Estimating Building Costs - C. M. Popescu (M. Dekker)

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Estimating Building Costs - C. M. Popescu (M. Dekker)


Contents

Acknowledgments
Introductory Remarks
Units Conversion
1    Introduction
1.1       Construction Industry
1.2       Construction Cost Indexes
1.3       Preparing the Detailed Estimate
1.4       Sources for New Projects
1.5       Building Cost Information Standards
1.6       Errors and Omissions Management
1.7       The Estimating Department
1.8        Review Questions
2    Types of Estimates
2.1       Building Cost Estimates Classification
2.2       Conceptual Estimate (Engineer’s Estimate)
2.3       Firm Price Contracting Estimate
2.4       Nonfirm-Price Contracting
2.5       Accuracy of Cost Estimates
2.6       Review Questionsviii Contents
3       Estimating the Cost of Materials 87
3.1     Determining Material Quantities 88
3.2     Waste Factors 90
3.3     Pricing Materials 95
3.4     Material Pricing Sources 97
3.5     Trends in Material Prices 99
3.5     Review Questions 106
4       Estimating the Cost of Labor 107
4.1     Construction Labor 108
4.2     Construction Labor Environment in the United States 112
4.3     Monetary Factors 114
4.4     Labor Productivity 118
4.5     Review Questions 130
5       Estimating the Cost of Construction Equipment 131
5.1     Introduction 132
5.2     Construction Equipment 132
5.3     Equipment Planning 135
5.4     Equipment Procurement Sources and Associated Costs 139
5.5     Construction Tools 155
5.6     Review Questions 156
6       The Bidding Process 157
6.1     Getting a Construction Contract: A Contractor’s
Perspective 157
6.2     Subcontracted Work 158
6.3     Pre-Bid Conference 159
6.4     Bidding Flowchart 159
6.5     Alternates and Unit Prices 169
6.6     Closing the Bid 170
6.7     Review Questions 171
7       Site Work 172
7.1     Introduction to Site Work 173
7.2     Subsurface Investigation 174
7.3     Site Preparation 175
7.4     Earthwork 181
7.5     Excavation Support 205
7.6     Construction Dewatering 209
7.7     Piles Foundation 210
7.8     Paving and Surfacing 211
7.9     Site Improvements and Landscaping 211
7.10   Review Questions 213
8       Concrete 215
8.1     Introduction to Concrete Work 216
8.2     Basic Concrete Materials and Methods 220
8.3     Concrete Forms and Accessories 229
8.4     Concrete Reinforcement 236
8.5     Cast-in-Place Concrete 245
8.6     Precast Concrete 251
8.7     Cementitious Decks and Underlayment 259
8.8     Review Questions 263
9       Masonry 264
9.1     Introduction to Masonry 265
9.2     Clay Masonry Units (Brick) 271
9.3     Concrete Masonry Units 281
9.4     Other Types of Masonry Units 287
9.5     Masonry Mortar 290
9.6     Masonry Grout, Reinforcement, and Masonry
Accessories 300
9.7     Masonry Cost Estimation 306
9.8     Review Questions 314
10       Metals 316
10.1     Introduction to Metals 317
10.2     Structural Metal Framing 322
10.3     Metal Joists 337
10.4     Metal Decking 344
10.5     Light-Gauge Framing and Miscellaneous Metals 348
10.6     Review Questions 352
11       Wood 353
11.1     Introduction 354
11.2     Rough Carpentry 354
11.3     Finish Carpentry 384
11.4     Review Questions 392
12       Thermal and Moisture Protection 393
12.1     Introduction to Thermal and Moisture Protection 394
12.2     Waterproofing 396
12.3     Dampproofing 402
12.4     Insulation 403
12.5     Roofing 407
12.6     Sample of Quantity Take-Off and Pricing for Moisture
Protection 412
12.7     Review Questions 415
13       Doors and Windows 416
13.1     Introduction to Doors and Windows 417
13.2     Doors and Door Frames 420
13.3     Windows and Window Frames 428
13.4     Glazing, Hardware, and Accessories 433
13.5     Doors and Windows Cost Estimation 447
13.6     Review Questions 440
14       Finishes 448
14.1     Lath and Plaster Work 449
14.2     Gypsum Plasterboard Systems 459
14.3     Ceramic Tile Work 472
14.4     Marble and Stone Flooring 477
14.5     Terrazzo Work 487
14.6     Acoustical Treatment 498
14.7     Finished Wood Flooring 503
14.8     Resilient Flooring 517
14.9     Carpets, Underlay, and Trim 523
14.10   Painting and Decorating 530
14.11   Wall Coverings 542
14.12   Review Questions 552
15       Mechanical Work 553
15.1     Introduction to Plumbing and Sewage Systems 554
15.2     Rough and Finish Plumbing 555
15.3     Plumbing Codes and Specifications 556
15.4     Plumbing Systems 556
15.5     Sewage Systems 560
15.6     Materials for Plumbing and Sewage Systems 560
15.7     Labor for Plumbing and Sewage Systems 562
15.8     Cost Estimate for Plumbing and Sewage Systems 563
15.9     Introduction to Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning 566
15.10   Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Systems 567
15.11   Labor for HVAC Systems 568
15.12   Cost Estimate for HVAC Systems 568
15.13   Review Questions 571
16       Electrical Work 572
16.1     Introduction to Electrical Work 573
16.2     Take-Off Procedures for Various Electrical Components 576
16.3     Pricing Electrical Work 583
16.4     Review Questions 587
17       Jobsite Overhead 589
17.1     Introduction: The Cost of Doing Business 590
17.2     Jobsite Personnel 596
17.3     Travel Expenses 597
17.4     Site Engineering Support 598
17.5     Construction Equipment and Aids for General Use 598
17.6     Temporary Field Buildings—Offices 599
17.7     Temporary Site Utilities 601
17.8     Horizontal Temporary Construction 602
17.9     Materials Storage Facilities 603
17.10   Camp Facilities 606
17.11   Production Facilities for Remote Sites 612
17.12   Personal Protective Aids 623
17.13   Site Security 624
17.14   Miscellaneous Expenses 624
17.15   Review Questions 627
18       Surety Bonds, Insurance, and Taxes 628
18.1     Surety Bonds 629
18.2     Insurance 638
18.3     Taxes (County, State, Federal) 645
18.4     Review Questions 649
19       General Overhead, Contingencies, and Profit 651
19.1     General Overhead (Home Office Expenses) 653
19.2     General Overhead Allocation 655
19.3     Construction Contingencies 655
19.4     Contractor/Subcontractor Profit 656
19.5     Review Questions 658
Appendix 1: MasterFormat Lite and UniFormat Lite 660
Appendix 2: Estimating Forms 672
Appendix 3: Cost Estimating Software 683
Appendix 4: Cost Estimating Sources 696
Appendix 5: Construction Site Investigation Report 704
References
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