Construction Scheduling Principles and Practices Book

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Construction Scheduling Principles and Practices Book


CONTENTS

Preface   v
Chapter 1    Overview of Project Management Basics   1
Introduction   1
Four Primary Objectives of Project Management   1
Quality   2
Time   2
Budget or Costs   2
Safety   2
Challenge of Balancing the Major Objectives   3
How to Achieve the Primary Objectives   3
Being a Manager—Assuming the Responsibility   4
Conclusion   5
Application   5
Chapter 2    Why Schedule   6
Introduction   6
Time Management Matrix   7
Using the Schedule to Control Your Projects and Your Life   8
Reduce Total Construction Time   9
Reduce the Costs of Labor, Overhead, Interest on Loans,
and Capital   9
Provide a More Continuous Work Flow   11
Increase Productivity   11
Give Employees and Subcontractors a Goal to Work Toward   11
Improve Your Company Image—Makes You
Look Professional   12
Meet Owners’ Requirements   13
Force Detailed Thinking and Planning   13
Improve Communication   14
Conclusion   15
Application   16
Chapter 3    Checklists, Daily To-Do Lists, and Magnetic
Scheduling Boards   17
Introduction   17
Selecting a Scheduling System   17
ixChecklists   18
Automating Checklist Schedules with Microsoft Excel   21
Daily To-Do Lists and Planners   22
Electronic Planners   24
Magnetic Scheduling Boards   24
Conclusion   26
Application   26
Chapter 4    Bar Chart Schedules   27
Introduction   27
History of Bar Charts   27
Creating Bar Charts   28
Determining the Level of Detail   30
Updating Bar Charts   30
Showing Progress on a Bar Chart   30
Using Three-Week Look-Ahead Bar Charts   33
Creating Bar Charts with Microsoft Excel   33
Examples of Computer-Generated Bar Charts   33
Conclusion   35
Application   37
Chapter 5    Introduction to CPM Scheduling   38
Introduction   38
Development and Features of Critical Path Method (CPM)   38
CPM Shows the Construction Logic   39
CPM Identifies the Critical Activities   40
CPM Helps Determine the Effects of Change
Orders or Delays   41
CPM Allows Management to Set Priorities   42
CPM Adapts to Any Project—Simple or Complex   42
CPM Is Easy to Follow Visually   42
CPM Allows Analysis of Different Methods or Sequences of
Construction   43
CPM Is Useful for Court Cases—Proving Responsible
Party for Delays   43
CPM Creates Teamwork   43
Why CPM Is Not Better Known or Used   44
Disadvantages of CPM   44
Conclusion   45
Application   45
x ContentsChapter 6    Creating the Network Logic Diagram   46
Introduction   46
Thoroughly Familiarize Yourself with the Project   46
Interview Key Management Personnel   47
Breakdown the Project into Activities   47
Use a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)   48
Create the Network Logic Diagram   49
Eliminate Redundant Arrows   51
Consider Other Methods for Creating
the Logic Diagram   53
Make Sure the Logical Relationships are Accurate   55
Conclusion   56
Application   56
Chapter 7    Determining Durations   57
Introduction   57
The Relationship of Activity Duration to Activity Cost   58
The Textbook Approach   59
Durations from Subcontractors or Vendors   59
Durations from Experienced Superintendents or
Crew Leaders   60
Scheduling for Inclement Weather   60
Adding the Duration to the Network Logic Diagram   61
Conclusion   62
Application   62
Chapter 8    Calculating Start and Finish Dates   63
Introduction   63
Calculating Early Start and Early Finish Dates—
The Forward Pass   63
Calculating Late Start and Late Finish Dates—
The Backward Pass   66
Calculating Total Float   68
Determining the Critical Path Activities   69
Determining the Effects of a Change or Delay   70
Gaining Additional Experience with CPM   71
Converting Work Days to Calendar Dates   72
Solutions to Practice Problems   74
Conclusion   75
Application   76
Contents       xiChapter 9    Calculating Total, Shared, Free, Independent, and
Negative Float   77
Introduction   77
Total Float   78
Shared Float   78
Free Float   80
Independent Float   82
Negative Float   84
Using Float to Help Manage the Project   85
When to Give Away Float and When to Keep or Hide It   85
To Whom Does Float Belong   86
Conclusion   87
Application   87
Chapter 10  Using Lags in Network Logic Diagrams   91
Introduction   91
Finish-To-Start Relationships   91
Start-To-Start Relationships   92
Finish-To-Finish Relationships   93
Start-To-Finish Relationships   94
Example Project Using Lags   94
Tabular Report of a Project with Lags   95
Start and Finish Date Calculations with Lags   96
Bar Chart of a Project with Lags   97
Conclusion   99
Application   99
Chapter 11  Reviewing and Analyzing the Schedule   100
Introduction   100
Are the Relationships Valid   100
Physical Relationships   100
Safety Relationships   101
Quality Relationships   102
Cost Relationships   103
Does the Project Completion Date Meet Contract
Requirements   103
Compressing the Schedule   103
Expanding the Schedule   104
Is The Critical Path Where Experience Says It Should Be   105
Milestones   105
xii ContentsProcurement   105
Time of Year   105
Float Paths   105
Organize to Simplify   106
Color-Code Some Activities   106
Conclusion   107
Application   107
Chapter 12  Creating Bar Charts and Tabular Reports from Network
Logic Diagrams   108
Introduction   108
Bar Charts for the Project Manager   109
Bar Charts for the Subcontractors   111
Bar Charts for the Owner   111
Updated Bar Charts   112
Tabular Reports   114
Tabular Reports for the Project Manager   114
Tabular Reports for the Subcontractors   115
Tabular Reports for the Owner   116
Linear Bar Charts   117
Computer-Generated Bar Charts Developed from Networks   120
Computer-Generated Tabular Reports Developed from
Networks   122
Conclusion   124
Application   124
Chapter 13  Linear or Line-of-Balance Schedules   125
Introduction   125
How to Create Linear Schedules   125
Velocity Diagrams   126
Forecasting Conflicts   127
Buffers, Time, and Space   130
Conclusion   133
Application   133
Chapter 14  Updating the Schedule   135
Introduction   135
Creating a Target or Baseline Schedule   136
Keeping Historical Information   136
Updating the Project Schedule   137
Monthly Updates   137
Contents     xiiiWeekly Updates   138
Daily Updates   138
Using a PDA to Update the Schedule   139
Using Remote Cameras to Gather Project Information   139
Determining Whether to Use Percent Complete or
Days Remaining   139
Determining Percent Complete   139
Determining the Number of Quantities in Place   141
Evaluating the Project Status Based on the Update   141
Example of an Updated Schedule   142
Conclusion   143
Application   143
Chapter 15  Using the Schedule to Forecast and Balance
Resources   144
Introduction   144
Creating Resource Relationships   144
Forecasting and Balancing Cash Flow   146
Using Progress S-Curves and Banana Curves   148
Progress S-Curves   148
Banana Curves   150
Forecasting and Balancing Equipment   151
Forecasting and Balancing Human Resources   153
Computer Default Methods to Automatically Balance
Resources   154
Duration-Driven Versus Resource-Driven Schedules   154
Conclusion   155
Application   155
Chapter 16  Cost Schedule Control System Criteria (C/SCSC)   157
Introduction   157
Performance Measures   158
Variances   158
Cost Variance   158
Schedule Variance   158
Total Variance   159
Performance Indexes   159
Graphical Representation of the C/SCSC Data and Variances   159
Conclusion   161
Application   161
xiv         ContentsChapter 17  Creating Teamwork and Getting Subcontractors to
Conform to the Schedule   163
Introduction   163
Provide Formal Training   164
Hold a Preliminary Scheduling Meeting   164
Create the Logic Diagram and then Share It   164
Use the Gilbane Method   165
Manage Durations   167
Plan for Undependable Subcontractors   167
Reward Subcontractors for Schedule Compliance   168
Other Methods for Getting Subcontractors to Conform
to the Schedule   168
When to Use a Scheduling Consultant   169
Conclusion   169
Application   170
Chapter 18  Other Scheduling Techniques   171
Introduction   171
Three-Week Look-Ahead or Short Interval
Schedules   171
Schedule Format   172
Details that may be Included   172
Example Format for a Short Interval
Schedule   172
Hammock Activities   173
Constraints   174
Start Constraints   175
Finish Constraints   175
Mandatory Constraints   175
Start-on Constraints   175
Expected Finish Constraints   175
Float Constraints   175
Fenced Bar Charts   176
Graphic Schedules   176
Matrix Schedules   178
Activity on Arrow (AOA) or Arrow Diagram
Method   179
PERT (Project Evaluation and Review Technique)   180
Conclusion   181
Application   181
Contents      xvChapter 19  Introduction to Computerized CPM Scheduling   182
Introduction and Brief History   182
Tips for Learning Project Management Software   183
Comparison of Popular Project Management Software   185
General Suggestions for Computer Reports   186
Conclusion   186
Application   187
Chapter 20  Managing Projects Using Primavera Project
Planner (P3)   188
Introduction—Primavera Project Planner Version 3.1   189
Using the Help Buttons   190
Making a New Project File   191
Setting up the Calendars   192
Defining Activity Codes   192
Inputting Activity Data   194
Input Using the Activity Table   194
Input Using the Activity Form   197
Input Using the PERT View   197
Organizing the Schedule   199
Group Like Activities Together   199
Check the Number of Days to Complete   199
Filtering for Specific Activities   200
Formatting Bar Charts   201
Change the Date/Timescale   201
Format the Columns   201
Format the Sight Lines   201
Format the Bars   201
Format the Screen Colors   202
Create a New Layout   202
Setting up and Printing Standard Reports   202
Report 1. Input Check Report   202
Report 2. Project Manager’s Bar Chart Report   204
Report 3. Subcontractor’s Bar Chart Report   205
Report 4. Subcontractor’s Tabular Report   206
Report 5. Owner’s Bar Chart Report   206
Report 6. Critical Activities Only Report   207
Report 7. Separate Bar Chart for Each
Superintendent   208
xvi         ContentsReport 8. Tabular Report for a Specific Subcontractor   208
Report 9. Necked Bar Chart for a Subcontractor   209
Report 10. Statusing or Updating the Schedule   209
Report 11. Update the Schedule to Finish on the Original
Finish Date   212
Report 12. Adding Clip Art, Text, Curtains, Logos,
and Drawings   212
Report 13. Creating a New Project Schedule Based on a Past
Project   213
Report 14. Using Fragnets to Copy Schedules or Parts
of Schedules   214
Report 15. Resource Management—Cost Loading
the Schedule   215
Report 16. Resource Management—Crew Loading
the Schedule   218
Tabular and Graphic Reports   221
The Back Half of P3   221
Report 17. Tabular Report for the Subcontractors   221
Report 18. Tabular Report for the Owner   224
Report 19. Tabular Report for the Superintendents   224
Report 20. Tabular Report of Critical Activities Only for the
Project Manager   224
Report 21. Printing a Series of Reports with One Setup   224
Report 22. Graphic Reports—Timescaled Logic   226
Report 23. Cash Flow and Banana Curve   226
Report 24. Bar Chart with a Banana Curve Overlaid   226
Report 25. Adding a Schedule to a Document   228
Trying Other Shortcuts, Techniques, or Ideas   229
Chapter 21  Managing Projects Using SureTrak   231
Introduction—SureTrak for Windows Version 3.0   232
Using the Help Buttons   232
Making a New Project File   233
Setting up the Calendars   234
Defining Activity Codes   235
Inputting Activity Data   237
Input Using the Cells in the Rows and Columns
(the Activity Table)   237
Input Using the Activity Form   238
Input Using the PERT View   239
Contents    xviiCalculating the Schedule   240
Checking the Number of Days to Complete   240
Overview of Formatting   241
Format the Columns   241
Organize the Schedule   241
Format the Bars   241
Change the Date/Timescale on Bar Charts   243
Change the Sight Lines on the Bar Charts   243
Filter   243
Create and Save a Layout   243
Print Reports   244
Setting up and Printing Standard Reports   244
Report 1. Input Check Report   244
Report 2. Project Manager’s Bar Chart Report   245
Report 3. Superintendent’s Bar Chart Report   246
Report 4. Subcontractor’s Bar Chart Report   247
Report 5. Subcontractor’s Tabular Report   247
Report 6. Owner’s Bar Chart Report   248
Report 7. Critical Activities Only Report   248
Report 8. Making Standard Reports   249
Report 9. Printing a Series of Reports with One Setup   250
Report 10. Adding Logos, Clip Art, Curtains, and Text
to Enhance the Schedule   250
Report 11. Updating the Schedule   251
Report 12. Creating a New Schedule Based
on an Old Schedule   253
Report 13. Using Fragnets to Copy Schedules
or Parts of Schedules   254
Report 14. Resource Management—Cost Loading
the Schedule   257
Report 15. Resource Management—Labor Loading
the Schedule   260
Backing up a Schedule   264
Restoring a Schedule   264
E-Mailing a Schedule   265
Overview   265
Mail Setup   265
E-Mailing Updates to SureTrak Users   265
Sending an Update Request   265
xviii       ContentsReceiving an Update Request   266
Creating Web Reports   266
Notes about Project Groups   267
Adding Constraints   268
Trying Other Shortcuts, Techniques, or Ideas   270
Chapter 22  Managing Projects Using Microsoft Project   272
Introduction—Microsoft Project 2007   273
Using the Help Buttons   273
Starting a New Project   275
Setting up the Calendars   276
Entering Tasks from the Network Diagram View   277
Entering Tasks from the Gantt Chart View   279
Assigning a Calendar to the Tasks   279
Linking Tasks   279
Creating Lags   280
Formatting Columns   281
Assigning Resources   281
Adding Notes to Activities   282
Sorting the Tasks   282
Grouping Data Items Together   283
Filtering for Specific Tasks or Information   283
Showing or not Showing the Relationship Arrows
on the Gantt Chart   284
To Change the Bar Styles in the Gantt Chart   284
To Show the Float Bar on the Gantt Chart   284
To Add the Task Name or Notes to the Bars   284
To Change the Timescale   285
To Format the Gridlines   285
Creating Summary Activities   286
Printing Reports   287
Setting up and Printing Standard Reports   288
Report 1. Input Check Report   288
Report 2. Project Manager’s Bar Chart Report   288
Report 3. Converting the Schedule to a Calendar View   290
Report 4. Subcontractor’s Bar Chart Report   290
Report 5. Owner’s Bar Chart Report   291
Report 6. Owner’s Tabular Report   293
Report 7. Subcontractor’s Tabular Report   294
Contents     xixReport 8. Critical Activities Only Report   294
Report 9. Updating the Schedule   294
Report 10. Adjust the Schedule to Finish on the Original
Finish Date   297
Report 11. Scheduling Repetitive Activities   298
Trying Other Shortcuts, Techniques, or Ideas   302
Chapter 23  Managing Projects Using P6 Project Manager
or Contractor   304
Introduction—Primavera Project Manager (P6)
or Contractor   305
Using the Help Buttons   306
Making a New Project File in P6   307
Creating a New Project in Contractor   309
Setting up the Calendars   309
Defining Activity Codes   310
Inputting Activity Data   312
Input Using the New Activity Wizard   312
Input Using the Activity Table   313
Input Using the Activity Network   315
Making a Copy of the Project Schedule   316
Calculating the Schedule   316
Organizing the Schedule   317
Sort Activities   317
Group Activities   318
Creating Page Breaks   319
Checking the Number of Days to Complete   319
Filtering Activities   320
Formatting Bar Charts   321
Change the Date/Timescale   321
Change the Sight Lines   321
Change the Columns   321
Format the Bars   322
Show the Relationship Lines   323
Creating a New Layout   323
Setting up and Printing Standard Reports   324
Report 1. Input Check Report   324
Report 2. Project Manager’s Bar Chart Report––Using Layouts   328
Report 3. Superintendent’s Bar Chart Report—Using Layouts   329
xx          ContentsReport 4. Subcontractor’s Bar Chart Report—Using
Layouts   330
Report 5. Owner’s Bar Chart Report—Using Layouts   331
Report 6. Subcontractor’s Tabular Report for the Activities
That Will Start Within the Next Three Weeks—
Using Layouts   333
Report 7. Owner’s Tabular Report—Using Layouts   334
Report 8. Owner’s Tabular Report—Using the Report
Wizard   334
Report 9. Critical Activities Only Report—Using
the Report Wizard   336
Report 10. Tabular Report for a Specific Subcontractor—
Using the Report Wizard   336
Report 11. Printing a Batch of Reports   337
Report 12. Creating a Baseline and Statusing or Updating the
Schedule   338
Report 13. Update the Schedule to Finish on the Original
Finish Date   341
Report 14. Adding a Curtain or Text   342
Report 15. Creating a New Schedule Based on an Old
Schedule   342
Report 16. Scheduling Multiple or Repetitive Projects
or Parts of Projects (Sometimes called Fragnets)   343
Report 17. Cost Loading the Schedule   348
Conclusion   351
Index   353


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