Construction Management and Design of Industrial Concrete and Steel Structures

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Construction Management and Design of Industrial Concrete 

and Steel Structures


Contents

  1.  Introduction 

  2.  Construction Management for Industrial Projects 

2.1  Introduction 
2.2  Project Characteristics 
2.3  Project Life Cycle 
2.3.1  Feasibility Study
2.3.2  FEED (Preliminary) Engineering 
2.3.3  Detail Engineering
2.3.4  Design Management
2.3.5  Execution Phase 
2.3.6  Commissioning and Start-Up 
2.4  Is This Project Successful? 
2.5  Project Management Tasks 
2.6  Project Manager Skill 
2.7  Project Planning 
2.7.1  Who Will Make the Plan? 
2.7.2  Where Do You Start the Plan? 
2.7.3  Work Breakdown Structure 
2.8  Responsibilities of the Planning Team
2.9  Estimating Time Required for an Activity 
2.9.1  Calculating Time Required for an Activity 
2.9.2  Time Schedule Preparation
2.9.3  Arrow Diagram 
2.9.4  Precedence Diagram ..............................................................32
2.9.5  Gantt Chart .............................................................................32
2.9.6  Critical Path Method .............................................................33
2.9.7  Program Evaluation and Review Technique .....................34
2.9.8  Example ...................................................................................35
2.9.9  Applications for the PERT Method .....................................36
2.9.9.1  Statistical Calculation of Activity Time ..............38
2.9.9.2  Example ...................................................................38
2.10  Cost Management ...............................................................................39
2.10.1  Cost Estimate ..........................................................................39
2.10.2  Cost Types ...............................................................................41
2.10.3  Construction Cost Estimate ..................................................42
2.10.4  Steel Structure Cost Estimate ...............................................44viii  Contents
2.10.5  Detailed Cost ..........................................................................46
2.10.6  Tendering Cost Estimate .......................................................46
2.10.7  Cost Estimate to Project Control ..........................................46
2.10.8  Economic Analysis of Project Cost ......................................47
2.10.8.1  Work Breakdown Structure ..................................47
2.10.8.2  Organization Breakdown Structure ....................48
2.10.8.3  OBS and WBS Matrix .............................................48
2.10.8.4  Work Packages ........................................................48
2.10.8.5  Cost Control ............................................................50
2.10.8.6  The Cost Curve .......................................................52
2.10.9  Cash Flow Calculation ..........................................................55
2.10.9.1  Cash Flow during the Project ...............................56
2.10.9.2  Impact on Increasing Cost ....................................57
2.10.9.3  Project Late Impact .................................................58
2.10.9.4  Impact of Operation Efficiency.............................58
2.11  Project Risk Management ..................................................................59
2.11.1  Project Risks ...........................................................................60
2.11.2  Risk Assessment..................................................................... 61
2.11.3  Defining Risk Using Quantitative Risk Assessment ........62
2.11.4  Qualitative Risk Assessment ................................................64

  3.  Loads on Industrial Structures

3.1  Introduction .........................................................................................67
3.2  Loads .....................................................................................................67
3.2.1  Dead Load ...............................................................................68
3.2.1.1  General Design Loads ...........................................68
3.2.1.2  Pipe Rack .................................................................75
3.2.1.3  Ground-Supported Storage Tank Loads ............. 76
3.2.2  Live Loads ...............................................................................77
3.2.3  Wind Loads .............................................................................78
3.2.3.1  Basic Wind Load Formula .....................................78
3.2.3.2  Wind Loads on Pipe Racks and 
Open- Frame Structures .........................................81
3.2.4  Earthquake Loads ................................................................ 103
3.2.4.1  Design Spectral Response Acceleration 
Parameters ............................................................. 104
3.2.4.2  Architectural, Mechanical, and Electrical 
Components Systems ........................................... 104
3.2.4.3  HVAC Ductwork .................................................. 107
3.2.4.4  Piping Systems ...................................................... 108
3.2.4.5  Boilers and Pressure Vessels ............................... 109
3.2.4.6  General Precaution ............................................... 109
3.2.4.7  Building and Nonbuilding Structures .............. 109
3.2.4.8  Flexibility of Piping Attachments ...................... 114Contents  ix
3.2.4.9  Design Review for Seismic Loads ...................... 115
3.2.5  Impact Loads ........................................................................ 116
3.2.6  Thermal Loads ..................................................................... 116
3.2.7  Bundle Pull Load ................................................................. 117
3.2.8  Ice Loads ................................................................................ 118
3.2.8.1  Site-Specific Studies  ............................................. 118
3.2.8.2  Loads due to Freezing Rain ................................ 119
3.2.8.3  Design Ice Thickness for Freezing Rain ...........120
3.2.8.4  Wind on Ice-Covered Structures .......................120
3.3  Load Combinations ..........................................................................120
3.3.1  Load Combinations ............................................................. 121
3.3.1.1  Vertical Vessels .....................................................125
3.3.1.2  Horizontal Vessels and Heat Exchangers .........125
3.3.1.3  Pipe Rack and Pipe Bridge Design ....................126
3.3.1.4  Ground-Supported Storage Tank Load 
Combinations ........................................................126
3.3.2  Test Combinations ...............................................................126
References .....................................................................................................127

  4.  Design of Foundations for Vibrating Equipment 

4.1  Introduction .......................................................................................129
4.2  Machine Requirements ....................................................................129
4.3  Foundation Design Guidelines .......................................................130
4.3.1  Trial Foundation Sizing Guidelines ..................................130
4.3.2  Foundation Dynamic Analysis .......................................... 132
4.3.3  Soil Parameter ......................................................................134
4.4  Vibration Isolation ............................................................................. 146
4.4.1  Isolating Liners ..................................................................... 147
4.4.2  Spring and Rubber Mounts ................................................ 147
4.4.3  Inertia Block Bolt or Pad Mounting Bolt Installation ..... 148
4.4.4  Grouting ................................................................................ 149
4.5  Design Checklist ............................................................................... 151
References ..................................................................................................... 151

  5.  Storage Tank Design 

5.1  Introduction ....................................................................................... 153
5.2  Concrete Storage Tanks .................................................................... 153
5.2.1  Rectangular Wall—Concrete ............................................. 155
5.2.2  Circular Tank ........................................................................ 158
5.3  Retaining Wall ................................................................................... 161
5.3.1  Preliminary Retaining Wall Dimensions ......................... 162
5.3.1.1  Check Stability against Overturning ................ 162
5.3.1.2  Check Stability against Sliding .......................... 164
5.3.1.3  Check Stability against Bearing Capacity ........ 164
5.4  Steel Storage Tank ............................................................................. 167x  Contents
5.4.1  Tank Capacity ....................................................................... 167
5.4.2  Bottom Plates ........................................................................ 168
5.4.3  Annular Bottom Plates ........................................................ 169
5.4.4  Shell Design .......................................................................... 170
5.4.4.1  Allowable Stress ................................................... 171
5.4.4.2  Calculation of Thickness by the 
1-Foot Method ....................................................... 171
5.4.4.3  Calculation of Thickness by the Variable-
Design-Point Method ........................................... 172
5.4.5  Roof System .......................................................................... 175
5.4.5.1  Allowable Stresses ................................................177
5.4.5.2  Supported Cone Roofs .........................................177
5.4.5.3  Self-Supporting Cone Roofs................................ 179
5.4.5.4  Self-Supporting Dome and Umbrella Roofs ..... 179
5.4.6  Tank Design Loads .............................................................. 180
5.4.7  Load Combination ............................................................... 182
5.4.8  Design Basis for Small Tanks ............................................. 182
5.4.9  Piping Flexibility .................................................................. 185
5.4.10  Differential Settlement Tank Bottom Designs ................. 186
5.5  Ring Beam Design Consideration................................................... 187
5.5.1  Wind and Earthquake Stability and Pressures ............... 191
5.5.2  Earthquake Stability ............................................................ 191
5.5.3  Soil Bearing ........................................................................... 191
5.5.4  Soil Pressure (Uplift Is Present) ......................................... 192
5.5.5  Concrete Ring Beam Design .............................................. 193
5.5.6  Ring Wall Reinforcement .................................................... 194
References ..................................................................................................... 198

  6.  Static Equipment Foundation Design 

6.1  Introduction ....................................................................................... 199
6.2  Design Procedure .............................................................................. 199
6.2.1  Dead Loads ........................................................................... 199
6.2.2  Live Loads ............................................................................. 201
6.2.3  Wind Loads ........................................................................... 201
6.2.4  Earthquake Loads ................................................................ 201
6.2.5  Bundle Pull Load (Exchangers) .........................................202
6.2.6  Thermal Forces .....................................................................202
6.2.7  Load Combinations .............................................................206
6.3  Anchor Bolts ......................................................................................206
6.4  Slide Plates .........................................................................................206
6.5  Pier Design .........................................................................................208
6.5.1  Anchorage Considerations .................................................208
6.5.2  Reinforcement for Piers .......................................................208
6.6  Foundation Design ............................................................................209
6.6.1  Foundation Reinforcement ................................................. 210Contents  xi
6.6.1.1  Bottom Reinforcement ......................................... 210
6.6.1.2  Top Reinforcement ............................................... 211
6.7  Example: Heat Exchanger Data ....................................................... 214
6.7.1  Design Data .......................................................................... 214
6.7.2  Design Criteria ..................................................................... 214
6.7.3  Loads Calculation ................................................................ 215
6.7.4  Design Elements ................................................................... 217
6.7.4.1  Size Steel Slide Plate ............................................. 217
6.7.4.2  Pier Size ................................................................. 218
6.7.4.3  Pier Design ............................................................ 218
6.7.4.4  Footing Size ...........................................................221
6.7.4.5  Footing Design .....................................................230
6.8  Separator Design Example ...............................................................233
6.8.1  Design Data ..........................................................................233
6.8.2  Loads Calculation ................................................................235
6.8.3  Design Elements ...................................................................236
6.9  Vertical Vessel Foundation Design .................................................238
6.9.1  Dead Loads ...........................................................................238
6.9.2  Pedestal Design .................................................................... 241
6.9.3  Footing Design .....................................................................244
6.9.4  Soil Bearing on the Octagon Footing ................................244
6.9.5  Check Stability and Sliding ................................................ 249
6.9.6  Check for Foundation Sliding ............................................250
6.9.7  Reinforced Concrete Design ...............................................250
6.9.7.1  Top Reinforcement ...............................................251
6.9.7.2  Shear Consideration .............................................251
6.10  Example for Vertical Vessel .............................................................253
6.10.1  Design Data ..........................................................................253
6.10.2  Pedestal Design ....................................................................254
6.10.3  Anchor Bolt Check ...............................................................255
6.10.4  Footing Design .....................................................................256
6.11  Pipe Support ......................................................................................259
References .....................................................................................................263

  7.  Steel Structures in Industry 

7.1  Introduction .......................................................................................265
7.2  Stress–Strain Behavior of Structural Steel .....................................265
7.3  Design Procedure ..............................................................................266
7.3.1  Tension Members ................................................................. 267
7.3.1.1  Slenderness Ratio .................................................268
7.3.2  Compression Members .......................................................271
7.3.2.1  Steps of Preliminary Design ...............................271
7.3.3  Beam Design ......................................................................... 281
7.3.3.1  Lateral Torsion Buckling .....................................283
7.3.3.2  Allowable Deflection............................................285xii  Contents
7.3.4  Design of Beam Column Member (Allowable 
Stress Design) .......................................................................290
7.3.5  Design of Beam Column Member (LRFD) .......................292
7.4  Steel Pipe Rack Design .....................................................................295
7.4.1  Pipe Rack Design Guide .....................................................295
7.4.2  Pipe Rack Superstructure Design ......................................296
7.4.2.1  Structural Steel Expansion ..................................297
7.5  Stairway and Ladders .......................................................................302
7.5.1  Stairways ...............................................................................302
7.5.2  Handrails and Railings .......................................................304
7.6  Crane Supports ..................................................................................304
7.7  Connections .......................................................................................304
7.7.1  Bolts ........................................................................................305
7.7.2  Welding .................................................................................309
7.7.2.1  Welding Symbols ..................................................309
7.7.2.2  Strength of Welds ................................................. 311
7.7.2.3  Welding in Existing Structures .......................... 313
7.7.3  Connection Design .............................................................. 313
7.7.4  Base Plate Design ................................................................. 320
7.8  Anchor Bolt Design ........................................................................... 321
7.8.1  Anchor Bolts, Nuts, and Washers ...................................... 321
7.8.1.1  Anchor Bolts .......................................................... 321
7.8.1.2  Washers .................................................................. 321
7.8.1.3  Sleeves ....................................................................322
7.8.2  Anchor Bolt Plate Design .................................................... 324
7.8.3  Coatings and Corrosion ...................................................... 324
7.8.4  Bolt Types, Details, and Layout .........................................325
7.8.4.1  Anchor Bolt Projection ........................................ 326
7.8.4.2  Edge Distance ....................................................... 327
7.8.4.3  Embedment Depth ...............................................328
7.8.5  Calculation of Vessel Anchor Bolts ...................................328
7.8.6  Anchor Bolt Strength Design .............................................330
7.8.6.1  Ultimate Strength Design ................................... 331
7.8.6.2  Allowable Stress Design ...................................... 331
7.8.6.3  Calculate Required Embedment Length ..........332
7.8.7  Anchor Design Considerations ..........................................333
7.8.8  Pretensioning ........................................................................334
References .....................................................................................................334

  8.  Assessment of Existing Structures 

8.1  Introduction .......................................................................................337
8.2  Preliminary Inspection ....................................................................338
8.2.1  Collecting Data .....................................................................338
8.2.2  Visual Inspection .................................................................340
8.2.2.1  Plastic Shrinkage Cracking .................................341Contents  xiii
8.2.2.2  Settlement Cracking .............................................343
8.2.2.3  Drying Shrinkage .................................................344
8.2.2.4  Thermal Stresses ..................................................345
8.2.2.5  Chemical Reaction ................................................346
8.3  Detailed Inspection ...........................................................................346
8.3.1  Methods of Structure Assessment ....................................347
8.3.2  Concrete Test Data ...............................................................348
8.3.2.1  Core Test ................................................................348
8.3.2.2  Rebound Hammer ................................................353
8.3.2.3  Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity ....................................354
8.3.2.4  Inherent Variations in In Situ Strength .............357
8.3.2.5  Comparison between Different Tests ................358
8.3.3  Sources of Concrete Failure ................................................359
8.4  Test Methods for Corroded Steel in Concrete ...............................360
8.4.1  Manual Method ....................................................................360
8.4.2  Concrete Cover Measurements .......................................... 361
8.4.3  Half-Cell Potential Measurements ....................................363
8.4.4  Electrical Resistivity Measurement ...................................365
8.4.5  Measurement of Carbonation Depth ................................ 367
8.4.6  Chloride Test ......................................................................... 367
8.5  Structure Evaluation Technique .....................................................369
8.5.1  Case Study One: Structural Evaluation ............................369
8.5.2  Case Study Two: Structural Assessment .......................... 370
8.5.3  Case Study Three: Structural Assessment .......................372
8.5.4  Case Study Four: Structural Assessment ......................... 373
8.6  Structural Assessment ...................................................................... 373
References ..................................................................................................... 374

  9.  Methods of Protecting Foundations from Corrosion 

9.1  Introduction .......................................................................................377
9.2  Corrosion Inhibitor ........................................................................... 378
9.2.1  Anodic Inhibitors ................................................................. 378
9.2.2  Cathodic Inhibitor ................................................................ 379
9.3  Epoxy Coating of Steel Reinforcement ..........................................380
9.4  Galvanized Steel Bars .......................................................................382
9.5  Stainless Steel ....................................................................................384
9.6  Fiber Reinforcement Bars .................................................................385
9.7  Protecting Concrete Surfaces ..........................................................387
9.7.1  Sealers and Membranes ......................................................387
9.7.1.1  Coating and Sealers .............................................388
9.7.1.2  Pore Lining ............................................................388
9.7.1.3  Pore Blocking ........................................................389
9.7.2  Cathodic Protection by Surface Painting..........................389
9.8  Cathodic Protection System .............................................................390
9.8.1  Cathodic Protection ............................................................. 391xiv  Contents
9.8.2  Cathodic Protection Components and 
Design Consideration ..........................................................393
9.8.2.1  Source of Impressed Current ..............................394
9.8.2.2  Anode System .......................................................394
9.8.2.3  Conductive Layer .................................................396
9.8.2.4  Precaution in Anode Design ...............................396
9.8.2.5  Follow-Up Precaution ..........................................397
9.8.3  A Comparison between Cathodic Protection and 
Other Methods .....................................................................398
9.8.4  Cathodic Protection for the Prestressed Concrete ..........399
9.8.5  Bond Strength in Case of Cathodic Protection ................400
References .....................................................................................................401

 10.  Repair of Industrial Structures 

10.1  Introduction .......................................................................................403
10.2  Main Steps to Execute Repair ..........................................................404
10.2.1  Strengthening the Structure ...............................................405
10.2.2  Removal of Concrete Cracks ..............................................406
10.2.2.1  Manual Method ....................................................408
10.2.2.2  Pneumatic Hammer Methods ............................408
10.2.2.3  Water Jet .................................................................409
10.3  Cleaning the Concrete Surface and Steel Reinforcement ............409
10.3.1  Concrete................................................................................. 410
10.3.2  Cleaning the Steel Reinforcement Bars ............................ 411
10.4  New Patches of Concrete ................................................................. 414
10.4.1  Polymer Mortar .................................................................... 414
10.4.2  Cement Mortar ..................................................................... 415
10.5  Execution Methods ........................................................................... 415
10.5.1  Manual Method .................................................................... 415
10.5.2  Casting Way at the Site ........................................................ 415
10.5.2.1  Grouted Preplaced Aggregate ............................ 416
10.5.2.2  Shotcrete ................................................................ 416
10.5.3  Complete Member Casting ................................................. 417
10.6  Repair Steps ....................................................................................... 418
10.7  New Methods for Strengthening Concrete Structures................ 418
10.8  Using Steel Sections ..........................................................................420
10.9  Fiber-Reinforced Polymer ................................................................423
10.9.1  CFRP Types ...........................................................................425
10.9.2  Application on Site ...............................................................425
10.10  General Precaution............................................................................427
References .....................................................................................................428

 11.  Economic Study for Maintenance Plan

11.1  Introduction ....................................................................................... 431
11.2  Basic Rules of Cost Calculation .......................................................432Contents  xv
11.2.1  Present Value Method .........................................................433
11.3  Repair Time ........................................................................................433
11.3.1  Capacity Loss in Reinforced Concrete Sections ..............435
11.3.2  Required Time to Corrosion ...............................................437
11.3.3  Time Required to Deterioration .........................................438
11.4  Repair and Inspection Strategy and Optimization ......................439
11.4.1  Repair .....................................................................................441
11.4.2  Expected Total Cost .............................................................441
11.4.3  Optimization Strategy .........................................................442
11.5  Maintenance Plan..............................................................................445
11.5.1  Assessment Process .............................................................445
11.5.2  RBI Maintenance Plan .........................................................449
11.5.3  RBI Plan for Offshore Structures .......................................451
11.5.3.1  Risk Matrix ............................................................452
11.5.3.2  Development of Likelihood ................................453
11.5.3.3  Development of Consequence ............................455
11.5.3.4  Inspection Planning for Offshore Structure ....457
References .....................................................................................................458

 12.  Overview of Fixed Offshore Structures 

12.1  Introduction ....................................................................................... 461
12.2  Types of Offshore Platforms ............................................................462
12.2.1  Fixed Offshore Platforms ....................................................462
12.2.1.1  Drilling or Well Protector Platforms .................462
12.2.1.2  Tender Platforms ..................................................462
12.2.1.3  Self-Contained Platforms ....................................463
12.2.1.4  Production Platform.............................................463
12.2.1.5  Quarters Platform ................................................463
12.2.1.6  Flare Jacket and Flare Tower ..............................463
12.2.1.7  Auxiliary Platform ...............................................463
12.2.1.8  Catwalk ..................................................................464
12.2.1.9  Heliport ..................................................................464
12.2.2  Concrete Gravity Platforms ................................................464
12.2.3  Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading  .................465
12.2.4  Tension Leg Platforms .........................................................467
12.3  Major Steps in Constructing an Offshore Structure ....................468
12.4  Offshore Platform Design Overview ............................................. 470
12.4.1  Loads ...................................................................................... 470
12.4.1.1  Gravity Load ......................................................... 470
12.4.1.2  Impact Load ..........................................................472
12.4.1.3  Wind Load .............................................................472
12.4.1.4  Wave Load .............................................................475
12.4.1.5  Comparison between Wind and Wave 
Calculation ............................................................479
12.4.1.6  Current Loads .......................................................479xvi  Contents
12.4.1.7  Earthquake Load ..................................................480
12.4.1.8  Other Loads ...........................................................480
12.4.2  Platform Configuration  .......................................................482
12.4.3  Approximate Design Dimensions .....................................484
12.4.4  Topside Structures ...............................................................484
12.4.5  Jacket Design ........................................................................484
12.4.6  Bracing System .....................................................................485
12.4.7  In-Place Structure Analysis ................................................488
12.4.8  Dynamic Structure Analysis ..............................................489
12.4.9  Tubular Joint Design ............................................................ 491
12.4.9.1  Tubular Joint Calculation .................................... 491
12.4.9.2  Tubular Joint Punching Failure ..........................493
12.4.10 Fatigue Analysis ...................................................................493
12.4.11 Boat Landing ........................................................................495
12.4.11.1  Calculation of Collison Force ............................496
12.4.11.2  Cases of Impact Load .........................................498
12.4.11.3  Cases of Impact Load .........................................500
12.5  Design Quality Control ....................................................................501
12.6  Construction Procedures .................................................................501
12.6.1  Engineering of Execution ...................................................505
12.6.2  Fabrication .............................................................................506
12.6.2.1  Joint Fabrication ....................................................506
12.6.3  Jacket Assembly ...................................................................507
12.6.4  Jacket Erection ......................................................................508
12.6.5  Loads from Transportation, Launch, and Lifting 
Operations .............................................................................509
12.6.6  Lifting Forces ........................................................................ 511
12.6.7  Loadout Forces ..................................................................... 512
12.6.8  Transportation Forces .......................................................... 512
12.6.9  Launching and Upending Forces ...................................... 518
12.6.10 Installation ............................................................................ 519
References ..................................................................................................... 520

 13.  Soil Investigation and Pile Design 

13.1  Introduction ....................................................................................... 521
13.2  Soil Exploration Methods.................................................................522
13.2.1  Planning the Program .........................................................522
13.2.2  Organization of Fieldwork .................................................523
13.2.3  Soil Boring Methods ............................................................525
13.2.3.1  Wash Borings ........................................................ 526
13.2.3.2  Sampling Methods ............................................... 526
13.2.3.3  Spacing of Borings................................................ 527
13.2.3.4  Boring Depth......................................................... 527
13.2.3.5  Boring Report ........................................................528
13.2.4  Standard Penetration Test ...................................................528Contents  xvii
13.2.5  Cone Penetration Tests ........................................................530
13.2.6  Vane Test ............................................................................... 531
13.2.7  Cross-Hole Test .....................................................................532
13.2.7.1  Body Waves ...........................................................535
13.2.7.2  Surfaces Waves .....................................................535
13.3  Deep Foundation ...............................................................................535
13.3.1  Timber Piles ..........................................................................537
13.3.2  Steel Piles...............................................................................538
13.3.3  Concrete Piles .......................................................................538
13.3.4  Precast and Prestressed Piles .............................................539
13.3.5  Pile Caps ................................................................................541

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