Hydraulic Structures

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Hydraulic Structures


Contents

Preface xi
Preface to the third edition xiii
Preface to the second edition xv
Preface to the first edition xvii
Acknowledgements xix
List of tables xx
List of main symbols xxii
Part One Dam engineering 1

1 Elements of dam engineering 

1.1 General 3
1.2 Introductory perspectives 4
1.3 Embankment dam types and characteristics 12
1.4 Concrete dam types and characteristics 16
1.5 Spillways, outlets and ancillary works 20
1.6 Site assessment and selection of type of dam 23
1.7 Loads on dams 35
References 39

2 Embankment dam engineering 

2.1 Introduction 42
2.2 Nature and classification of engineering soils 42
2.3 Engineering characteristics of soils 47
2.4 Principles of embankment dam design 60
2.5 Materials and construction 73
2.6 Seepage analysis 78
2.7 Stability and stress 82
2.8 Settlement and deformation 97
2.9 Rockfill embankments and rockfill 100
2.10 Small embankment dams, farm dams and flood banks 103
2.11 Tailing dams and storage lagoons 107
2.12 Geosynthetics in embankment dams 108
2.13 Upgrading and rehabilitation of embankment dams 109
Worked examples 111
References 116

3 Concrete dam engineering 

3.1 Loading: concepts and criteria 122
3.2 Gravity dam analysis 133
3.3 Buttress dam analysis 155
3.4 Arch dam analysis 157
3.5 Design features and construction 164
3.6 Concrete for dams 170
3.7 The roller-compacted concrete gravity dam 174
3.8 Upgrading of masonry and concrete dams 180
Worked examples 182
References 188

4 Dam outlet works

4.1 Introduction 191
4.2 The design flood 192
4.3 Flood routing 195
4.4 Freeboard 197
4.5 Sedimentation in reservoirs 200
4.6 Cavitation 204
4.7 Spillways 206
4.8 Bottom outlets 231
Worked examples 234
References 239

5 Energy dissipation 

5.1 General 244
5.2 Energy dissipation on spillways 245
5.3 Stilling basins 249
5.4 Plunge pools 259
5.5 Energy dissipation at bottom outlets 261
Worked examples 262
References 264

6 Gates and valves 

6.1 General 267
6.2 Crest gates 268
6.3 High-head gates and valves 275
6.4 Tidal barrage and surge protection gates 277
6.5 Hydrodynamic forces acting on gates 279
6.6 Cavitation, aeration, vibration of gates 283
6.7 Automation, control and reliability 284
Worked example 285
References 287

7 Dam safety: instrumentation and surveillance 

7.1 Introduction 289
7.2 Instrumentation 291
7.3 Surveillance 304
7.4 Dam safety legislation 306
7.5 Reservoir hazard and risk assessment 309
References 315
Part Two Other hydraulic structures 319

8 River engineering 

8.1 Introduction 321
8.2 Some basic principles of open-channel flow 322
8.3 River morphology and régime 327
8.4 River surveys 331
8.5 Flow-measuring structures 337
8.6 River flood routing 338
8.7 River improvement 342
Worked examples 353
References 360

9 Diversion works 

9.1 Weirs and barrages; worked examples 364
9.2 Intakes; worked examples 392
9.3 Fish passes 410
References 416

10 Cross-drainage and drop structures

10.1 Aqueducts and canal inlets and outlets; worked examples 418
10.2 Culverts, bridges and dips; worked examples 428
10.3 Drop structures; worked example 448
References 458

11 Inland waterways

11.1 Introduction 461
11.2 Definitions, classification and some waterways 463
11.3 Multipurpose utilization of waterways 466
11.4 Transport on inland waterways 469
11.5 Canalization and navigation canals 471
11.6 Resistance of ships 473
11.7 Wave action on banks 475
11.8 Locks 477
11.9 Thrift locks 486
11.10 Lifts and inclined planes 488
11.11 Lock approaches 490
11.12 Inland ports 491
Worked examples 493
References 494

12 Hydroelectric power development 

12.1 Introduction 496
12.2 Worldwide hydroelectric power development in perspective 497
12.3 Power supply and demand 497
12.4 Some fundamental definitions 498
12.5 Types of water power development 499
12.6 Head classification of hydropower plants 502
12.7 Streamflow data essential for the assessment of water-power potential 502
12.8 Hydraulic turbines and their selection 505
12.9 Other components of hydropower plants 517
12.10 Surge tanks 525
12.11 Small hydraulic power plant development 529
12.12 Other energy resources 530
Worked examples 533
References 546

13 Pumping stations 

13.1 Introduction 548
13.2 Pumps and their classification 548
13.3 Design of pumping mains 554
13.4 Classification of pumping stations and intakes 557
13.5 Sump design 559
13.6 Screening devices 562
13.7 Benching 562
13.8 Surges 562
13.9 General design considerations of pumping stations and mains 566
Worked examples 568
References 574

14 Waves and offshore engineering 

14.1 Introduction 575
14.2 Wave motion 576
14.3 Range of validity of linear theory 584
14.4 Waves approaching a shore 586
14.5 Wave breaking 588
14.6 Wave reflection 591
14.7 Basin oscillations 592
14.8 Wave diffraction 593
14.9 Wave prediction 594
14.10 Wave statistics 599
14.11 Forces on cylindrical structures 602
14.12 Vortex-induced oscillations 612
14.13 Oscillations of cylinders in waves 617
Worked examples 618
References 624

15 Coastal engineering

15.1 Introduction 627
15.2 Coastal defence 629
15.3 Wave forces on coastal structures 636
15.4 Wave run-up 641
15.5 Wave overtopping 645
15.6 Rubble-mound breakwaters 647
15.7 Sea outfalls 653
15.8 Coastal management 662
Worked examples 663
References 670

16 Models in hydraulic engineering 

16.1 Hydraulic models 674
16.2 Structural models 683
Worked example 687
References 688

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