Advanced Concrete Technology

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Advanced Concrete Technology

CONTENTS

1 Introduction to Concrete 

1.1 Concrete Definition and Historical Development 1
1.2 Concrete as a Structural Material 7
1.3 Characteristics of Concrete 10
1.4 Types of Concrete 14
1.5 Factors Influencing Concrete Properties 16
1.6 Approaches to Study Concrete 19
Discussion Topics 21
References 22

2 Materials for Making Concrete

2.1 Aggregates 23
2.2 Cementitious Binders 31
2.3 Admixtures 68
2.4 Water 85
Discussion Topics 88
Problems 89
References 90

3 Fresh Concrete 

3.1 Workability of Fresh Concrete 94
3.2 Mix Design 107
3.3 Procedures for Concrete Mix Design 116
3.4 Manufacture of Concrete 122
3.5 Delivery of Concrete 123
3.6 Concrete Placing 125
3.7 Early-Age Properties of Concrete 135
Discussion Topics 137
Problems 137
References 138

4 Structure of Concrete 

4.1 Introduction 140
4.2 Structural Levels 141
4.3 Structure of Concrete in Nanometer Scale: C–S–H Structure 145
4.4 Transition Zone in Concrete 152
4.5 Microstructural Engineering 156
Discussion Topics 162
References 163

5 Hardened Concrete 

5.1 Strengths of Hardened Concrete 164
5.2 Stress–Strain Relationship and Constitutive Equations 189
5.3 Dimensional Stability—Shrinkage and Creep 197
5.4 Durability 216
Discussion Topics 246
Problems 246
References 248

6 Advanced Cementitious Composites 

6.1 Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites 251
6.2 High-Strength Cementitious Composites 270
6.3 Polymers in Concrete 281
6.4 Shrinkage-Compensating Concrete 292
6.5 Self-Compacting Concrete 296
6.6 Engineered Cementitious Composite 310
6.7 Tube-Reinforced Concrete 312
6.8 High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete 316
6.9 Structural Lightweight Concrete 317
6.10 Heavyweight Concrete 317
Discussion Topics 317
Problems 319
References 320

7 Concrete Fracture Mechanics 

7.1 Introduction 326
7.2 Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics 330
7.3 The Crack Tip Plastic Zone 337
7.4 Crack Tip Opening Displacement 340
7.5 Fracture Process in Concrete 342
7.6 Nonlinear Fracture Mechanics for Concrete 346
7.7 Two-Parameter Fracture Model 348
7.8 Size Effect Model 355
7.9 The Fictitious Model by Hillerborg 364
7.10 R-Curve Method for Quasi-Brittle Materials 369
Discussion Topics 374
Problems 375
References 379

8 Nondestructive Testing in Concrete Engineering 

8.1 Introduction 381
8.2 Review of Wave Theory for a 1D Case 394
8.3 Reflected and Transmitted Waves 403
8.4 Attenuation and Scattering 406
8.5 Main Commonly Used NDT-CE Techniques 407
8.6 Noncontacting Resistivity Measurement Method 458
Discussion Topics 468
Problems 469
References 472

9 The Future and Development Trends of Concrete 

9.1 Sustainability of Concrete 476
9.2 Deep Understanding of the Nature of Hydration 483
9.3 Load-Carrying Capability–Durability Unified Service Life Design Theory 485
9.4 High Toughness and Ductile Concrete 487

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