Structural Concrete

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Structural Concrete

CONTENTS

Conversion Factors 

1 Introduction 
1.1 Structural Concrete 
1.2 Historical Background 
1.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Reinforced Concrete 
1.4 Codes of Practice 
1.5 Design Philosophy and Concepts 
1.6 Units of Measurement 
1.7 Loads 
1.8 Safety Provisions 
1.9 Structural Concrete Elements 
1.10 Structural Concrete Design 
1.11 Accuracy of Calculations
1.12 Concrete High-Rise Buildings 
References 

2 Properties of Reinforced Concrete 

2.1 Factors Affecting Strength of Concrete 15
2.2 Compressive Strength 17
2.3 Stress–Strain Curves of Concrete 18
2.4 Tensile Strength of Concrete 20
2.5 Flexural Strength (Modulus of Rupture) of Concrete 21
2.6 Shear Strength 22
2.7 Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete 22
2.8 Poisson’s Ratio 23
2.9 Shear Modulus 23
2.10 Modular Ratio 24
2.11 Volume Changes of Concrete 24
2.12 Creep 26
2.13 Models for Predicting Shrinkage and Creep of Concrete 28
2.14 Unit Weight of Concrete 64
2.15 Fire Resistance 64
2.16 High-Performance Concrete 64
2.17 Lightweight Concrete 65
2.18 Fibrous Concrete 66
2.19 Steel Reinforcement 66

3 Flexural Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beams 

3.1 Introduction 75
3.2 Assumptions 76
3.3 Behavior of Simply Supported Reinforced Concrete Beam Loaded to Failure 76
3.4 Types of Flexural Failure and Strain Limits 80
3.5 Load Factors 84
3.6 Strength Reduction Factor φ 85
3.7 Significance of Analysis and Design Expressions 87
3.8 Equivalent Compressive Stress Distribution 88
3.9 Singly Reinforced Rectangular Section in Bending 90
3.10 Lower Limit or Minimum Percentage of Steel 101
3.11 Adequacy of Sections 102
3.12 Bundled Bars 106
3.13 Sections in the Transition Region (φ < 0.9) 107
3.14 Rectangular Sections with Compression Reinforcement 109
3.15 Analysis of T- and I-Sections 120
3.16 Dimensions of Isolated T-Shaped Sections 129
3.17 Inverted L-Shaped Sections 130
3.18 Sections of Other Shapes 130
3.19 Analysis of Sections Using Tables 133
3.20 Additional Examples 134
3.21 Examples Using SI Units 136

4 Flexural Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 

4.1 Introduction 146
4.2 Rectangular Sections with Reinforcement Only 146
4.3 Spacing of Reinforcement and Concrete Cover 149
4.4 Rectangular Sections with Compression Reinforcement 156Contents vii
4.5 Design of T-Sections 163
4.6 Additional Examples 168
4.7 Examples Using SI Units 173

5 Shear and Diagonal Tension 

5.1 Introduction 183
5.2 Shear Stresses in Concrete Beams 183
5.3 Behavior of Beams without Shear Reinforcement 186
5.4 Moment Effect on Shear Strength 188
5.5 Beams with Shear Reinforcement 190
5.6 ACI Code Shear Design Requirements 193
5.7 Design of Vertical Stirrups 196
5.8 Design Summary 200
5.9 Shear Force due to Live Loads 204
5.10 Shear Stresses in Members of Variable Depth 208
5.11 Examples Using SI Units 215

6 Deflection and Control of Cracking 

6.1 Deflection of Structural Concrete Members 222
6.2 Instantaneous Deflection 223
6.3 Long-Time Deflection 229
6.4 Allowable Deflection 230
6.5 Deflection due to Combinations of Loads 230
6.6 Cracks in Flexural Members 239
6.7 ACI Code Requirements 243

7 Development Length of Reinforcing Bars 

7.1 Introduction 253
7.2 Development of Bond Stresses 254
7.3 Development Length in Tension 257
7.4 Development Length in Compression 261
7.5 Summary for Computation of Id in Tension 262
7.6 Critical Sections in Flexural Members 265
7.7 Standard Hooks (ACI Code, Sections 12.5 and 7.1) 269
7.8 Splices of Reinforcement 272
7.9 Moment–Resistance Diagram (Bar Cutoff Points)

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