Planning and Design of Airports

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Planning and Design of Airports


Contents

Preface
Acknowledgments   
Part 1  Airport Planning

1  The Nature of Civil Aviation and Airports      

Introduction
Commercial Service Aviation     
Passenger Air Carriers   
International Air Transportation     
Air Cargo 
General Aviation 
Civil Aviation Airports 
Historical Review of the Legislative Role in Aviation
Air Commerce Act of 1926   
Civil Aeronautics Act of 1938 
Federal Airport Act of 1946   
Federal Aviation Act of 1958 
Creation of the U.S. Department of Transportation 
Airport and Airway Development Act of 1970 
Airline Deregulation Act of 1978     
Impact of Airline Deregulation   
The Airport and Airway Improvement Act of 1982 
The Aviation Safety and Capacity Act of 1990 
AIR-21: The Wendell Ford Aviation
Investment Act for the 21st Century   
The Aviation and Transportation Security Act of 2001   
Vision 100 Century of Aviation Act of 2003 
NextGen Financing Reform Act of 2007/
FAA Reauthorization Act of 2009 
State Roles in Aviation and Airports 
Aviation Organizations and Their Functions   
Federal Agencies of the United States Government   
Federal Aviation Administration     
Transportation Security Administration 
Environmental Protection Agency 
National Transportation Safety Board State Agencies 
The International Civil Aviation Organization   
Industry and Trade Organizations   
References
Web References.

2  Aircraft Characteristics Related to Airport Design   

Dimensional Standards
Landing Gear Confi gurations 
Aircraft Weight  . .   61
Engine Types  . . . .   63
Atmospheric Conditions Affecting
Aircraft Performance    . . . .   69
Air Pressure and Temperature    70
Wind Speed and Direction     73
Aircraft Performance Characteristics    75
Aircraft Speed       75
Payload and Range    . .   77
Runway Performance     79
Declared Distances   . . .   82
Wingtip Vortices   . . . . .   89
References . .   90

3  Air Traffi c Management 

Introduction  . . . . .   95
A Brief History of Air Traffi c Management    .   96
The Organizational Hierarchy of Air Traffi c
Management in the United States   .  97
The Air Traffi c Control System Command Center   .   97
Air Route Traffi c Control Centers    . . .   97
Terminal Approach Control Facilities      98
Airport Traffi c Control Tower   .  99
Flight Service Stations     100
Air Traffi c Management Rules   . . .   100
Airspace Classifi cations and Airways    101
Airways  . .   106
Colored Airways   . . . . .   107
Victor Airways      108
Jet Routes  .   108
Area Navigation   . . . . .   108
Air Traffi c Separation Rules   .   110
Vertical Separation in the Airspace    . .   111
Assigned Flight Altitudes   .   111
Longitudinal Separation in the Airspace   . . .   111
Lateral Separation in the Airspace    . . .   113
Navigational Aids    114
Ground-Based Systems   . . .   114
Satellite-Based Systems: Global
Positioning System     124
The Modernization of Air Traffi c Management   . . . .   127
NextGen  . .   129
SWIM  . . . .   129
NextGen Data Communications      130
NextGen Enabled Weather      130
References . .   130

4  Airport Planning Studies   

Introduction  . . . . .   133
Types of Studies  .   135
The Airport System Plan   . .   135
Airport Site Selection   .   137
The Airport Master Plan   . .   138
The Airport Project Plan   . .   141
Continuing Planning Process     146
References . .   147

5  Forecasting for Airport Planning 

Introduction  . . . . .   149
Levels of Forecasting    .   151
Forecasting Methods    .   152
Time Series Method    . .   154
Market Share Method     156
Econometric Modeling     158
Forecasting Requirements and Applications      162
The Airport System Plan   . .   164
The Airport Master Plan   . .   164
The Future Aviation Forecasting Environment   . . . .   168
References . .   169
Part 2  Airport Design

6  Geometric Design of the Airfield    

Airport Design Standards   . . .   173
Airport Classifi cation    .   174
Utility Airports      176
Transport Airports   . . .   177
Runways   .   177
Runway Confi gurations   . . . .   177
Single Runway      178
Parallel Runways   . . . .   178
Intersecting Runways     181
Open-V Runways   . . . .   181
Combinations of Runway Configurations   . . . .  181
Runway Orientation    .   183
The Wind Rose      186
Estimating Runway Length   . .  191
Runway System Geometric Specifications  . . . .  201
Parallel Runway System Spacing      205
Sight Distance and Longitudinal Profile   . . . .   207
Transverse Gradient   . .   213
Airfi eld Separation Requirements
Related to Runways     213
Obstacle Clearance Requirements    . . .   213
FAR Part 77    . . .   216
ICAO Annex 14    . . . . .   221
TERPS  . . . .   222
Runway End Siting Requirements    . . .   223
Taxiways and Taxilanes   . . . . .   228
Widths and Slopes   . . .   228
Taxiway and Taxilane Separation
Requirements   . . . . .   229
Sight Distance and Longitudinal Profi le   . . . .   234
Exit Taxiway Geometry   . . .   234
Location of Exit Taxiways   .   238
Design of Taxiway Curves
and Intersections   . .   244
End-Around Taxiways     249
Aprons   . . .   250
Holding Aprons   . . . . .   250
Terminal Aprons and Ramps   .  252
Terminal Apron Surface Gradients    . .   254
Control Tower Visibility Requirements    .   254
References . .   255

7  Structural Design of Airport Pavements  

Introduction  . . . . .   257
Soil Investigation and Evaluation     259
The CBR Test    . .   263
The Plate Bearing Test     263
Young’s Modulus (E Value)   . .  266
Effect of Frost on Soil Strength   . . .   266
Subgrade Stabilization      267
FAA Pavement Design Methods   .   268
Equivalent Aircraft Method   . .  269
Cumulative Damage Failure Method      270
Design of Flexible Pavements     271
CBR Method    . .   272
Layered Elastic Design    273
Design of Rigid Pavements   . .   275
Westergaard’s Analysis   . . .   275
Finite Element Theory     276
Joints and Joint Spacing   . . . . .   277
Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavements   . . . .   279
Design of Overlay Pavements   . . .   282
Pavements for Light Aircraft     286
Pavement Evaluation and Pavement
Management Systems   . . . .   287
References . .   288

8  Airport Lighting, Marking, and Signage 

Introduction  . . . . .   291
The Requirements for Visual Aids     292
The Airport Beacon   . .   293
Obstruction Lighting   .   293
The Aircraft Landing Operation    .   293
Alignment Guidance   .   294
Height Information   . .   294
Approach Lighting    . . .   296
System Confi gurations    296
Visual Approach Slope Aids   .   301
Visual Approach Slope Indicator      301
Precision Approach Path Indicator    . .   302
Threshold Lighting    . . .   303
Runway Lighting    303
Runway Edge Lights   .   304
Runway Centerline and Touchdown
Zone Lights    .   304
Runway End Identifi er Lights 
Taxiway Lighting    310
Taxiway Edge Lights   .   311
Runway Guard Lights     313
Runway Stop Bar   . . . .   314
Runway and Taxiway Marking   . .   315
Runways  .   315
Runway Designators   .   315
Runway Threshold Markings   .  320
Centerline Markings   .   320
Aiming Points    .   320
Touchdown Zone Markings   . .  321
Side Stripes    . . .   321
Displaced Threshold Markings    .   321
Blast Pad Markings   . .   322
Taxiway Markings   . . .   323
Centerline and Edge Markings    323
Taxiway Hold Markings   . .   325
Taxiway Shoulders   . . .   326
Enhanced Taxiway Markings     328
Closed Runway and Taxiway Markings   . . . .   328
Airfi eld Signage   . . . . .   329
Runway Distance Remaining Signs    . .   330
Taxiway Guidance Sign System    .   331
Taxiway Designations     331
Types of Taxiway Signs   . . .   333
Signing Conventions   .   337
Sign Size and Location     338
Sign Operation      340
References . .   341

9  Airport Drainage   

Purpose of Drainage  . .   343
Design Storm for Surface Runoff      343
Determining the Intensity-Duration
Pattern for the Design Storm    .   344
Determining the Amount of Runoff by
the FAA Procedure   .   347
Determining the Amount of Runoff by
the Corps of Engineers Procedure    .   358
Layout of Surface Drainage   . .  368
References . .   380

10  Planning and Design of the Terminal Area      

Introduction  . . . . .   383
The Passenger Terminal System   . .   383
Components of the System     383 
Design Considerations      387
Terminal Demand Parameters    393
Facility Classifi cation   .   394
Overall Space Approximations    396
Level of Service Criteria   . .   397
The Terminal Planning Process   . .   399
Space Programming   . .   400
Other Areas    . . .   415
Overall Space Requirements   . .  416
Concept Development     416
Horizontal Distribution Concepts    . . .   417
Vertical Distribution Concepts    423
Schematic Design   . . . .   426
Analysis Methods   . . . .   427
Design Development   .   441
The Apron Gate System   . . . . .   442
Number of Gates   . . . .   442
Ramp Charts    . .   448
Gate Size  .   453
Aircraft Parking Type   .   455
Apron Layout    .   456
Apron Circulation   . . . .   457
Passenger Conveyance to Aircraft    . . .   457
Apron Utility Requirements   . .  458
References . .   461
Part 3  Special Topics in Airport Planning and Design

11  Airport Security Planning 

Introduction  . . . . .   467
History of Airport Security   . .   468
Airport Security Program   . . .   470
Security at Commercial Service Airports    . . .   472
Passenger Screening   . .   473
Baggage Screening   . . .   475
Employee Identifi cation   . .   476
Perimeter Security    . . .   477
Vulnerability Assessment   . . .   477
Security at General Aviation Airports    481
Future Security  . .   481
References . .   482
12  Airport Airside Capacity and Delay    483
Introduction  . . . . .   483
Capacity and Delay Defi ned   .   484
Capacity and Delay in Airfi eld Planning   . . .   485
Approaches to the Analysis of Capacity and Delay   . . . .  486
Factors That Affect Airfi eld Capacity      489
Formulation of Runway Capacity through
Mathematical Theory   . . . .   490
Mathematical Formulation of Delay    .   490
Formulation of Runway Capacity through
the Time-Space Concept   . .   492
Formulation of Ultimate Capacity     497
Mathematical Formulation of
Ultimate Capacity   .   497
Application of Techniques for Ultimate
Hourly Capacity    . . .   514
Parameters Required for Runway
Capacity  . . . .  514
Computation of Delay on Runway Systems      520
Graphical Methods for Approximating
Delay  . .   525
Application of Techniques for Annual
Service Volume    532
Simulation Models   . . .   537
Gate Capacity  . . .   538
Analytical Models for Gate Capacity      539
References . .   541

13  Finance Strategies for Airport Planning   

Introduction  . . . . .   543
Background  . . . . .   543
Federal Funding Programs in the United States   . . . . .  544
The Airport Development Aid
Program     . . .   547
The Passenger Facility Charge
Program     . . .   556
State and Local Participation in Financing
Airport Improvements   . . .   557
Bond Financing  . .   558
General Obligation Bonds      558
General Airport Revenue Bonds       559
Special Facility Bonds     559
PFC Bonds    560
CFC Bonds    560
Privatization of Airports   . . . .   560
Financial Planning    . . .   562
Rate Setting    . . .   564
Evaluation of the Financial Plan   . .   571
References . .   571 

14  Environmental Planning 

Introduction  . . . . .   573
Policy Considerations      574
Pollution Factors  .   576
Air Quality    576
Water Quality    .   577
Aircraft and Airport Noise     579
Sound Pressure and Sound Pressure Level   . . .  580
Aircraft Noise Effects and Land-Use
Compatibility    . . . .   592
Determining the Extent of the Problem   . . . .   598
Finding Solutions   . . . .   604
Noise Regulations   . . . .   609
Construction Impacts   .   615
Social Factors  . . . .   616
Land Development   . . .   616
Displacement and Relocation   .  617
Parks, Recreational Areas, Historical Places,
Archeological Resources,
and Natural and Scenic Beauty    . . .   617
Consistency with Local Planning      618
Ecological Factors    619
Wildlife, Waterfowl, Flora, Fauna,
Endangered Species     619
Wetlands and Coastal Zones   . .  619
Flood Hazards    .   620
Engineering and Economic Factors   . .  620
Costs of Construction and Operation      620
Economic Benefi ts and Fiscal Requirements   . . .  624
Energy and Natural Resources    624
Summary   .   625
References . .   625

15  Heliports  

Introduction  . . . . .   629
Heliports   .   629
The Nature of Helicopter Transportation   . . .   629
Characteristics of Helicopters   .  630
Factors Related to Heliport Site Selection   . . .    631
References . .   648

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