  Materials 

9-00 Definitions and Tests ............ 9-1
9-00.1  Fracture .................. 9-1
9-00.2  Wood Waste ........... 9-1
9-00.3  Test for Mass of Galvanizing ............................ 9-1
9-00.4  Sieves for Testing Purposes . 9-1
9-00.5  Dust Ratio .............. 9-1
9-00.6  Sand/Silt Ratio ....... 9-1
9-00.7  Galvanized Hardware, AASHTO M 232 .......... 9-1
9-00.8  Sand Equivalent ..... 9-1
9-00.9  Field Test Procedures .........9-1
9-01  Portland Cement .................. 9-2
9-01.1  Types of Cement .... 9-2
9-01.2  Specifications ......... 9-2
9-01.2(1)  Portland Cement ............................ 9-2
9-01.2(2)  Vacant . 9-2
9-01.2(3)  Low Alkali Cement ....................... 9-2
9-01.2(4)  Blended Hydraulic Cement ........... 9-2
9-01.3  Tests and Acceptance .........9-3
9-01.4  Storage on the Work Site....9-3
9-02  Bituminous Materials .......... 9-4
9-02.1  Asphalt Material, General ..9-4
9-02.1(1)  Vacant . 9-4
9-02.1(2)  Vacant . 9-4
9-02.1(3)  Vacant . 9-4
9-02.1(4)  Performance Graded Asphalt Binder (PGAB) ......................... 9-4
9-02.1(4)A  Vacant ...................... 9-4
9-02.1(5)  Vacant . 9-4
9-02.1(6)  Cationic Emulsified Asphalt ......... 9-5
9-02.1(6)A  Polymerized Cationic Emulsified Asphalt 
CRS-2P .................... 9-6
9-02.1(7)  Vacant . 9-6
9-02.1(8)  Flexible Bituminous Pavement Marker Adhesive ................... 9-6
9-02.1(9)  Vacant . 9-7
9-02.2  Sampling and Acceptance ..9-7
9-02.2(1)  Certification of Shipment .............. 9-7
9-02.2(2)  Samples ..........9-7
9-02.3  Temperature of Asphalt ......9-7
9-02.4  Anti-Stripping Additive .....9-7
9-02.5  Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Additive ............... 9-7
9-03  Aggregates 9-8
9-03.1  Aggregates for Portland Cement Concrete ....... 9-8
9-03.1(1)  General Requirements ................... 9-8
9-03.1(2)  Fine Aggregate for Portland Cement Concrete ........................ 9-8
9-03.1(2)A  Deleterious Substances .......9-9
9-03.1(2)B  Grading ................... 9-9
9-03.1(2)C  Use of Substandard Gradings Vacant ................. 9-9
9-03.1(3)  Vacant ...........9-10
9-03.1(4)  Coarse Aggregate for Portland Cement Concrete .................. 9-10
9-03.1(4)A  Deleterious ............ 9-10
9-03.1(4)B  Vacant .................... 9-10
9-03.1(4)C  Grading ................. 9-10  egate Gradation for Portland Cement 
Concrete .......9-11
9-03.1(5)A  Deleterious Substances .....9-11
9-03.1(5)B  Grading ................. 9-11
9-03.2  Aggregate for Job-Mixed Portland Cement Mortar ....9-12
9-03.2(1)  Grading for Surface Finishing Applications .......................... 9-12
9-03.2(2)  Grading for Masonry Mortar Applications ............................ 9-12
9-03.3  Vacant ................... 9-12
9-03.4  Aggregate for Bituminous Surface Treatment  9-13
9-03.4(1)  General Requirements ................. 9-13
9-03.4(2)  Grading and Quality .................... 9-13
9-03.5  Vacant ................... 9-13
9-03.6  Vacant ................... 9-13
9-03.7  Vacant ................... 9-13
9-03.8  Aggregates for Hot Mix Asphalt ..................... 9-14
9-03.8(1)  General Requirements ................. 9-14
9-03.8(2)  HMA Test Requirements ............. 9-14
9-03.8(3)  Grading ........9-15
9-03.8(3)A  Gradation ............... 9-15
9-03.8(3)B  Gradation – Recycled Asphalt Pavement
and Mineral Aggregate ......9-16
9-03.8(4)  Vacant ...........9-16
9-03.8(5)  Mineral Filler . 9-16
9-03.8(6)  HMA Proportions of Materials ... 9-16
9-03.8(7)  HMA Tolerances and Adjustments .........9-16
9-03.9  Aggregates for Ballast and Crushed Surfacing ...........9-17
9-03.9(1)  Ballast ..........9-17
9-03.9(2)  Permeable Ballast ........................ 9-17
9-03.9(3)  Crushed Surfacing ....................... 9-18
9-03.9(4)  Maintenance Rock ...................... 9-18
9-03.10  Aggregate for Gravel Base . 9-19
9-03.11  Streambed Aggregates .....9-19
9-03.11(1)  Streambed Sediment ................... 9-19
9-03.11(2)  Streambed Cobbles ..................... 9-20
9-03.11(3)  Streambed Boulders .................... 9-20
9-03.11(4)  Habitat Boulders ......................... 9-21
9-03.12  Gravel Backfill ..... 9-21
9-03.12(1)  Gravel Backfill for Foundations .. 9-21
9-03.12(1)A  Class A .................. 9-21
9-03.12(1)B  Class B .................. 9-21
9-03.12(2)  Gravel Backfill for Walls ............ 9-21
9-03.12(3)  Gravel Backfill for Pipe Zone Bedding  ..9-22
9-03.12(4)  Gravel Backfill for Drains ........... 9-22
9-03.12(5)  Gravel Backfill for Drywells ....... 9-22
9-03.13  Backfill for Sand Drains ...9-23
9-03.13(1)  Sand Drainage Blanket ............... 9-23
9-03.14  Borrow ................. 9-23
9-03.14(1)  Gravel Borrow ............................ 9-23
9-03.14(2)  Select Borrow . 9-24
9-03.14(3)  Common Borrow ........................ 9-24
9-03.14(4)  Gravel Borrow for Structural Earth Wall 9-24
9-03.15  Native Material for Trench Backfill ................ 9-25
9-03.16  Vacant ................... 9-25
9-03.17  Foundation Material Class A and Class B ....... 9-25
9-03.18  Foundation Material Class C .......................... 9-25
9-03.19  Bank Run Gravel for Trench Backfill ............. 9-25
9-03.20  Test Methods for Aggregates .......................... 9-26
9-03.21  Recycled Material  9-26
9-03.21(1)  General Requirements ................. 9-26
9-03.21(1)A  Recycled Hot Mix Asphalt 9-27
9-03.21(1)B  Vacant .................... 9-27
9-03.21(1)C  Recycled Glass (glass cullet) ........................... 9-27
9-03.21(1)D  Recycled Steel Furnace Slag ............................ 9-27
9-03.21(1)E  Table on Maximum Allowable Percent
(By Weight) of Recycled Material ................... 9-27
9-04  Joint and Crack Sealing Materials . 9-28
9-04.1  Premolded Joint Fillers ....9-28
9-04.1(1)  Asphalt Filler for Contraction and Longitudinal Joints
in Concrete Pavements ................ 9-28
9-04.1(2)  Premolded Joint Filler for Expansion Joints .......................... 9-28
9-04.1(3)  Vacant ...........9-28
9-04.1(4)  Elastomeric Expansion Joint Seals .........9-28
9-04.2  Joint Sealants ....... 9-28
9-04.2(1)  Hot Poured Joint Sealants ........... 9-28
9-04.2(2)  Poured Rubber Joint Sealer ......... 9-28
9-04.2(3)  Polyurethane Sealant ................... 9-29
9-04.2(3)A  Closed Cell Foam Backer Rod ......................... 9-29
9-04.3  Joint Mortar .......... 9-29
9-04.4  Pipe Joint Gaskets  9-29
9-04.4(1)  Rubber Gaskets for Concrete Pipes and Precast Manholes ... 9-29
9-04.4(2)  Vacant ...........9-29
9-04.4(3)  Gaskets for Aluminum or Steel Culvert or Storm Sewer 
Pipe .. 9-29
9-04.4(4)  Rubber Gaskets for Aluminum or Steel Drain Pipe ............... 9-29
9-04.4(5)  Protection and Storage ................ 9-29
9-04.5  Flexible Plastic Gaskets ...9-30
9-04.6  Expanded Polystyrene ......9-30
9-04.7  Expanded Rubber . 9-30
9-04.8  Flexible Elastomeric Seals . 9-30
9-04.9  Solvent Cements .. 9-30
9-04.10  Butyl Rubber and Nitrile Rubber .................... 9-30
9-05  Drainage Structures and Culverts 9-31
9-05.0  Acceptance and Approval of Drainage Structures, and Culverts ............... 9-31
9-05.1  Drain Pipe ............ 9-31
9-05.1(1)  Concrete Drain Pipe .................... 9-31
9-05.1(2)  Zinc Coated (Galvanized) or Aluminum Coated
(Aluminized) Corrugated Iron or Steel Drain Pipe ................ 9-31
9-05.1(2)A  Coupling Bands ..... 9-31
9-05.1(3)  Corrugated Aluminum Alloy Drain Pipe 9-31
9-05.1(3)A  Coupling Bands ..... 9-31
9-05.1(4)  Vacant ...........9-31
9-05.1(5)  PVC Drain Pipe, Couplings, and Fittings . 9-31
9-05.1(6)  Corrugated Polyethylene Drain Pipe, Couplings, and
Fittings (Up to 10 Inch)  .............. 9-31
9-05.1(7)  Corrugated Polyethylene Drain Pipe, Couplings, and
Fittings (12 Inch Through 60 Inch) .........9-32 
9-05.2  Underdrain Pipe ... 9-32
9-05.2(1)  Vacant ...........9-32
9-05.2(2)  Perforated Concrete Underdrain Pipe .....9-32
9-05.2(3)  Vacant ...........9-32
9-05.2(4)  Zinc Coated (Galvanized) or Aluminum Coated
(Aluminized) Corrugated Iron or Steel Underdrain Pipe ....... 9-32
9-05.2(4)A  Coupling Bands ..... 9-32
9-05.2(5)  Perforated Corrugated Aluminum Alloy Underdrain Pipe ..... 9-32
9-05.2(5)A  Coupling Bands ..... 9-33
9-05.2(6)  Perforated PVC Underdrain Pipe  9-33
9-05.2(7)  Perforated Corrugated Polyethylene Underdrain Pipe 
(Up to 10 Inch) ............................ 9-33
9-05.2(8)  Perforated Corrugated Polyethylene Underdrain Pipe 
(12-Inch Through 60-Inch Diameter Maximum), Couplings,
and Fittings...9-33
9-05.3  Concrete Culvert Pipe ......9-33
9-05.3(1)  Plain Concrete Culvert Pipe ........ 9-33
9-05.3(1)A  End Design and Joints .......9-33
9-05.3(1)B  Basis for Acceptance .........9-33
9-05.3(1)C  Age at Shipment .... 9-34
9-05.3(2)  Reinforced Concrete Culvert Pipe ..........9-34
9-05.3(2)A  End Design and Joints .......9-34
9-05.3(2)B  Basis for Acceptance .........9-34
9-05.3(2)C  Age at Shipment .... 9-34
9-05.3(2)D  Elliptical Reinforcement ...9-34
9-05.3(3)  Beveled Concrete End Sections .. 9-35
9-05.4  Steel Culvert Pipe and Pipe Arch .................... 9-35
9-05.4(1)  Elliptical Fabrication ................... 9-35
9-05.4(2)  Mitered Ends 9-35
9-05.4(3)  Protective Treatment ................... 9-35
9-05.4(4)  Asphalt Coatings and Paved Inverts .......9-35
9-05.4(5)  Polymer Protective Coating ........ 9-36
9-05.4(6)  Spun Asphalt Lining ................... 9-36
9-05.4(7)  Coupling Bands ........................... 9-36
9-05.4(8)  Steel Nestable Pipe ..................... 9-37
9-05.4(9)  Steel End Sections ....................... 9-37
9-05.4(9)A  Fabrication ............ 9-37
9-05.4(9)B  Galvanized Hardware ........9-37
9-05.4(9)C  Toe Plate Extensions .........9-37
9-05.5  Aluminum Culvert Pipe ...9-38
9-05.5(1)  Elliptical Fabrication ................... 9-38
9-05.5(2)  Mitered Ends 9-38
9-05.5(3)  Vacant ...........9-38
9-05.5(4)  Vacant ...........9-38
9-05.5(5)  Coupling Bands ........................... 9-38
9-05.5(6)  Aluminum End Sections ............. 9-38
9-05.6  Structural Plate Pipe, Pipe Arch, Arch, and Underpass  9-38
9-05.6(1)  General .........9-38
9-05.6(2)  Fabrication ...9-38
9-05.6(3)  Elliptical Fabrication ................... 9-38
9-05.6(4)  Structural Plate Pipe Arch ........... 9-39
9-05.6(5)  Structural Plate Arch ................... 9-39
9-05.6(6)  Structural Plate Underpass .......... 9-39
9-05.6(7)  Concrete .......9-39
9-05.6(8)  Plates  9-39
9-05.6(8)A  Corrugated Steel Plates .....9-39
9-05.6(8)B  Corrugated Aluminum Plates ........................... 9-39
9-05.7  Concrete Storm Sewer Pipe ............................ 9-39
9-05.7(1)  Plain Concrete Storm Sewer Pipe ...........9-39
9-05.7(1)A  Basis for Acceptance .........9-39
9-05.7(2)  Reinforced Concrete Storm Sewer Pipe .9-39
9-05.7(2)A  Basis for Acceptance .........9-39
9-05.7(3)  Concrete Storm Sewer Pipe Joints ..........9-40
9-05.7(4)  Testing Concrete Storm Sewer Pipe Joints ............................ 9-40
9-05.7(4)A  Hydrostatic Pressure on Pipes in Straight
Alignment ............. 9-40
9-05.7(4)B  Hydrostatic Pressure Tests on Pipes in
Maximum Deflected Position  .......................... 9-40
9-05.7(4)C  Hydrostatic Pressure Test on 15-Inch Diameter
and Larger Pipe Under Differential Load ........ 9-40
9-05.8  Vitrified Clay Sewer Pipe  .9-40
9-05.9  Steel Spiral Rib Storm Sewer Pipe ................. 9-40
9-05.9(1)  Continuous Lock Seam Pipe ....... 9-41
9-05.9(1)A  Basis for Acceptance .........9-41
9-05.9(2)  Vacant ...........9-41
9-05.9(3)  Coupling Bands ........................... 9-41
9-05.10  Steel Storm Sewer Pipe ....9-41
9-05.10(1)  Coupling Bands ........................... 9-41
9-05.10(2)  Basis for Acceptance ................... 9-42
9-05.11  Aluminum Storm Sewer Pipe ......................... 9-42
9-05.11(1)  Coupling Bands ........................... 9-42
9-05.11(2)  Basis for Acceptance ................... 9-42
9-05.12  Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Pipe ...................... 9-42
9-05.12(1)  Solid Wall PVC Culvert Pipe, Solid Wall PVC Storm
Sewer Pipe, and Solid Wall PVC Sanitary Sewer Pipe .......... 9-42
9-05.12(2)  Profile Wall PVC Culvert Pipe, Profile Wall PVC Storm
Sewer Pipe, and Profile Wall PVC Sanitary Sewer Pipe  ....... 9-42
9-05.13  Ductile Iron Sewer Pipe ...9-43
9-05.14  ABS Composite Sewer Pipe ........................... 9-43
9-05.15  Metal Castings ..... 9-43
9-05.15(1)  Manhole Ring and Cover ............ 9-44
9-05.15(2)  Metal Frame, Grate, and Solid Metal Cover for Catch
Basins or Inlets ............................ 9-44
9-05.15(3)  Cast Metal Inlets ......................... 9-44
9-05.16  Grate Inlets and Drop Inlets ............................ 9-44
9-05.17  Aluminum Spiral Rib Storm Sewer Pipe ........ 9-45
9-05.17(1)  Continuous Lock Seam Pipe ....... 9-45
9-05.17(1)A  Basis for Acceptance .........9-45
9-05.17(2)  Coupling Bands ........................... 9-45
9-05.18  Safety Bars for Culvert Pipe ........................... 9-45
9-05.19  Corrugated Polyethylene Culvert Pipe, Couplings, and Fittings ............... 9-45
9-05.20  Corrugated Polyethylene Storm Sewer Pipe, Couplings, and Fittings ...... 9-46
9-05.21  Steel Rib Reinforced Polyethylene Culvert Pipe ........9-46
9-05.22  Steel Rib Reinforced Polyethylene Storm Sewer Pipe . 9-46
9-05.23  High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Pipe ....... 9-47
9-05.24  Polypropylene Culvert Pipe, Polypropylene Storm Sewer Pipe, and
Polypropylene Sanitary Sewer Pipe ................ 9-47
9-05.24(1)  Polypropylene Culvert Pipe and Storm Sewer Pipe .............. 9-48
9-05.24(2)  Polypropylene Sanitary Sewer Pipe ........9-48
9-05.30  Vacant ................... 9-48
9-05.40  Vacant ................... 9-48
9-05.50  Precast Concrete Drainage Structures ............. 9-48
9-05.50(1)  Fabrication Tolerances and Requirements  9-48
9-05.50(2)  Manholes ......9-49
9-05.50(3)  Precast Concrete Catch Basins .... 9-49
9-05.50(4)  Precast Concrete Inlets ................ 9-49
9-05.50(5)  Precast Concrete Drywells .......... 9-49
9-05.50(6)  Vacant ...........9-49
9-05.50(7)  Vacant ...........9-49
9-05.50(8)  Vacant ...........9-49
9-05.50(9)  Synthetic Fibers for Precast Units ...........9-49
9-05.50(10) Synthetic Structural Fibers for Precast Units ......................... 9-50
9-06  Structural Steel and Related Materials ....................... 9-51
9-06.1  Structural Carbon Steel ....9-51
9-06.2  Structural Low Alloy Steel . 9-51
9-06.3  Structural High-Strength Steel ........................ 9-51
9-06.4  Vacant ................... 9-51
9-06.5  Bolts ..................... 9-51
9-06.5(1)  Unfinished Bolts.......................... 9-51
9-06.5(2)  Vacant ...........9-51
9-06.5(3)  High-Strength Bolts .................... 9-51
9-06.5(4)  Anchor Bolts 9-52
9-06.6  Vacant ................... 9-53
9-06.7  Vacant ................... 9-53
9-06.8  Steel Castings ....... 9-53
9-06.9  Gray Iron Castings ...........9-53
9-06.10  Malleable Iron Castings ...9-53
9-06.11  Steel Forgings and Steel Shafting ................... 9-53
9-06.12  Bronze Castings ... 9-53
9-06.13  Vacant ................... 9-53
9-06.14  Ductile Iron Castings .......9-53
9-06.15  Welded Shear Connectors 9-53
9-06.16  Roadside Sign Structures .9-54
9-06.17  Vacant ................... 9-55
9-06.18  Metal Bridge Railing ........9-55
9-06.19  Vacant ................... 9-55
9-06.20  Vacant ................... 9-55
9-06.21  Vacant ................... 9-55
9-06.22  Bolts, Washers, and Other Hardware .............. 9-55
9-07  Reinforcing Steel ................ 9-56
9-07.1  General ................. 9-56
9-07.1(1)  Acceptance by Manufacturer’s Certification  ......................... 9-56
9-07.1(1)A  Acceptance of Materials ...9-56
9-07.1(2)  Bending ........9-56
9-07.1(3)  Lengths .........9-57
9-07.1(4)  Vacant ...........9-57
9-07.2  Deformed Steel Bars ........9-57
9-07.3  Epoxy-Coated Steel Reinforcing Bars ............ 9-57
9-07.4  Plain Steel Bars .... 9-58
9-07.5  Dowel Bars (for Cement Concrete Pavement)  9-58
9-07.5(1)  Epoxy-Coated Dowel Bars (for Cement Concrete Pavement
Rehabilitation)  9-58
9-07.5(2)  Corrosion Resistant Dowel Bars (for Cement Concrete
Pavement and Cement Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation) .. 9-58
9-07.6  Tie Bars (for Cement Concrete Pavement) ..... 9-59
9-07.7  Wire Mesh ............ 9-59
9-07.8  Deformed Wire ..... 9-59
9-07.9  Cold Drawn Wire . 9-59
9-07.10  Prestressing Reinforcement Strand ................. 9-59
9-07.11  Prestressing Reinforcement Bar ...................... 9-60
9-08  Paints and Related Materials ........9-61
9-08.1  Paint ..................... 9-61
9-08.1(1)  Description ...9-61
9-08.1(2)  Paint Types ...9-61
9-08.1(2)A  Vinyl Pretreatment  9-61
9-08.1(2)B  Galvanizing Repair Paint, High Zinc 
Dust Content ......... 9-61
9-08.1(2)C  Inorganic Zinc-Rich Primer  9-61
9-08.1(2)D  Organic Zinc-Rich Primer .9-61
9-08.1(2)E  Epoxy Polyamide .. 9-61
9-08.1(2)F  Primer, Zinc-Filled, Single-Component, 
Moisture-Cured Polyurethane .......................... 9-61
9-08.1(2)G  Intermediate and Stripe Coat, Single
Component, Moisture-Cured Polyurethane ..... 9-61
9-08.1(2)H  Top Coat, Single-Component, Moisture-
Cured Polyurethane ...........9-62
9-08.1(2)I  Rust-Penetrating Sealer .....9-62
9-08.1(2)J  Black Enamel ........ 9-62
9-08.1(2)K  Orange Equipment Enamel . 9-62
9-08.1(2)L  Exterior Acrylic Latex Paint-White ................. 9-62
9-08.1(3)  Working Properties ..................... 9-62
9-08.1(4)  Storage Properties ....................... 9-62
9-08.1(5)  Fineness of Grinding ................... 9-62
9-08.1(6)  Test Methods 9-63
9-08.1(7)  Acceptance ...9-63
9-08.1(8)  Standard Colors ........................... 9-63
9-08.2  Powder Coating Materials for Coating Galvanized Surfaces .................... 9-63
9-08.3  Pigmented Sealer Materials for Coating of Concrete Surfaces ................. 9-64
9-08.4  Abrasive Blast Materials ..9-64
9-08.4(1)  Abrasive Blast Media .................. 9-64
9-08.4(2)  Lead Abatement Additive ........... 9-64
9-08.5  Surface Cleaning Materials  9-65
9-08.5(1)  Bird Guano Treatment ................. 9-65
9-08.5(2)  Fungicide Treatment ................... 9-65
9-08.5(3)  Water  9-65
9-08.6  Filter Fabric .......... 9-65
9-08.7  Single-Component Urethane Sealant .............. 9-65
9-08.8  Foam Backer Rod  9-65
9-09  Timber and Lumber .......... 9-66
9-09.1  General Requirements ......9-66
9-09.2  Grade Requirements .........9-66
9-09.2(1)  Structures .....9-66
9-09.2(2)  Guardrail Posts and Blocks. ........ 9-67
9-09.2(3)  Signposts, Mileposts, Sawed Fence Posts, and 
Mailbox Posts. 9-67
9-09.3  Preservative Treatment .....9-67
9-09.3(1)  General Requirements ................. 9-67
9-10  Piling.....9-69
9-10.1  Timber Piling ....... 9-69
9-10.1(1)  Untreated Piling .......................... 9-69
9-10.1(2)  Creosote Treated Piling ............... 9-69
9-10.1(3)  Timber Composite Piling ............ 9-69
9-10.1(4)  Peeling ..........9-70
9-10.2  Concrete Piling ..... 9-70
9-10.2(1)  Concrete .......9-70
9-10.2(2)  Reinforcement  9-70
9-10.3  Cast-In-Place Concrete Piling ......................... 9-70
9-10.4  Steel Pile Tips and Shoes .9-70
9-10.5  Steel Piling ........... 9-70
9-11 Waterproofing ..................... 9-71
9-11.1  Asphalt for Waterproofing 9-71
9-11.2  Waterproofing Fabric  .......9-71
9-11.3  Portland Cement Mortar ..9-71
9-12  Masonry Units .................... 9-72
9-12.1  Concrete Blocks ... 9-72
9-12.2  Concrete Brick ..... 9-72
9-13  Riprap, Quarry Spalls, Slope Protection, and Rock for Erosion and
Scour Protection and Rock Walls .9-73
9-13.1  Loose Riprap ........ 9-73
9-13.1(1)  Heavy Loose Riprap ................... 9-73
9-13.1(2)  Light Loose Riprap ..................... 9-73
9-13.2  Hand Placed Riprap .........9-73
9-13.3  Vacant ................... 9-73
9-13.4  Rock for Erosion and Scour Protection .......... 9-73
9-13.4(1)  Suitable Shape of Rock for Erosion and Scour Protection .... 9-74
9-13.4(2)  Grading Requirements of Rock for Erosion and Scour 
Protection .....9-74
9-13.5  Concrete Slope Protection 9-74
9-13.5(1)  Semi-Open Concrete Masonry Units Slope Protection ......... 9-74
9-13.5(2)  Poured Portland Cement Concrete Slope Protection ............. 9-74
9-13.5(3)  Pneumatically Placed Portland Cement Concrete Slope
Protection .....9-75
9-13.6  Quarry Spalls ....... 9-75
9-13.7  Rock for Rock Wall ..........9-75
9-13.7(1)  Rock for Rock Walls and Chinking Material ......................... 9-75
9-13.7(2)  Backfill for Rock Wall ................ 9-75
9-14  Erosion Control and Roadside Planting ..................... 9-76
9-14.1  Soil ....................... 9-76
9-14.1(1)  Topsoil Type A ............................ 9-76
9-14.1(2)  Topsoil Type B ............................ 9-76
9-14.1(3)  Topsoil Type C ............................ 9-76
9-14.2  Seed ...................... 9-76
9-14.3  Fertilizer ............... 9-76
9-14.4  Mulch and Amendments ..9-77
9-14.4(1)  Straw  9-77
9-14.4(2)  Hydraulically Applied Erosion Control Products (HECPs) ... 9-77
9-14.4(2)A  Long-Term Mulch . 9-79
9-14.4(2)B  Moderate-Term Mulch ......9-79
9-14.4(2)C  Short-Term Mulch . 9-79
9-14.4(3)  Bark or Wood Chips .................... 9-79
9-14.4(4)  Wood Strand Mulch .................... 9-80
9-14.4(5)  Lime . 9-80
9-14.4(6)  Gypsum ........9-80
9-14.4(7)  Tackifier .......9-80
9-14.4(7)A  Organic Tackifier ... 9-80
9-14.4(7)B  Synthetic Tackifier  9-81
9-14.4(8)  Compost .......9-81
9-14.4(8)A  Compost Submittal Requirements ................... 9-82
9-14.4(8)B  Compost Acceptance .........9-82
9-14.5  Erosion Control Devices ..9-82
9-14.5(1)  Polyacrylamide (PAM) ............... 9-82
9-14.5(2)  Biodegradable Erosion Control Blanket .9-82
9-14.5(2)A  Approval and Acceptance of Biodegradable
Erosion Control Blankets ..9-83
9-14.5(2)B  Biodegradable Erosion Control Blanket for
Slopes Steeper than 3:1 (H:V) ......................... 9-83
9-14.5(2)C  Biodegradable Erosion Control Blanket for
Slopes Flatter than 3:1(H:V) ............................ 9-83
9-14.5(2)D  Biodegradable Erosion Control Blanket for
Ditches .................. 9-84
9-14.5(3)  Plastic Covering .......................... 9-84
9-14.5(4)  Check Dams .9-84
9-14.5(4)A  Biodegradable Check Dams  9-84
9-14.5(4)B  Non-biodegradable Check Dams ..................... 9-84
9-14.5(5)  Wattles ..........9-84
9-14.5(6)  Compost Socks ........................... 9-85
9-14.5(7)  Coir Log .......9-85
9-14.5(8)  High Visibility Fencing ............... 9-85
9-14.5(9)  High Visibility Silt Fence ............ 9-85
9-14.6  Plant Materials ..... 9-85
9-14.6(1)  Description ...9-85
9-14.6(2)  Quality ..........9-86
9-14.6(3)  Handling and Shipping ............... 9-87
9-14.6(4)  Tagging ........9-88
9-14.6(5)  Inspection .....9-88
9-14.6(6)  Substitution of Plants .................. 9-88
9-14.6(7)  Temporary Storage ...................... 9-88
9-14.6(8)  Sod ... 9-88
9-14.7  Stakes, Guys, and Wrapping ........................... 9-89
9-15  Irrigation System ............... 9-90
9-15.1  Pipe, Tubing, and Fittings 9-90
9-15.1(1)  Galvanized Pipe and Fittings ...... 9-90
9-15.1(2)  Polyvinyl Chloride Pipe and Fittings ......9-90
9-15.1(3)  Polyethylene Pipe ........................ 9-90
9-15.2  Drip Tubing .......... 9-90
9-15.3  Automatic Controllers ......9-91
9-15.4  Irrigation Heads ... 9-91
9-15.5  Valve Boxes ......... 9-91
9-15.6  Gate Valves .......... 9-91
9-15.7  Control Valves ...... 9-92
9-15.7(1)  Manual Control Valves................ 9-92
9-15.7(2)  Automatic Control Valves ........... 9-92
9-15.7(3)  Automatic Control Valves With Pressure Regulator .............. 9-92
9-15.8  Quick Coupling Equipment ............................ 9-92
9-15.9  Drain Valves ......... 9-92
9-15.10  Hose Bibs ............. 9-93
9-15.11  Cross Connection Control Devices
9-15.12  Check Valves ........ 9-93
9-15.13  Pressure Regulating Valves  9-93
9-15.14  Three-Way Valves  9-93
9-15.15  Flow Control Valves.........9-93
9-15.16  Air Relief Valve ... 9-93
9-15.17  Electrical Wire and Splices  9-93
9-15.18  Detectable Marking Tape .9-94
9-15.19  Wye Strainers ....... 9-94
9-16  Fence and Guardrail .......... 9-95
9-16.1  Chain Link Fence and Gates ........................... 9-95
9-16.1(1)  General .........9-95
9-16.1(1)A  Post Material for Chain Link Fence ................. 9-95
9-16.1(1)B  Chain Link Fence Fabric ...9-95
9-16.1(1)C  Tension Wire ......... 9-95
9-16.1(1)D  Fittings and Hardware .......9-95
9-16.1(1)E  Chain Link Gates .. 9-96
9-16.1(1)F  Concrete ................ 9-96
9-16.2  Wire Fence and Gates ......9-96
9-16.2(1)  General .........9-96
9-16.2(1)A  Steel Post Material  9-96
9-16.2(1)B  Wood Fence Posts and Braces ......................... 9-96
9-16.2(1)C  Brace Wire ............ 9-97
9-16.2(1)D  Staples and Wire Clamps ..9-97
9-16.2(1)E  Barbed Wire  ......... 9-97
9-16.2(1)F  Wire Mesh ............. 9-97
9-16.2(1)G  Vertical Cinch Stays ..........9-98
9-16.2(1)H  Miscellaneous Hardware ...9-98
9-16.2(1)I  Wire Gates ............. 9-98
9-16.2(1)J  Concrete ................ 9-98
9-16.3  Beam Guardrail .... 9-98
9-16.3(1)  Rail Element .9-98
9-16.3(2)  Posts and Blocks ......................... 9-98
9-16.3(3)  Galvanizing ..9-99
9-16.3(4)  Hardware ......9-99
9-16.3(5)  Anchors ........9-99
9-16.3(6)  Inspection and Acceptance ........ 9-100
9-16.4  Wire Mesh Slope Protection ......................... 9-100
9-16.4(1)  General .......9-100
9-16.4(2)  Wire Mesh ..9-100
9-16.4(3)  Wire Rope ..9-100
9-16.4(4)  Hardware ....9-100
9-16.4(5)  Fasteners and Lacing Wire ........ 9-101
9-16.4(6)  Ground Anchors ........................ 9-101
9-16.5  Vacant ................. 9-101
9-16.6  Glare Screen ....... 9-101
9-16.6(1)  General .......9-101
9-16.6(2)  Glare Screen Fabric ................... 9-101
9-16.6(3)  Posts ...........9-101
9-16.6(4)  Tension Wire  9-102
9-16.6(5)  Vacant .........9-102
9-16.6(6)  Tension Wire Attachments ........ 9-102
9-16.6(7)  Slats  9-102
9-16.6(7)A  Wood Slats .......... 9-102
9-16.6(7)B  Plastic Slats ......... 9-102
9-16.6(8)  Fittings .......9-102
9-16.6(9)  Fabric Bands and Stretcher Bars ...........9-103
9-16.6(10)  Tie Wire and Hog Rings ............ 9-103
9-17  Flexible Guide Posts ......... 9-104
9-17.1  General ............... 9-104
9-17.1(1)  Dimensions 9-104
9-17.1(2)  Reflective Sheeting  ................... 9-105
9-17.2  Ultraviolet Resistance Test Procedure (Laboratory Test) ........................ 9-105
9-17.2(1)  Acceptance .9-105
9-17.3  Field Impact Test Procedure ......................... 9-105
9-17.3(1)  Test Observations ...................... 9-106
9-17.3(2)  Acceptance .9-106
9-17.4  Pre-approval ....... 9-106
9-18 Precast Traffic Curb ........ 9-107
9-18.1  Precast Traffic Curb  .......9-107
9-18.1(1)  Aggregates and Proportioning .. 9-107
9-18.1(2)  Mixing ........9-107
9-18.1(3)  Forms .........9-107
9-18.1(4)  Placing Concrete ....................... 9-107
9-18.1(5)  Removal of Forms ..................... 9-108
9-18.1(6)  Curing Concrete ........................ 9-108
9-18.1(7)  Finish..........9-108
9-18.1(8)  Surface Treatment ..................... 9-108
9-18.1(9)  Dimensions and Shape .............. 9-108
9-18.1(10)  Curb Lengths  9-108
9-18.1(11)  Defective Curb .......................... 9-108
9-18.1(12)  Repairing Curb .......................... 9-109
9-18.1(13)  Identification Marking  .............. 9-109
9-18.1(14)  Shipping .....9-109
9-18.1(15)  Sampling and Inspection ........... 9-109
9-18.2  Vacant ................. 9-110
9-18.3  Vacant ................. 9-110
9-18.4  Water Repellent Compound .......................... 9-110
9-18.5  Sodium Metasilicate .......9-110
9-19  Prestressed Concrete Girders ........9-111
9-19.1  Aggregates and Proportioning .......................9-111
9-19.2  Reinforcement .....9-111
9-20  Concrete Patching Material, Grout, and Mortar ..... 9-112
9-20.1  Patching Material ...........9-112
9-20.2  Specifications ..... 9-112
9-20.2(1)  Patching Mortar ........................ 9-112
9-20.2(2)  Patching Mortar Extended With Aggregate ......................... 9-112
9-20.2(3)  Aggregate ...9-112
9-20.2(4)  Water ..........9-112
9-20.3  Grout .................. 9-113
9-20.3(1)  Grout Type 1 for Post-Tensioning Applications................... 9-113
9-20.3(2)  Grout Type 2 for Nonshrink Applications ............................ 9-113
9-20.3(3)  Grout Type 3 for Unconfined Bearing Pad Applications ..... 9-113
9-20.3(4)  Grout Type 4 for Multipurpose Applications ....................... 9-113
9-20.4  Mortar ................ 9-113
9-20.4(1)  Fine Aggregate for Mortar ........ 9-113
9-20.4(2)  Mortar Type 1 for Concrete Surface Finish ......................... 9-113
9-20.4(3)  Mortar Type 2 for Masonry Applications ............................ 9-113
9-20.4(4)  Mortar Type 3 for Concrete Repair .......9-113 
9-21  Raised Pavement Markers (RPM) ............................ 9-114
9-21.1  Raised Pavement Markers Type 1 ................. 9-114
9-21.1(1)  Physical and Chemical Properties .........9-114
9-21.2  Raised Pavement Markers Type 2 ................. 9-114
9-21.2(1)  Physical Properties .................... 9-114
9-21.2(2)  Optical Requirements ................ 9-115
9-21.2(3)  Strength Requirements .............. 9-115
9-21.3  Raised Pavement Markers Type 3 ................. 9-115
9-22  Monument Cases .............. 9-116
9-22.1  Monument Cases, Covers, and Risers ........... 9-116
9-23  Concrete Curing Materials and Admixtures ............ 9-117
9-23.1  Sheet Materials for Curing Concrete ............ 9-117
9-23.2  Liquid Membrane-Forming Concrete Curing Compounds ...................... 9-117
9-23.3  Vacant ................. 9-117
9-23.4  Vacant ................. 9-117
9-23.5  Burlap Cloth ....... 9-117
9-23.6  Chemical Admixtures for Concrete .............. 9-117
9-23.6(1)  Air-Entraining Admixtures ....... 9-117
9-23.6(2)  Type A Water-Reducing Admixtures.....9-117
9-23.6(3)  Type B Retarding Admixtures .. 9-117
9-23.6(4)  Type C Accelerating Admixtures ..........9-117
9-23.6(5)  Type D Water-Reducing and Retarding Admixtures............ 9-117
9-23.6(6)  Type E Water-Reducing and Accelerating Admixtures ........ 9-117
9-23.6(7)  Type F Water-Reducing, High Range Admixtures............... 9-117
9-23.6(8)  Type G Water-Reducing, High Range, and Retarding
Admixtures .9-118
9-23.6(9)  Type S Specific Performance Admixtures ........................... 9-118
9-23.7  Vacant ................. 9-118
9-23.8  Waterproofing ..... 9-118
9-23.9  Fly Ash ............... 9-118
9-23.9(1)  Tests and Acceptance ................ 9-118
9-23.10  Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag ........ 9-119
9-23.10(1)  Tests and Acceptance ................ 9-119
9-23.11  Microsilica Fume ...........9-119
9-23.12  Metakaolin ......... 9-119
9-23.13  Blended Supplementary Cementitious Material .......9-119
9-24  Plastic Waterstop.............. 9-120
9-24.1  Material .............. 9-120
9-24.1(1)  Tests of Material ....................... 9-120
9-25  Water ..9-121
9-25.1  Water for Concrete .........9-121
9-25.2  Water for Plants .. 9-121
9-26  Epoxy Resins..................... 9-122
9-26.1  Epoxy Bonding Agents ..9-122
9-26.1(1)  General .......9-122
9-26.1(1)A  Type I and Type IV .........9-122
9-26.1(1)B  Type II and Type V ..........9-122
9-26.1(1)C  Type III ................ 9-122
9-26.1(2)  Packaging and Marking ............ 9-122
9-26.1(3)  Certification  9-122
9-26.1(4)  Rejection ....9-122
9-26.1(5)  Acceptance .9-122
9-26.2  Epoxy Adhesive for Lane Markers ............... 9-123
9-26.2(1)  General .......9-123
9-26.2(2)  Packaging and Marking ............ 9-123
9-26.2(3)  Certification  9-123
9-26.2(4)  Rejection ....9-123
9-26.2(5)  Acceptance .9-123
9-26.3  Epoxy Grout/Mortar/Concrete ...................... 9-123
9-26.3(1)  General .......9-123
9-26.3(1)A  Traffic Bearing Applications .......................... 9-123
9-26.3(1)B  Non-Traffic Bearing Applications .................. 9-123
9-26.3(2)  Packaging and Marking ............ 9-123
9-26.3(3)  Certification  9-124
9-26.3(4)  Rejection ....9-124
9-26.3(5)  Acceptance .9-124
9-27  Cribbing ............................ 9-125
9-27.1  Vacant ................. 9-125
9-27.2  Vacant ................. 9-125
9-27.3  Gabion Cribbing . 9-125
9-27.3(1)  Gabion Fabric ............................ 9-125
9-27.3(2)  Gabion Baskets ......................... 9-125
9-27.3(3)  Gabion Mattresses ..................... 9-126
9-27.3(4)  Fasteners for Basket Assembly . 9-126
9-27.3(5)  Nonraveling Construction ......... 9-126
9-27.3(6)  Stone ..........9-127
9-28  Signing Materials and Fabrication ............................ 9-128
9-28.1  General ............... 9-128
9-28.1(1)  Basis for Acceptance ................. 9-128
9-28.1(2)  Inspection ...9-128
9-28.2  Manufacturer’s Identification and Date  ........ 9-128
9-28.3  Corner Radius .... 9-128
9-28.4  Extruded Windbeams and “Z” Bar ............... 9-129
9-28.5  Letter and Spacing Formula .......................... 9-129
9-28.6  Destination Sign Messages ........................... 9-129
9-28.7  Process Colors .... 9-129
9-28.8  Sheet Aluminum Signs ...9-129
9-28.9  Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Signs .............. 9-130
9-28.9(1)  Mechanical Properties ............... 9-130
9-28.9(2)  Physical Properties .................... 9-130
9-28.10  Vacant ................. 9-131
9-28.11  Hardware ............ 9-131
9-28.12  Reflective Sheeting  ........9-131
9-28.12(1)  Application .9-134
9-28.12(2)  Edge Treatment ......................... 9-134
9-28.12(3)  Splices and Color Matching ...... 9-135
9-28.13  Demountable Prismatic Reflectorized Message and Borders .................. 9-135
9-28.14  Sign Support Structures .9-135
9-28.14(1)  Timber Sign Posts ..................... 9-135
9-28.14(2)  Steel Structures and Posts ......... 9-136
9-28.14(3)  Aluminum Structures ................ 9-136
9-28.15  Vacant ................. 9-136
9-29  Illumination, Signal, Electrical ...9-137
9-29.1  Conduit, Innerduct, and Outerduct ................ 9-137
9-29.1(1)  Rigid Metal Conduit, Galvanized Steel Outerduct, 
and Fittings.9-137
9-29.1(2)  Rigid Metal Conduit Fittings and Appurtenances ................ 9-137
9-29.1(2)A  Expansion Fittings, Deflection Fittings, and
Combination Expansion/Deflection Fittings .. 9-137 
9-29.1(3)  Flexible Metal Conduit ............. 9-138
9-29.1(3)A  Flexible Metal Conduit Appurtenances ......... 9-138
9-29.1(4)  Non-Metallic Conduit ............... 9-138
9-29.1(4)A  Rigid PVC Conduit .........9-138
9-29.1(4)B  Expansion Fittings ..........9-138
9-29.1(4)C  HDPE Conduit .... 9-138
9-29.1(4)D  Deflection Fittings ...........9-138
9-29.1(5)  Innerduct and Outerduct ........... 9-138
9-29.1(5)A  Rigid Galvanized Steel Outerduct With 
PVC or PE Innerduct ......9-139
9-29.1(5)B  Rigid PVC Outerduct With PVC or 
PE Innerduct ........ 9-139
9-29.1(5)C  Innerduct for Straight Sections of Galvanized
Steel Outerduct or PVC Outerduct ................ 9-139
9-29.1(5)D  Conduit With Innerducts Fittings and
Appurtenances ..... 9-140
9-29.1(6)  Detectable Underground Warning Tape 9-140
9-29.1(7)  Steel Casings  9-140
9-29.1(8)  Drilling Fluid ............................ 9-140
9-29.2  Junction Boxes, Cable Vaults, and Pull Boxes..........9-140
9-29.2(1)  Standard Duty and Heavy-Duty Junction Boxes ................. 9-141
9-29.2(1)A  Standard Duty Junction Boxes ....................... 9-141
9-29.2(1)B  Heavy-Duty Junction Boxes .......................... 9-142
9-29.2(1)C  Testing Requirements ......9-143
9-29.2(2)  Standard Duty and Heavy-Duty Cable Vaults and Pull Boxes 9-144
9-29.2(2)A  Standard Duty Cable Vaults and Pull Boxes .. 9-145
9-29.2(2)B  Heavy-Duty Cable Vaults and Pull Boxes ..... 9-145
9-29.2(3)  Structure Mounted Junction Box ..........9-146
9-29.2(4)  Cover Markings ........................ 9-146
9-29.3  Fiber Optic Cable, Electrical Conductors, and Cable . 9-146
9-29.3(1)  Fiber Optic Cable ...................... 9-146
9-29.3(1)A  Singlemode Fiber Optic Cable ....................... 9-147
9-29.3(2)  Electrical Conductors and Cable ...........9-147
9-29.3(2)A  Single Conductor  ...........9-147
9-29.3(2)B  Multi-Conductor Cable ...9-148
9-29.3(2)C  Aluminum Cable Steel Reinforced ................ 9-148
9-29.3(2)D  Pole and Bracket . 9-148
9-29.3(2)E  Two-Conductor Shielded 9-148
9-29.3(2)F  Detector Loop Wire .........9-148
9-29.3(2)G  Four-Conductor Shielded Cable..................... 9-148
9-29.3(2)H  Three-Conductor Shielded Cable ................... 9-149
9-29.3(2)I  Twisted Pair Communications Cable ............. 9-149
9-29.4  Messenger Cable, Fittings  9-149
9-29.5  Vacant ................. 9-149
9-29.6  Light and Signal Standards ........................... 9-149
9-29.6(1)  Steel Light and Signal Standards ..........9-150
9-29.6(1)A  Vacant .................. 9-150
9-29.6(2)  Slip Base Hardware ................... 9-150
9-29.6(3)  Timber Light Standards, Timber Strain Poles, Timber
Service Supports ....................... 9-150
9-29.6(4)  Welding ......9-150
9-29.6(5)  Foundation Hardware ................ 9-150
9-29.7  Luminaire Fusing and Electrical Connections at Light Standard Bases,
Cantilever Bases, and Sign Bridge Bases ..... 9-151
9-29.7(1)  Unfused Quick-Disconnect Connector Kits  ........................ 9-151
9-29.7(2)  Fused Quick-Disconnect Kits ... 9-151
9-29.8  Vacant ................. 9-152
9-29.9  Ballast, Transformers .....9-152
9-29.9(1)  Ballast ........9-152
9-29.9(2)  Transformers  9-153
9-29.10  Luminaires ......... 9-153
9-29.10(1)  Conventional Roadway Luminaires ......9-154
9-29.10(2)  Decorative Luminaires .............. 9-155
9-29.10(3)  Vacant .........9-155
9-29.10(4)  Underdeck and Wall Mount Luminaires . 9-155
9-29.10(5)  Sign Lighting Luminaires ......... 9-155
9-29.10(5)A  Sign Lighting Luminaires – Isolation Switch 9-156
9-29.10(5)B  Sign Lighting Fixtures-Induction ................... 9-156
9-29.11  Control Equipment .........9-157
9-29.11(1)  Time Clock Controls ................. 9-157
9-29.11(2)  Photoelectric Controls ............... 9-158
9-29.12  Electrical Splice Materials ............................ 9-158
9-29.12(1)  Illumination Circuit Splices ...... 9-158
9-29.12(1)A  Heat Shrink Splice Enclosure ........................ 9-158
9-29.12(1)B  Molded Splice Enclosure 9-158
9-29.12(2)  Traffic Signal Splice Material ... 9-158
9-29.13  Control Cabinet Assemblies .......................... 9-158
9-29.13(1)  Environmental, Performance, and Test Standards for 
Solid-State Traffic Controller Assemblies ........................... 9-159
9-29.13(2)  Manufacturing Quality .............. 9-159
9-29.13(2)A  Traffic Signal Controller Assembly Testing  ... 9-159
9-29.13(3)  Traffic Signal Controller ........... 9-160
9-29.13(4)  Traffic-Signal Controller Software  .......9-160
9-29.13(5)  Flashing Operations .................. 9-163
9-29.13(6)  Emergency Preemption ............. 9-163
9-29.13(7)  Wiring Diagrams ....................... 9-164
9-29.13(8)  Generator Transfer Switch ........ 9-164
9-29.13(9)  Vacant .........9-164
9-29.13(10) NEMA, Type 170E, 2070 Controllers and Cabinets ............ 9-164
9-29.13(10)A Auxiliary Equipment for NEMA Controllers  9-164
9-29.13(10)B Auxiliary Equipment for Type 170E, 2070
Assemblies .......... 9-167
9-29.13(10)C NEMA Controller Cabinets ............................ 9-169
9-29.13(10)D Cabinets for Type 170E and 2070 controllers 9-170
9-29.13(11) Traffic Data Accumulator and Ramp Meters ....................... 9-171
9-29.13(12) ITS Cabinet 9-173
9-29.14  Vacant ................. 9-174
9-29.15  Flashing Beacon Control 9-174
9-29.16  Vehicular Signal Heads, Displays, and Housing .......9-174
9-29.16(1)  Optically Programmed, Adjustable Face, and
Programmable Array 12-Inch Traffic Signal ........................ 9-175
9-29.16(1)A  Optical System .... 9-175
9-29.16(1)B  Housing Construction .....9-175
9-29.16(1)C  Mounting ............. 9-176
9-29.16(1)D  Housing Electrical ...........9-176
9-29.16(1)E  Photo Controls .... 9-176
9-29.16(1)F  Installation ........... 9-176
9-29.16(2)  Conventional Traffic Signal Heads .......9-176
9-29.16(2)A  Optical Units ....... 9-176
9-29.16(2)B  Signal Housing .... 9-177
9-29.16(2)C  Louvered Visors .. 9-178
9-29.16(2)D  Vacant .................. 9-178
9-29.16(2)E  Painting Signal Heads .....9-178
9-29.16(3)  Polycarbonate Traffic Signal Heads ......9-178
9-29.16(4)  Traffic Signal Cover .................. 9-178
9-29.17  Signal Head Mounting Brackets and Fittings ...........9-178
9-29.18  Vehicle Detector . 9-179
9-29.18(1)  Induction Loop Detectors ......... 9-179
9-29.18(2)  Magnetometer Detectors ........... 9-180
9-29.19  Pedestrian Push Buttons .9-180
9-29.20  Pedestrian Signals ..........9-180
9-29.21  Flashing Beacon . 9-181
9-29.22  Vacant ................. 9-181
9-29.23  Vacant ................. 9-181
9-29.24  Service Cabinets . 9-181
9-29.24(1)  Vacant .........9-182
9-29.24(2)  Electrical Circuit Breakers and Contactors .......................... 9-182
9-29.25  Amplifier, Transformer, and Terminal Cabinets .......9-183
9-30  Water Distribution Materials ......9-184
9-30.1  Pipe .................... 9-184
9-30.1(1)  Ductile Iron Pipe ....................... 9-184
9-30.1(2)  Polyethylene Encasement ......... 9-184
9-30.1(3)  Vacant .........9-184
9-30.1(4)  Steel Pipe ...9-184
9-30.1(4)A  Steel Pipe (6 Inches and Over) ....................... 9-184
9-30.1(4)B  Steel Pipe (4 Inches and Under) ..................... 9-184
9-30.1(5)  Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)......... 9-184
9-30.1(5)A  Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Pipe 
(4 Inches and Over) .........9-184
9-30.1(5)B  Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Pipe 
(Under 4 Inches) . 9-185
9-30.1(6)  Polyethylene (PE) Pressure Pipe (4 Inches and Over) ......... 9-185
9-30.2  Fittings ............... 9-185
9-30.2(1)  Ductile Iron Pipe ....................... 9-185
9-30.2(2)  Vacant .........9-185
9-30.2(3)  Vacant .........9-185
9-30.2(4)  Steel Pipe ...9-185
9-30.2(4)A  Steel Pipe (6 Inches and Over) ....................... 9-185
9-30.2(4)B  Steel Pipe (4 Inches and Under) ..................... 9-185
9-30.2(5)  Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Pipe  9-186
9-30.2(5)A  Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Pipe 
(4 Inches and Over) .........9-186
9-30.2(5)B  Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Pipe 
(Under 4 Inches) . 9-186
9-30.2(6)  Restrained Joints ....................... 9-186
9-30.2(7)  Bolted, Sleeve-Type Couplings for Plain End Pipe ............. 9-186
9-30.2(8)  Restrained Flexible Couplings .. 9-186
9-30.2(9)  Grooved and Shouldered Joints  9-186
9-30.2(10)  Polyethylene (PE) Pipe (4 Inches and Over) ....................... 9-186
9-30.2(11)  Fabricated Steel Mechanical Slip-Type Expansion Joints ... 9-186
9-30.3  Valves ................. 9-186
9-30.3(1)  Gate Valves (3 to 16 Inches) ..... 9-186
9-30.3(2)  Vacant .........9-186
9-30.3(3)  Butterfly Valves ......................... 9-187
9-30.3(4)  Valve Boxes . 9-187
9-30.3(5)  Valve Marker Posts ................... 9-187
9-30.3(6)  Valve Stem Extensions .............. 9-187
9-30.3(7)  Combination Air Release/Air Vacuum Valves ..................... 9-187
9-30.3(8)  Tapping Sleeve and Valve Assembly ....9-187
9-30.4  Vacant ................. 9-187
9-30.5  Hydrants ............. 9-187
9-30.5(1)  End Connections ....................... 9-188
9-30.5(2)  Hydrant Dimensions ................. 9-188
9-30.5(3)  Hydrant Extensions ................... 9-188
9-30.5(4)  Hydrant Restraints .................... 9-188
9-30.5(5)  Traffic Flange  ............................ 9-188
9-30.5(6)  Guard Posts 9-188
9-30.6  Water Service Connections (2 Inches and Smaller) ..9-188
9-30.6(1)  Saddles .......9-188
9-30.6(2)  Corporation Stops ..................... 9-188
9-30.6(3)  Service Pipes  9-189
9-30.6(3)A  Copper Tubing .... 9-189
9-30.6(3)B  Polyethylene Tubing .......9-189
9-30.6(4)  Service Fittings ......................... 9-189
9-30.6(5)  Meter Setters  9-189
9-30.6(6)  Bronze Nipples and Fittings ...... 9-189
9-30.6(7)  Meter Boxes . 9-189
9-31  Elastomeric Bearing Pads ...........9-190
9-31.1  Requirements ..... 9-190
9-32  Mailbox Support .............. 9-191
9-32.1  Steel Posts .......... 9-191
9-32.2  Bracket, Platform, and Anti-Twist Plate ....... 9-191
9-32.3  Vacant ................. 9-191
9-32.4  Wood Posts ......... 9-191
9-32.5  Fasteners ............ 9-191
9-32.6  Snow Guard ....... 9-191
9-32.7  Type 2 Mailbox Support 9-191
9-32.8  Concrete Base .... 9-191
9-32.9  Steel Pipe ........... 9-191
9-32.10  U-Channel Post .. 9-191
9-33  Construction Geosynthetic ..........9-192
9-33.1  Geosynthetic Material Requirements ............ 9-192
9-33.2  Geosynthetic Properties .9-193
9-33.2(1)  Geotextile Properties ................. 9-193
9-33.2(2)  Geotextile Properties for Retaining Walls and 
Reinforced Slopes  .................... 9-195
9-33.2(3)  Prefabricated Drainage Mat ...... 9-195
9-33.3  Aggregate Cushion of Permanent Erosion Control Geotextile ................ 9-196
9-33.4  Geosynthetic Material Approval and Acceptance .....9-196
9-33.4(1)  Geosynthetic Material Approval ...........9-196
9-33.4(2)  Vacant .........9-196
9-33.4(3)  Acceptance Samples  ................ 9-196
9-33.4(4)  Acceptance by Certificate of Compliance  ............................ 9-197
9-33.4(5)  Approval of Seams .................... 9-198
9-34  Pavement Marking Material .......9-199
9-34.1  General ............... 9-199
9-34.2  Paint ................... 9-199
9-34.2(1)  Vacant .........9-199
9-34.2(2)  Color ..........9-199
9-34.2(3)  Prohibited Materials .................. 9-199
9-34.2(4)   Low VOC Solvent Based Paint . 9-200
9-34.2(5)  Low VOC Waterborne Paint ..... 9-201
9-34.2(6)  Temporary Pavement Marking Paint ....9-202
9-34.3  Plastic ................. 9-202
9-34.3(1)  Type A – Liquid Hot Applied Thermoplastic ....................... 9-202
9-34.3(2)  Type B – Pre-Formed Fused Thermoplastic ........................ 9-202
9-34.3(3)  Type C – Cold Applied Pre-Formed Tape ............................ 9-203
9-34.3(4)  Type D – Liquid Cold Applied Methyl Methacrylate .......... 9-203
9-34.4  Glass Beads for Pavement Marking Materials ..........9-204
9-34.5  Temporary Pavement Marking Tape ............. 9-206
9-34.6  Temporary Raised Pavement Markers .......... 9-206
9-34.7  Field Testing ....... 9-206
9-34.7(1)  Requirements ............................ 9-206
9-34.7(1)A  Retroreflectivity  .. 9-206
9-34.7(1)B  Durability ............ 9-207
9-34.7(1)C  Auto No-Track Time .......9-207
9-34.7(1)D  Approval ............. 9-207
9-35 Temporary Traffic Control Materials ....................... 9-208
9-35.0  General Requirements ....9-208
9-35.1  Stop/Slow Paddles .........9-208
9-35.2  Construction Signs .........9-208
9-35.3  Wood Sign Posts  9-209
9-35.4  Sequential Arrow Signs ..9-209
9-35.5  Portable Changeable Message Signs ............ 9-209
9-35.6  Barricades .......... 9-210
9-35.7  Traffic Safety Drums ......9-210
9-35.8  Barrier Drums .... 9-211
9-35.9  Traffic Cones ...... 9-211
9-35.10  Tubular Markers . 9-211
9-35.11  Warning Lights and Flashers......................... 9-211
9-35.12  Transportable Attenuator 9-211
9-35.12(1)  Truck-Mounted Attenuator ....... 9-212
9-35.12(2)  Trailer-Mounted Attenuator ...... 9-212
9-35.12(3)  Submittal Requirements ............ 9-212
9-35.13  Tall Channelizing Devices ............................ 9-212
9-35.14  Portable Temporary Traffic Control Signal ... 9-213
9-36  Shaft-Related Materials ... 9-214
9-36.1  Shaft Casing ....... 9-214
9-36.1(1)  Permanent Casing ..................... 9-214
9-36.1(2)  Temporary Casing ..................... 9-214
9-36.2  Shaft Slurry ........ 9-214
9-36.2(1)  Mineral Slurry ........................... 9-214
9-36.2(2)  Synthetic Slurry ........................ 9-214
9-36.2(3)  Water Slurry . 9-215
9-36.3  Steel Reinforcing Bar Centralizers ............... 9-215
9-36.4  CSL Access Tubes and Caps ......................... 9-215
9-36.5  Grout for CSL Access Tubes ......................... 9-215

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