GIS & ITS APPLICATION IN WATER RESOURCES

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GIS & ITS APPLICATION IN WATER RESOURCES


Water requirement increases day  by  day  for urbanization,   industrialization   and   modern   agricultural  developments. Groundwater is the  major readily available fresh water in the earth and hence it is being continuously tapped  from  the  ground  in order  to meet  the  growing  population , resulting  in rapid decline in ground water  head. Artificial recharge is one of the important techniques used    to  improve   the  ground water  potential  which  gains  lot of attention  throughout the world . So an attempt has been made to improve and manage the ground water resource in a part of Tambraparani basin, South India using Remote Sensing and GIS techniques.

Definition of Remote Sensing & GIS

Remote Sensing is a Science or a technology and art of obtaining reliable information about an object, without being physical contact with the object. Various electromagnetic energy detecting sensors are currently being operated from airborne and space borne platforms to assist the inventorying, mapping and monitoring the earth resources. These sensing devices capture the data on the way, various earth surface features emit and reflect the Electro Magnetic Radiation (EMR), and provide information about the resources under investigation
 A  GIS  is  an organized collection  of  computer hardware, software, geographic data and  personnel designed to efficiently capture ,store, update, manipulate ,analyze and display all forms of geographically referenced information.

IMPORTANCE OF CONTOUR MAP IN GROUND WATER MANAGEMENT

  • In understanding the slope of the terrain and surface run off.
  • For selecting the site to locate Dams, reservoirs, percolation ponds etc.
  • To select the site for waste disposal.
  • To understand the groundwater fluctuation and movement.
  • For canal alignment.
Importance in ground water studies

  • To understand the aquifer characteristics like types of aquifer, aquifer thickness, porosity, permeability etc
  • To study the groundwater quality. To select the site for constructing check dams and ponds
To understand the slope of the terrain,
  • To know rainfall infiltration and runoff based on the drainage density
  • More number of drainage = less infiltration and more runoff
  • Less number of drainage = more infiltration and less runoff
  • To understand groundwater flow direction and recharge mechanism.
  • Dentritic (tree branch)type of drainage in the SE portion of the study area indicates that quantity of the rainfall infiltration is comparatively less because of less number of fractures existing in the hard rocks.
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