GIS & ITS APPLICATION IN WATER RESOURCES
Water requirement increases day by day for urbanization, industrialization and modern agricultural developments. Groundwater is the major readily available fresh water in the earth and hence it is being continuously tapped from the ground in order to meet the growing population , resulting in rapid decline in ground water head. Artificial recharge is one of the important techniques used to improve the ground water potential which gains lot of attention throughout the world . So an attempt has been made to improve and manage the ground water resource in a part of Tambraparani basin,
South India using Remote Sensing and
Definition of Remote Sensing & GIS
Remote Sensing is a Science or a technology and art of obtaining reliable information about an object, without being physical contact with the object. Various electromagnetic energy detecting sensors are currently being operated from airborne and space borne platforms to assist the inventorying, mapping and monitoring the earth resources. These sensing devices capture the data on the way, various earth surface features emit and reflect the Electro Magnetic Radiation (EMR), and provide information about the resources under investigation
A GIS is an organized collection of computer hardware, software, geographic data and personnel designed to efficiently capture ,store, update, manipulate ,analyze and display all forms of geographically referenced information.
IMPORTANCE OF CONTOUR MAP IN GROUND WATER MANAGEMENT
- In understanding the slope of the terrain and surface run off.
- For selecting the site to locate Dams, reservoirs, percolation ponds etc.
- To select the site for waste disposal.
- To understand the groundwater fluctuation and movement.
- For canal alignment.
Importance in ground water studies
- To understand the aquifer characteristics like types of aquifer, aquifer thickness, porosity, permeability etc
- To study the groundwater quality. To select the site for constructing check dams and ponds
To understand the slope of the terrain,
- To know rainfall infiltration and runoff based on the drainage density
- More number of drainage = less infiltration and more runoff
- Less number of drainage = more infiltration and less runoff
- To understand groundwater flow direction and recharge mechanism.
- Dentritic (tree branch)type of drainage in the SE portion of the study area indicates that quantity of the rainfall infiltration is comparatively less because of less number of fractures existing in the hard rocks.