Building Failures - Diagnosis and Avoidance

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Building Failures - Diagnosis and Avoidance

Contents

1     Introduction     

2     Agencies causing deterioration      

2.1     Solar radiation      
2.2     Moisture      
2.3     Biological agencies    
2.4     Gaseous constituents and pollutants of air    
2.5     Ground salts and waters   
2.6     Manufactured products   
2.7     Juxtaposition of materials and components    

3     Durability of materials    

3.1     Asbestos cement    
3.2     Asphalt and bitumen    
3.3     Bricks and tiles    
3.4     Cement and concrete    
3.5     Metals    
3.6     Glass   
3.7     Mortars and renderings    
3.8     Plastics    
3.9     Natural stone    
3.10     Timber    
3.11     Moisture movement 

4. Moisture    

4.1     Water entering during construction    
4.2     Ground water    
4.3     Rain and snow    
4.4     Moisture from human activities    
4.5     Condensation    
4.6     Avoidance of condensation    

5     Foundations    

5.1     Type and structure of the soil    
5.2     Interaction between soils and buildings    
5.3     Soil movement    
5.4     Fill    

6     Floors, floor finishes and DPMs    

6.1     Hardcore    
6.2     Damp-proofing of floors    
6.3     Concrete floors    
6.4     Magnesite flooring    
6.5     Timber flooring    
6.6     Clay floor tiles    
6.7     Plastic sheets and tiles    

7     Walls and DPCs    

7.1     Moisture penetration from the ground    
7.2     Rain penetration    
7.3     Cold bridges and interstitial condensation    
7.4     Cracking and spalling of masonry through movement           
7.5     Damage to walls by chemical attack    
7.6     Damage to walls by physical attack  
v7.7     Problems with renderings  

8     Cladding  

8.1     Differential movement  
8.2     Inaccuracies in construction  
8.3     Faults caused by movement and inaccuracy  
8.4     Sealants  
8.5     Fixing methods  
8.6     Prevention of loss of integrity in cladding  
8.7     Water entry  

9     Doors and windows  

9.1     Doors  
9.2     Windows  
9.3     Prevention of failure and remedial work  

10     Roofs  

10.1     Flat roofs  
10.2     Pitched roofs 

11     Services  

11.1     Heating installations  
11.2     Chimneys and flues  
11.3     Plumbing and drainage  
11.4     Electricity supply  
12     Failure patterns and control  
12.1     Cost and types of defect  
12.2     Causes  
12.3     Reasons for failure  
12.4     Problems of innovation  
12.5     Towards better control

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