Handbook of Highway Engineering

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The Handbook of Highway Engineering Book


Contents

Part A Highway Planning and Development Issues

1 Financing Highways Anthony T.H. Chin 

1.1 Introduction ..............1-1
1.2 Financing Structure and Sources .1-3
1.3 Role of Donor Agencies ................1-9
1.4 An Analysis of Highway Project Financing ....................1-10
1.5 “Template” for Successful Highway Financing ..............1-16
References .............................1-20
Further Reading ....................1-21

2 Access Management of Highways K. Raguraman and Kumares C. Sinha

2.1 Introduction ..............2-1
2.2 Principles of Access Management 2-2
2.3 Economic Impacts of Access Management and Public Participation 
2.4 Conclusion ..............2-16
Acknowledgment .................2-17
References .............................2-17

3 Environmental Impact Assessment of Highway Development M.A. Aziz

3.1 Introduction ..............3-1
3.2 EIA in Phases of Highway Development .........................3-6
3.3 EIA Activities in Highway Development ..........................3-8
3.4 EIA Methodologies .3-14
3.5 Summary .................3-21
References .............................3-22

4 Highway Safety Ian Johnston 

Part A — Fundamental Concepts in Road Traffic Safety ............4-2
4.1 Safe System Design Is Paramount 4-2
4.2 The Dimensions of the Road Traffic Injury Problem .....4-3
4.3 Measuring Road Traffic Safety Performance ....................4-5
4.4 Is Safety Just a “By-Product” of the Road Transport System? ............4-9
4.5 Modern Thinking about Road Traffic Safety .................4-12
Part B — The “Tool Box” for Road and Traffic Engineers ........4-20
4.6 A Safety Engineering Mindset ....4-20
4.7 Matching Systems to Users .........4-22
4.8 Moving beyond Standards ..........4-27
4.9 Travel Speed and Journey Time — the Horns of the Mobility and Safety Dilemma ...
4.10 Will “Information Technology” Be the Springboard to a Safer System? .......
4.11 The Decision Making Process ....4-34
Part C — Summary and Conclusions ....4-35
4.12 Bringing It All Together ..............4-35
References .............................4-36

5 Road Traffic Noise Stephen Samuels 

5.1 Introduction and Fundamentals ..5-1
5.2 Road Traffic Noise ....5-7
5.3 A Case Study ...........5-26
5.4 Summary .................5-29
References .............................5-30
Further Reading ....................5-32
Part B Functional and Structural Design of Highways

6 Highway Geometric Design R.L. Cheu 

6.1 Design Concept and Philosophy ..6-1
6.2 Highway Alignment Design ..........6-3
6.3 Design Control and Criteria .........6-6
6.4 Design Elements .......6-8
6.5 Level of Service Consideration ...6-21
6.6 Summary .................6-22
References .............................6-22

7 Highway Materials Weng On Tam 

7.1 Introduction ..............7-1
7.2 Hot-Mix Asphalt Concrete ...........7-1
7.3 Emulsified and Cutback Asphalts ...................................7-34
7.4 Portland Cement Concrete .........7-37
7.5 Base and Subbase Materials ........7-39
References .............................7-39
Further Information .............7-40

8 Design of Flexible Pavements Michael S. Mamlouk 

8.1 Introduction ..............8-1
8.2 Design Objectives, Constraints, and Evolution ...............8-9
8.3 Stresses and Strains in Flexible Pavements ....................8-11
8.4 Major Road Experiments ............8-14
8.5 AASHTO, 1993 Design Method .8-15
8.6 Proposed AASHTO Mechanistic-Empirical Design Method ............8-26
8.7 Summary .................8-33
References .............................8-34

9 Design of Rigid Pavements T.F. Fwa and Liu Wei 

9.1 Characteristics of Rigid Pavements ...................................9-2
9.2 Considerations for Structural Design of Rigid Pavement ...................9-4
9.3 Computation of Design Traffic Loading ..........................9-5
9.4 Material Properties for Design of Rigid Pavement .......9-11
9.5 Computation of Load-Induced Stresses: Conventional Methods .....9-15
9.6 Computation of Load-Induced Stresses: Improved Methods ...........9-18
9.7 Computation of Thermal Stresses: Conventional Methods ..............9-23
9.8 Computation of Thermal Stresses: Improved Methods 9-26
9.9 Thickness Design of Concrete Pavement .......................9-28
9.10 Reinforcement Design of Rigid Pavement .....................9-40
9.11 Joints and Load Transfer Design 9-44
9.12 Future Developments ..................9-49
References .............................9-50
Appendix 9A User’s Manual for MSLAB_LOAD ........................9-53
Appendix 9B User’s Manual for WARP-NONLINEAR ..............9-57

10 Design of Segmental Pavements John W. Bull 

10.1 Introduction to Segmental Pavements ...........................10-2
10.2 History of Segmental Pavements ....................................10-2
10.3 Types of Segmental Pavements ...10-3
10.4 Where Segmental Pavements are Used ...........................10-4
10.5 Traffic Loading ........10-6
10.6 Design Procedures for Segmental Pavements ................10-7
10.7 Maintenance and Reinstatement of Segmental Pavements .............10-13
10.8 Manufacture of Segmental Pavements .........................10-15
10.9 Laying of Segmental Pavements ....................................10-16
10.10 Materials and Definitions Used for Segmental Pavements ..............10-17
10.11 International Segmental Paving ....................................10-19
10.12 Model Specification Clauses for Segmental Paving .....10-20
10.13 The Future of Segmental Paving ...................................10-22
Acknowledgments ..............10-23
References ...........................10-23

11 Overlay Design for Flexible Pavements Mang Tia 

11.1 Introduction ............11-1
11.2 Evaluation of Pavement Performance for Overlay ........11-3
11.3 Procedures for Design of AC Overlay on Flexible Pavement ............11-6
11.4 Procedures for Design of PCC Overlay on Flexible Pavement .......11-17
11.5 Summary ...............11-23
References ...........................11-23

12 Overlay Design for Rigid Pavements T.F. Fwa 

12.1 Introduction ............12-1
12.2 Concrete Overlays of Concrete Pavement ......................12-2
12.3 Asphalt Concrete Overlays of Concrete Pavement ......12-10
12.4 Future Development .................12-16
References ...........................12-16

13 Highway Drainage Systems and Design Khaled Ksaibati and Laycee L. Kolkman

13.1 Introduction ............13-1
13.2 Surface Drainage .....13-3
13.3 Erosion Prevention .13-4
13.4 Hydraulic Design ....13-5
13.5 Subdrainage Design ...................13-44
13.6 Summary ...............13-62
Acknowledgments ..............13-62
References ...........................13-63
Further Reading ..................13-63
Appendix 13A ....................13-63
Part C Construction, Maintenance and Management of Highways

14 Highway Construction K.N. Gunalan 

14.1 Introduction ............14-1
14.2 Highway Elements and Layout ..14-1
14.3 Construction Methods and Means .................................14-2
14.4 Subgrade Preparation and Stabilization .........................14-5
14.5 Embankment Materials and Construction .....................14-6
14.6 Subbase Course Materials and Construction .................14-8
14.7 Base Course Materials and Construction .......................14-8
14.8 Surface Course Construction .....14-9
14.9 Summary ...............14-13

15 Project Management in Highway Construction Derek Walker and Arun Kumar 

15.1 Project Management Overview ..15-1
15.2 Project Planning .....15-2
15.3 Organizational Framework .......15-14
15.4 Monitoring and Control ...........15-15
15.5 Risk Management .15-24
15.6 Human Resources Management ...................................15-32
References ...........................15-34

16 Highway Maintenance Ian van Wijk 

16.1 General ....................16-2
16.2 Description and Definition of Highway Maintenance ..16-3
16.3 Description of Defects and Appropriate Maintenance Actions ........16-4
16.4 Planning and Management ......16-21
16.5 Maintenance Criteria ................16-24
16.6 Remedial Maintenance Activities ..................................16-28
16.7 Preventive Maintenance Activities ................................16-33
16.8 Dust Suppressants 16-37
16.9 Design and Construction of Surface Dressings ...........16-38
16.10 Design and Construction of a Slurry Seal ...................16-47
16.11 Winter Maintenance ..................16-48
16.12 Execution of Highway Maintenance .............................16-49
16.13 Performance-Based Specifications ................................16-51
16.14 Labor-Based Techniques ...........16-53
16.15 Other Considerations ................16-54
16.16 Summary ...............16-56
Acknowledgments ..............16-56
References ...........................16-56
Further Reading ..................16-59
Appendix 16A Repair of Defects in Flexible Pavements ..........16-61
Appendix 16B Repair of Defects in Rigid Pavements ..............16-65
Appendix 16C Repairs of Other Defects ...................................16-68

17 Asset Management Sue McNeil and Pannapa Herabat 

17.1 Introduction ............17-1
17.2 Highway Asset Management Framework .......................17-7
17.3 Tools for Highway Asset Management .........................17-17
17.4 An Application: GASB 34 and Asset Valuation ...........17-23
17.5 Implementation and System Sustainability Issues ......17-27
17.6 An Application: Asset Financial Management .............17-29
17.7 Efforts and Challenges ..............17-33
17.8 Conclusion and Future Directions ...............................17-39
References ...........................17-39

18 Pavement Management Systems Waheed Uddin 

18.1 Historical Overview of PMS .......18-2
18.2 Network Level vs. Project-Level PMS Functions ...........18-6
18.3 Data Needs, Decision-Support Systems, GIS, Database Design .....18-10
18.4 Network Partitioning, Inventory and Monitoring Databases .........18-14
18.5 Traffic Data History and Environmental Data Needs .18-16
18.6 Pavement Condition Monitoring and Evaluation Technologies .....18-18
18.7 Pavement Condition Deterioration and Performance Models .......18-26
18.8 Pavement LCC Analysis and User Cost Models ..........18-35
18.9 Maintenance, Rehabilitation & Reconstruction (M,R&R) Policies and Analysis ...............18-39
18.10 Priority Ranking and Prioritization Methodologies ...18-49
18.11 PMS Program Management Reports and Contract Packaging .......18-53
18.12 PMS Development, Implementation, and Institutional Issues .......18-54
18.13 PMS Case Studies .18-59
18.14 Innovative Technologies and Future Directions ..........18-61
References ...........................18-64

19 Highway Condition Surveys and Serviceability Evaluation Zahidul Hoque .

19.1 Introduction ............19-1
19.2 Types of Pavement Distresses and Their Identification 19-3
19.3 Measurement and Reporting of Pavement Distress Data ................19-20
19.4 Methods and Equipment for Pavement Condition Surveys ............19-21
19.5 Pavement Condition Indices ....19-25
19.6 Serviceability and Roughness Measurements ..............19-29
19.7 Summary and Future Developments ............................19-43
References ...........................19-44

20 Structural Evaluation of Highway Pavements T.F. Fwa

20.1 Approaches of Structural Evaluation of Pavements ......20-1
20.2 Equipment for Nondestructive Deflection Test .............20-8
20.3 Backcalculation of Rigid-Pavement Properties ............20-13
20.4 Backcalculation of Flexible-Pavement Properties ........20-22
20.5 Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Backcalculation Analysis ......20-28
20.6 Future Developments ................20-29
References ...........................20-30
Appendix 20A User’s Manual for NUS-BACK ..........................20-34
Appendix 20B User’s Manual for NUS-BACK3 ........................20-37
Appendix 20C User’s Manual for NUS-BACK2 .......................20-40
Appendix 20D User’s Manual for NUS-BACK4 .......................20-43
Appendix 20E User Manual for 2L-BACK ................................20-46

21 Pavement Skid Resistance Management Kieran Feighan 

21.1 Introduction ............21-1
21.2 Measurement of Frictional Resistance ............................21-5
21.3 Measurement of Texture ...........21-13
21.4 International Friction Index .....21-18
21.5 Skid Resistance Policy ...............21-20
21.6 Skid Resistance Management for Networks .................21-25
21.7 Maintenance Treatments to Restore Frictional Resistance ..............21-29
References ...........................21-30
22 Bridge Management Systems Yi Jiang ..............................22-1
22.1 Introduction ............22-1
22.2 Components and Functions of Bridge Management System ............22-2
22.3 Bridge Condition Data Collection and Management ...22-5
22.4 Bridge Performance Analysis and Prediction ................22-8
22.5 Cost Analysis and Needs Assessment ...........................22-20
22.6 Bridge Project Selection and System Optimization ....22-27
22.7 Summary ...............22-50
References ...........................22-51
Conversion Table for Metric and Imperial Units ...........C-1

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