Civil Engineering Project Management

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Civil Engineering Project Management

Contents

1 The development of construction procedures 

1.1 The nature of civil engineering work 1
1.2 The most widely used contracts for construction 2
1.3 Other long-standing procedures 3
Lump sum construction contracts 3
Cost reimbursement contracts 3
Design and build contracts 4
1.4 Growing use of design, build and operate contracts 4
1.5 Developments in the later 1980s 5
1.6 New approaches to construction contracts in the 1990s 6
1.7 Introduction of ‘Private Finance Initiative’ 7
1.8 Public–Private Partnerships 8
1.9 Partnering 8
1.10 Project Management 9
1.11 Operational or service contracts and ‘Facilities Management’ 10
1.12 Framework Agreements 11
1.13 Influence of computers and information technology 11
1.14 A criticism of certain systems 13
1.15 Ancillary contractual practices 14

2 Procedures for design and construction 

2.1 Promoter’s obligations 17
2.2 Importance of feasibility studies 18
2.3 Options for design 19
(a) Design by promoter or a consultant 19
(b) Outline designs provided with detailed design by others 19
(c) Layout design by promoter;  detailed design by contractor 20
(d) Functional specification by promoter: design by contractor 20
2.4 Options for construction 20
(a) Direct labour construction 20
(b) Construction divided into trades 21
(c) Main civil contractor supplies all ancillary services 21(d) Civil contractor constructs; promoter orders  21
plant separately
(e) Civil contractor orders all plant 22
(f) Plant supplier arranges building design and construction 22
2.5 Construction using forms of management contracting 23
(a) Construction management 23
(b) Management contracting 23
2.6 Design and build procedures and other options 24
(a) Design and build or ‘turn-key’ contracts 24
(b) Design, build and operate contracts 25
(c) Engineer, procure and construct contracts 26
(d) Partnering 26
(e) ‘Term’ or ‘Serial’ contracting 26
2.7 Comment on possible arrangements 27

3 Payment arrangements, risks and project cost estimating 

3.1 Methods of payment under different types of contract 29
(a) Rates only contracts 29
(b) Rates and prices for re-measurement contracts 29
(c) Lump sum contracts 31
(d) Cost reimbursement contracts 31
(e) Target contracts 32
(f) Payment under design, build and operate contracts 32
3.2 Other payment provisions 32
(a) Price variation provisions 32
(b) Payment terms 33
(c) Bonus payments 33
(d) ‘Ex-contractual’ payments 34
(e) Pre-payments 34
3.3 Contractual risks arising during construction 35
3.4 Producing an initial cost-estimate of a project 36
3.5 Estimating the cost of a project at design stage 37
3.6 Project cost control 39

4 Contract conditions used for civil engineering work 

4.1 Standard conditions of contract 40
4.2 Contract conditions produced by the UK Institution  40
of Civil Engineers
(a) ICE Conditions of Contract for Works of 
Civil Engineering Construction 40
(b) ICE Conditions for Ground Investigations 41
(c) ICE Minor Works Conditions 42
(d) ICE Design and Construct Conditions 42
(e) ICE Term Version 43
(f) ICE Engineering and Construction Contract 43
(g) Partnering Addendum 44
vi Contents4.3 Conditions published by the International Federation of
Consulting Engineers (FIDIC) 45
FIDIC ‘Red Book’ Conditions, 4th Edition 45
1999 New forms 45
4.4 Other conditions for civil engineering or building work 46
GC/Works/1 – General Conditions of Government  46
Contracts for Building and Civil Engineering Works, 
Edition 3 (1991)
Joint Contracts Tribunal Conditions 46
4.5 Conditions mainly for plant and equipment supply 47
I Mech E Model Form A 47
I Mech E/IEE; MF/1 48
FIDIC 2nd and 3rd Editions: ‘Yellow Book’ 48
I Chem E ‘Red Book’ Conditions 48
I Chem E ‘Green Book’ Conditions 48
4.6 Other associated conditions 49
ACE Forms of Agreement 49
CECA Sub-contract forms 49

5 Preparing contract documents 

5.1 Initial decisions 50
5.2 Roles of the key participants in a construction contract 51
5.3 The contract documents 52
Instructions to tenderers 53
General and particular conditions of contract 53
The specification 53
Bill of quantities or schedule of prices 53
Tender and appendices 54
The contract drawings 54
5.4 Bond, insurance, etc. 54
5.5 Writing specifications 55
5.6 Co-ordinating contracts for construction 57
Plant supply contracts 57
Site preparation contracts 58
Co-ordination requirements 59
5.7 The specification of general requirements 59
5.8 The specification for workmanship and materials 61

6 Tendering

6.1 Methods used for obtaining tenders 64
6.2 Tendering requirements and EC rules 65
6.3 Procedures under selective tendering 67
6.4 Requirements for fast completion 69
6.5 Issuing tender documents 69
6.6 Considering tenders 71
Opening tenders 71
Contents viiQualification attached to tenders 72
Checking tenders 72
6.7 Checking prices and comparing tenders 73
6.8 Choosing a tender 75
6.9 Offer by a tenderer to complete early 76
6.10 Procedure for accepting a tender 76
Publications giving guidance on tendering 78
Appendix: UK Regulations 79

7 The contractor’s site organization 

7.1 Contractor’s site personnel 80
7.2 The agent 81
7.3 Site field personnel 82
7.4 Site office personnel 83
7.5 Accounting methods 84
7.6 Providing constructional plant and equipment 85
7.7 The contractor’s use of sub-contractors 86
7.8 Recent measures to alleviate sub-contract disputes 87

8 The employer and his engineer 

8.1 Introduction 89
8.2 The role of the employer’s engineer under ICE conditions 89
8.3 A note on alternative provisions of the ECC conditions 91
8.4 Limitations to the engineer’s powers under ICE conditions 91
8.5 The engineer’s duty to provide all necessary drawings  92
to the contractor
8.6 Quality assurance considerations 93
References 95

9 The resident engineer’s duties 

9.1 The engineer’s representative on site – the resident engineer 96
9.2 Powers not delegated to the resident engineer 96
9.3 Usual powers delegated to the resident engineer 97
9.4 Some common problems 98
9.5 Some important points the resident engineer should watch 99
9.6 The resident engineer’s duties with regard to safety 100
9.7 Relationship between the resident engineer and  100
the contractor’s agent
9.8 Handling troubles 101
9.9 More difficult cases of trouble 102
9.10 The resident engineer’s staff 104
9.11 Gifts and hospitality 106

10 Health and safety regulations 

10.1 Legal framework 107
10.2 The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 1994 107
viii Contents10.3 The Health and Safety Plan required under CDM Regulations 109
10.4 The Health and Safety File required under CDM Regulations 110
10.5 Training 111
10.6 Approved Code of Practice under CDM Regulations 111
10.7 The Management of Health and Safety at  112
Work Regulations 1999
10.8 Risk assessment 113
Reasonably practicable 114
10.9 The Construction (Health, Safety and Welfare)  115
Regulations 1996
10.10 Other major regulations 115
Publications 119

11 Starting the construction work 

11.1 Pre-commencement meeting and start-up arrangements 120
11.2 The contractor’s initial work 121
11.3 The resident engineer’s work 122
Work before going to site 122
The site office 123
11.4 Early matters to discuss with the agent 124
11.5 Some early tasks for the resident engineer 125
11.6 Meeting the employer 125
11.7 Setting up the clerical work 126

12 Site surveys, investigations and layout 

12.1 Responsibility 128
12.2 Levelling 129
12.3 Plane surveying 129
12.4 Setting out verticality, tunnels and pipelines 130
12.5 Setting out floor levels 131
12.6 Site investigations 132
12.7 Trial pits 132
12.8 Exploratory holes 133
Rotary core drilling 133
Light cable percussion drilling 134
Percussion drilling 135
12.9 Other means of ground investigation 135
12.10 Judging the safe bearing value of a foundation 136
12.11 Testing apparatus for a site soils laboratory 136
For moisture content determinations 136
For grading analyses of soils 137
For in situ density test (sand replacement method) 137
For compaction tests 137
12.12 Site layout considerations 138
Haulage roads 138
Planning bulk excavation 139
Contents ixConcrete production plant 139
Power generators and compressors 139
Extra land 140
Main offices 140
12.13 Temporary works 140
12.14 Work in public roads 140
12.15 Site drainage 141
References 143

13 The resident engineer’s office records 

13.1 Records and their importance 144
13.2 The correspondence filing system 144
General files (Series 1–9) 145
Head office (Series 10–19) 145
Separate supply contracts and sub-contractors (Series 20–29) 145
Main contractor (Series 30–39) 145
13.3 CVIs from contractor and instructions to contractor 146
13.4 Register of drawings 147
13.5 Daily and other progress records 147
13.6 Quantity records 149
13.7 The contractor’s interim payment applications 152
13.8 Authorization of dayworks 153
13.9 Filing system for dayworks sheets 155
13.10 Check of materials on site 157
13.11 Price increase records 157
13.12 Supply contract records 158
13.13 Registers of test results 161
13.14 Photographs 162
13.15 Record drawings 162
13.16 Other records 163

14 Programme and progress charts 

14.1 Responsibilities for programming the construction 165
14.2 Difficulties with nominated sub-contractors or suppliers 166
14.3 The role of the resident engineer 166
14.4 Watching and recording progress 167
14.5 Network diagrams and critical path planning 171
14.6 The part played by the agent in achieving progress 174
14.7 Completion 175
14.8 Estimating extension of time 175
14.9 Estimating probable final cost of works 176

15 Measurement and bills of quantities 

15.1 Principles of pricing and payment 178
15.2 Methods of measurement for bills of quantities 179
15.3 The ICE standard method of measurement 180
15.4 Problems with classes of work and number of items 181
15.5 Accuracy of quantities: provisional quantities 182
15.6 Billing of quantities for building work 183
15.7 Some problems of billing 184
Excavation 184
Working space 185
Pipelines 185
Earthwork construction 186
Concrete 186
Brickwork 187
15.8 Use of nominated sub-contractors 187
15.9 Prime cost items 188
15.10 The preliminaries bill and method-related items 189
Temporary works 189
Items added 191
Method-related items 191
Division of items in the preliminaries bill 192
Problems with Civil Engineering Standard Method  193
of Measurement
15.11 Adjustment item to the total price 194
15.12 Preamble to bill of quantities 195
15.13 List of principal quantities 195

16 Interim monthly payments

16.1 Handling interim payments 196
16.2 Agreeing quantities for payment 197
16.3 Payment for extra work, dayworks and claims 198
16.4 Payment of lump sums, method related items and  199
any adjustment item
16.5 Payment for materials on site 200
16.6 Payment for materials manufactured off site 201
16.7 Payment for manufactured items shipped overseas 202
16.8 Price adjustment 202
16.9 Cost reimbursement 203
16.10 Retention and other matters 204

17 Variations and claims 

17.1 Who deals with variations and claims 206
17.2 Payment for increased quantities 207
17.3 Ordered variations 208
17.4 Rates for ordered variations 210
17.5 Variations proposed by the contractor 211
17.6 Claims from the contractor 212
17.7 Sheets submitted ‘for record purposes only’ 213
17.8 Clause 12 claims for unforeseen conditions 214
17.9 Payment for unforeseen conditions 215
Contents xi17.10 Delay claims 217
17.11 Estimating delay costs 218
17.12 Quotations from a contractor for undertaking variations 219
17.13 Time limits and interest payable on late payments 220
17.14 Adjudication 221
17.15 Alternative dispute resolution 222
17.16 Arbitration 223
17.17 Minimizing claims and disputes 223

18 Earthworks and pipelines

18.1 Excavating and earth-placing machinery 225
18.2 Controlling excavation 227
18.3 Haulage of excavated material 228
18.4 Placing and compacting fill 229
18.5 Watching fill quality 230
18.6 Site roads 231
18.7 Trenching for pipelines 232
18.8 Thrust blocks and testing pipelines 233
18.9 Handling and jointing large pipes and fittings 234

19 Site concreting and reinforcement 

19.1 Development of concrete practice 236
19.2 Standards for concrete quality 238
19.3 Practical compliance with concrete standards 240
19.4 Grading of aggregates and their suitable mixing 242
19.5 Workability of concrete and admixtures 243
19.6 Practical points in producing good concrete 245
19.7 Some causes of unsatisfactory concrete test results 247
19.8 Site checks on concrete quality 248
19.9 Conveyance and placing of concrete 250
19.10 Construction and other joints 251
19.11 Concrete finish problems 252
19.12 Handling and fixing steel reinforcement 253
References 256

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