MATERIALS FOR CIVIL AND CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERS THIRD EDITION

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MATERIALS FOR CIVIL AND CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERS THIRD EDITION


CONTENTS
Preface   xiv
About the Authors   xviii
Materials Engineering Concepts 1
1.1     Economic Factors   2
1.2     Mechanical Properties   3
1.2.1 • Loading Conditions   4
1.2.2 • Stress–Strain Relations   5
1.2.3 • Elastic Behavior   5
1.2.4 • Elastoplastic Behavior   8
1.2.5 • Viscoelastic Behavior   12
1.2.6 • Temperature and Time Effects   17
1.2.7 • Work and Energy   18
1.2.8 • Failure and Safety   18
1.3     Nonmechanical Properties   21
1.3.1 • Density and Unit Weight   21
1.3.2 • Thermal Expansion   22
1.3.3 • Surface Characteristics   23
1.4     Production and Construction   24
1.5     Aesthetic Characteristics   25
1.6     Sustainable Design   26
1.7     Material Variability   27
1.7.1 • Sampling   28
1.7.2 • Normal Distribution   29
1.7.3 • Control Charts   29
1.7.4 • Experimental Error   321.8     Laboratory Measuring Devices   32
1.8.1 • Dial Gauge   33
1.8.2 • Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT)   33
1.8.3 • Strain Gauge   37
1.8.4 • Non-Contact Deformation Measurement Technique   38
1.8.5 • Proving Ring   38
1.8.6 • Load Cell   39
Summary   40
Questions and Problems   41
1.9     References   51
TWO
Nature of Materials 52
2.1     Basic Materials Concepts   52
2.1.1 • Electron Configuration   52
2.1.2 • Bonding   55
2.1.3 • Material Classification by Bond Type   58
2.2     Metallic Materials   58
2.2.1 • Lattice Structure   59
2.2.2 • Lattice Defects   63
2.2.3 • Grain Structure   64
2.2.4 • Alloys   67
2.2.5 • Phase Diagrams   67
2.2.6 • Combined Effects   73
2.3     Inorganic Solids   73
2.4     Organic Solids   75
2.4.1 • Polymer Development, Structure, and Cross-Linking   76
2.4.2 • Melting and Glass Transition Temperature   79
2.4.3 • Mechanical Properties   80
Summary   81
Questions and Problems   81
2.5     References   84
iv         ContentsTHREE
Steel 85
3.1     Steel Production   87
3.2     Iron–Carbon Phase Diagram   89
3.3     Heat Treatment of Steel   93
3.3.1 • Annealing   93
3.3.2 • Normalizing   94
3.3.3 • Hardening   95
3.3.4 • Tempering   95
3.3.5 • Example of Heat Treatment   95
3.4     Steel Alloys   95
3.5     Structural Steel   97
3.5.1 • Structural Steel Grades   97
3.5.2 • Sectional Shapes   100
3.5.3 • Specialty Steels in Structural Applications   101
3.6     Cold-Formed Steel   106
3.6.1 • Cold-Formed Steel Grades   106
3.6.2 • Cold-Formed Steel Shapes   107
3.6.3 • Special Design Considerations for Cold-Formed Steel   109
3.7     Fastening Products   109
3.8     Reinforcing Steel   111
3.8.1 • Conventional Reinforcing   111
3.8.2 • Steel for Prestressed Concrete   115
3.9     Mechanical Testing of Steel   116
3.9.1 • Tension Test   116
3.9.2 • Torsion Test   119
3.9.3 • Charpy V Notch Impact Test   122
3.9.4 • Bend Test   124
3.9.5 • Hardness Test   125
3.9.6 • Ultrasonic Testing   125
3.10     Welding   126
3.11     Steel Corrosion   129
3.11.1 • Methods for Corrosion Resistance   130
Summary   131
Questions and Problems   131
3.12     References   139
Contents vFOUR
Aluminum 140
4.1     Aluminum Production   143
4.2     Aluminum Metallurgy   145
4.2.1 • Alloy Designation System   147
4.2.2 • Temper Treatments   148
4.3     Aluminum Testing and Properties   151
4.4     Welding and Fastening   156
4.5     Corrosion   157
Summary   157
Questions and Problems   157
4.6     References   162
FIVE
Aggregates 163
5.1     Aggregate Sources   164
5.2     Geological Classification   165
5.3     Evaluation of Aggregate Sources   165
5.4     Aggregate Uses   166
5.5     Aggregate Properties   167
5.5.1 • Particle Shape and Surface Texture   169
5.5.2 • Soundness and Durability   171
5.5.3 • Toughness, Hardness, and Abrasion Resistance   172
5.5.4 • Absorption   173
5.5.5 • Specific Gravity   175
5.5.6 • Bulk Unit Weight and Voids in Aggregate   177
5.5.7 • Strength and Modulus   178
5.5.8 • Gradation   178
5.5.9 • Cleanness and Deleterious Materials   194
5.5.10 • Alkali–Aggregate Reactivity   195
5.5.11 • Affinity for Asphalt   197
5.6     Handling Aggregates   198
5.6.1 • Sampling Aggregates   199
vi         ContentsSummary   200
Questions and Problems   200
5.7     References   209
SIX
Portland Cement, Mixing Water, and Admixtures 210
6.1     Portland Cement Production   210
6.2     Chemical Composition of Portland Cement   211
6.3     Fineness of Portland Cement   213
6.4     Specific Gravity of Portland Cement   214
6.5     Hydration of Portland Cement   214
6.5.1 • Structure Development in Cement Paste   216
6.5.2 • Evaluation of Hydration Progress   216
6.6     Voids in Hydrated Cement   218
6.7     Properties of Hydrated Cement   218
6.7.1 • Setting   218
6.7.2 • Soundness   220
6.7.3 • Compressive Strength of Mortar   221
6.8     Water–Cement Ratio   221
6.9     Types of Portland Cement   222
6.9.1 • Standard Portland Cement Types   222
6.9.2 • Other Cement Types   225
6.10     Mixing Water   226
6.10.1 • Acceptable Criteria   226
6.10.2 • Disposal and Reuse of Concrete Wash Water   228
6.11     Admixtures for Concrete   228
6.11.1 • Air Entrainers   229
6.11.2 • Water Reducers   230
6.11.3 • Retarders   233
6.11.4 • Hydration-Control Admixtures   234
6.11.5 • Accelerators   234
6.11.6 • Specialty Admixtures   235
6.12     Supplementary Cementitious Materials   236
Summary   239
Questions and Problems   240
6.13     References   245
Contents         viiSEVEN
Portland Cement Concrete 246
7.1     Proportioning of Concrete Mixes   246
7.1.1 • Basic Steps for Weight and Absolute Volume Methods   247
7.1.2 • Mixing Concrete for Small Jobs   263
7.2     Mixing, Placing, and Handling Fresh Concrete   266
7.2.1 • Ready-Mixed Concrete   266
7.2.2 • Mobile Batcher Mixed Concrete   267
7.2.3 • Depositing Concrete   267
7.2.4 • Pumped Concrete   267
7.2.5 • Vibration of Concrete   270
7.2.6 • Pitfalls and Precautions for Mixing Water   272
7.2.7 • Measuring Air Content in Fresh Concrete   272
7.2.8 • Spreading and Finishing Concrete   274
7.3     Curing Concrete   274
7.3.1 • Ponding or Immersion   280
7.3.2 • Spraying or Fogging   280
7.3.3 • Wet Coverings   280
7.3.4 • Impervious Papers or Plastic Sheets   281
7.3.5 • Membrane-Forming Compounds   282
7.3.6 • Forms Left in Place   282
7.3.7 • Steam Curing   283
7.3.8 • Insulating Blankets or Covers   283
7.3.9 • Electrical, Hot Oil, and Infrared Curing   285
7.3.10 • Curing Period   285
7.4     Properties of Hardened Concrete   285
7.4.1 • Early Volume Change   285
7.4.2 • Creep Properties   286
7.4.3 • Permeability   286
7.4.4 • Stress–Strain Relationship   287
7.5     Testing of Hardened Concrete   289
7.5.1 • Compressive Strength Test   290
7.5.2 • Split-Tension Test   292
7.5.3 • Flexure Strength Test   293
7.5.4 • Rebound Hammer Test   294
7.5.5 • Penetration Resistance Test   295
7.5.6 • Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Test   296
7.5.7 • Maturity Test   296
viii       Contents7.6     Alternatives to Conventional Concrete   297
7.6.1 • Self-Consolidating Concrete   297
7.6.2 • Flowable Fill   299
7.6.3 • Shotcrete   301
7.6.4 • Lightweight Concrete   302
7.6.5 • Heavyweight Concrete   303
7.6.6 • High-Strength Concrete   304
7.6.7 • Shrinkage-Compensating Concrete   305
7.6.8 • Polymers and Concrete   305
7.6.9 • Fiber-Reinforced Concrete   305
7.6.10 • Roller-Compacted Concrete   306
7.6.11 • High-Performance Concrete   307
Summary   308
Questions and Problems   308
7.7     References   313
EIGHT
Masonry 315
8.1     Masonry Units   315
8.1.1 • Concrete Masonry Units   316
8.1.2 • Clay Bricks   321
8.2     Mortar   324
8.3     Grout   324
8.4     Plaster   325
Summary   325
Questions and Problems   325
8.5     References   328
NINE
Asphalt Binders and Asphalt Mixtures 329
9.1     Types of Asphalt Products   332
9.2     Uses of Asphalt   334
9.3     Temperature Susceptibility of Asphalt   337
Contents          ix9.4     Chemical Properties of Asphalt   340
9.5     Superpave and Performance Grade Binders   342
9.6     Characterization of Asphalt Cement   342
9.6.1 • Performance Grade Characterization Approach   342
9.6.2 • Performance Grade Binder Characterization   343
9.6.3 • Traditional Asphalt Characterization Tests   348
9.7     Classification of Asphalt   350
9.7.1 • Asphalt Binders   350
9.7.2 • Asphalt Cutbacks   356
9.7.3 • Asphalt Emulsions   356
9.8     Asphalt Concrete   357
9.9     Asphalt Concrete Mix Design   358
9.9.1 • Specimen Preparation in the Laboratory   358
9.9.2 • Density and Voids Analysis   362
9.9.3 • Superpave Mix Design   365
9.9.4 • Superpave Refinement   374
9.9.5 • Marshall Method of Mix Design   374
9.9.6 • Evaluation of Moisture Susceptibility   382
9.10     Characterization of Asphalt Concrete   383
9.10.1 • Indirect Tensile Strength   384
9.10.2 • Diametral Tensile Resilient Modulus   384
9.10.3 • Freeze and Thaw Test   386
9.10.4 • Superpave Asphalt Mixture Performance Tests   386
9.11     Hot Mix Asphalt Concrete Production and Construction   390
9.11.1 • Production of Raw Materials   390
9.11.2 • Manufacturing Asphalt Concrete   390
9.11.3 • Field Operations   391
9.12     Recycling of Asphalt Concrete   394
9.12.1 • RAP Evaluation   395
9.12.2 • RAP Mix Design   395
9.12.3 • RAP Production and Construction   395
9.13     Additives   397
9.13.1 • Fillers   397
9.13.2 • Extenders   397
9.13.3 • Polymer Modified Asphalt   397
9.13.4 • Antistripping Agents   399
9.13.5 • Others   399
9.14     Warm Mix   399
x          ContentsSummary   401
Questions and Problems   402
9.15     References   409
TEN
Wood 411
10.1     Structure of Wood   413
10.1.1 • Growth Rings   413
10.1.2 • Anisotropic Nature of Wood   415
10.2     Chemical Composition   416
10.3     Moisture Content   417
10.4     Wood Production   419
10.4.1 • Cutting Techniques   421
10.4.2 • Seasoning   422
10.5     Lumber Grades   423
10.5.1 • Hardwood Grades   424
10.5.2 • Softwood Grades   425
10.6     Defects in Lumber   426
10.7     Physical Properties   429
10.7.1 • Specific Gravity and Density   429
10.7.2 • Thermal Properties   429
10.7.3 • Electrical Properties   431
10.8     Mechanical Properties   431
10.8.1 • Modulus of Elasticity   431
10.8.2 • Strength Properties   432
10.8.3 • Load Duration   432
10.8.4 • Damping Capacity   433
10.9     Testing to Determine Mechanical Properties   433
10.9.1 • Flexure Test of Structural Members (ASTM D198)   434
10.9.2 • Flexure Test of Small, Clear Specimen (ASTM D143)   436
10.10     Design Considerations   437
10.11     Organisms that Degrade Wood   437
10.11.1 • Fungi   438
10.11.2 • Insects   438
10.11.3 • Marine Organisms   438
10.11.4 • Bacteria   438
Contents          xi10.12     Wood Preservation   439
10.12.1 • Petroleum-Based Solutions   439
10.12.2 • Waterborne Preservatives   439
10.12.3 • Application Techniques   440
10.12.4 • Construction Precautions   440
10.13     Engineered Wood Products   441
10.13.1 • Structural Panels/Sheets   443
10.13.2 • Structural Shapes   445
10.13.3 • Composite Structural Members   455
Summary   456
Questions and Problems   456
10.14     References   462
ELEVEN
Composites 463
11.1     Microscopic Composites   465
11.1.1 • Fiber-Reinforced Composites   465
11.1.2 • Particle-Reinforced Composites   467
11.1.3 • Matrix Phase   467
11.1.4 • Fabrication   467
11.1.5 • Civil Engineering Applications   468
11.2     Macroscopic Composites   473
11.2.1 • Plain Portland Cement Concrete   473
11.2.2 • Reinforced Portland Cement Concrete   474
11.2.3 • Asphalt Concrete   474
11.2.4 • Engineered Wood   475
11.3     Properties of Composites   475
11.3.1 • Loading Parallel to Fibers   476
11.3.2 • Loading Perpendicular to Fibers   477
11.3.3 • Randomly Oriented Fiber Composites   479
11.3.4 • Particle-Reinforced Composites   479
Summary   480
Questions and Problems   480
11.4     References   482
xii        ContentsAppendix 483
Experiments
1.  Introduction to Measuring Devices   484
2.  Tension Test of Steel and Aluminum   487
3.  Torsion Test of Steel and Aluminum   490
4.  Impact Test of Steel   493
5.  Microscopic Inspection of Materials   496
6.  Sieve Analysis of Aggregates   497
7.  Specific Gravity and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate   501
8.  Specific Gravity and Absorption of Fine Aggregate   503
9.  Bulk Unit Weight and Voids in Aggregate   505
10.  Slump of Freshly Mixed Portland Cement Concrete   508
11.  Unit Weight and Yield of Freshly Mixed Concrete   511
12.  Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by Pressure Method   513
13.  Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by Volumetric Method   515
14.  Making and Curing Concrete Cylinders and Beams   517
15.  Capping Cylindrical Concrete Specimens with Sulfur 
or Capping Compound   521
16.  Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens   523
17.  Flexural Strength of Concrete   526
18.  Rebound Number of Hardened Concrete   529
19.  Penetration Resistance of Hardened Concrete   531
20.  Testing of Concrete Masonry Units   534
21.  Viscosity of Asphalt Binder by Rotational Viscometer   537
22.  Dynamic Shear Rheometer Test of Asphalt Binder   539
23.  Penetration Test of Asphalt Cement   541
24.  Absolute Viscosity Test of Asphalt   543
25.  Preparing and Determining the Density of Hot-Mix Asphalt (HMA)
Specimens by Means of the Superpave Gyratory Compactor   545
26.  Preparation of Asphalt Concrete Specimens Using the Marshall 
Compactor   548
27.  Bulk Specific Gravity of Compacted Bituminous Mixtures   551
28.  Marshall Stability and Flow of Asphalt Concrete   553
29.  Bending (Flexure) Test of Wood   555
30.  Tensile Properties of Plastics   561
Index   563

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