Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Structures - Using Externally-Bonded FRP Composities in Structural and Civil Engineering

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Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Structures - Using Externally-Bonded FRP Composities in Structural and Civil Engineering

Contents
Preface ix
List of contributors xiii
1 Role of bonded fibre-reinforced composites in
strengthening of structures 1
J   J   D A R B Y
1.1         Introduction 1
1.2         What is ‘strengthening with bonded fibre reinforced
polymer composite plates’? 1
1.3         The market for strengthening 2
1.4         Strengthening techniques 3
1.5         Advantages and disadvantages of FRP composite
plate bonding 4
1.6         Client concerns when introducing new techniques 8
1.7         Risk to clients when adopting FRP composite plate
bonding 8
1.8         Conclusions 10
2 Review of materials and techniques for plate bonding 11
L   C   H O L L A W A Y   A N D   M   B   L E E M I N G
2.1         Introduction 11
2.2         Structural adhesive bonding 11
2.3         External strengthening using steel plates 17
2.4         External strengthening using composite materials 21
2.5         Strengthening of reinforced concrete members in shear 34
2.6         Applications of FRP strengthening 36
2.7         Summary and conclusions of literature review 38
2.8         References 39
3 Materials 46
A   R   H U T C H I N S O N   A N D   J   Q U I N N
vvi          Contents
3.1         Adhesive bonded connections 46
3.2         Composite materials 47
3.3         Adhesive materials 57
3.4         Adhesion and surface preparation 68
3.5         The bonding operation 75
3.6         Durability and fire 80
3.7         Painting 80
3.8         Summary 80
3.9         References 81
4 Structural strengthening of concrete beams using
unstressed composite plates 83
L   C   H O L L A W A Y   A N D   G   C   M A Y S
4.1         Introduction 83
Part A  Laboratory tests 84
4.2         General form and behaviour of loaded beams 84
4.3         Geometric parameters 91
4.4         Discussion 107
Part B  Field investigation 109
4.5         Testing programme for 18m beam 109
4.6         Observations 131
4.7         Concluding remarks 132
4.8         References 132
5 Structural strengthening of concrete beams using
prestressed plates 135
H   N   G A R D E N   A N D   G   C   M A Y S
5.1         Introduction 135
5.2         Review of previous prestressing studies using composite
plates 137
5.3         Prestressing technique employed in the laboratory 138
5.4         Results of laboratory tests for concrete beams
strengthened with prestressed plates in the ROBUST
programme 140
5.5         Results of field investigations of concrete beams
strengthened with prestressed plates in the ROBUST
programme 146
5.6         Observations 149
5.7         Concluding remarks 154
5.8         References 154
6 Environmental durability 156
A   R   H U T C H I N S O N   A N D   L   C   H O L L A W A YContents         vii
6.1         Introduction 156
6.2         Environmental and service conditions 157
6.3         Factors affecting joint durability 158
6.4         Environmental durability of adhesive bonded joints 160
6.5         Procedures for assessing environmental effects
on materials and on bonded joints 163
6.6         Effect of environment on the component materials used
in the ROBUST system 166
6.7         Influence of surface treatment and effects of environment
on joints and interfaces 173
6.8         Other factors affecting service performance 179
6.9         Summary 181
6.10       References 181
7 Time-dependent behaviour and fatigue 183
R   A   B A R N E S   A N D   H   N   G A R D E N
7.1         Introduction 183
PART A  Time-dependent behaviour 183
7.2         Introduction 183
7.3         Time-dependent characteristics of concrete 184
7.4         Time-dependent characteristics of steel 184
7.5         Time-dependent characteristics of adhesives 184
7.6         Time-dependent characteristics of plated beams using
steel plates 192
7.7         Time-dependent characteristics of FRP component
materials and FRP composites 194
7.8         Time-dependent characteristics of plated beams using
polymer composite plates 196
7.9         Creep tests conducted during the ROBUST project 197
PART B  Fatigue behaviour 200
7.10       Introduction 200
7.11       Fatigue of unplated beams 201
7.12       Fatigue of adhesives 203
7.13       Fatigue of FRP materials 206
7.14       Fatigue of plated beams using steel plates 208
7.15       Fatigue of short span plated beams using FRP plates 211
7.16       Fatigue of long span plated 2.3   m beams using FRP plates        213
7.17       Concluding summary 217
7.18       References 218
8 Analytical and numerical solutions to structural
strengthening of beams by plate bonding 222
P   S   L U K Eviii         Contents
8.1         Introduction 222
8.2         Classical analysis 223
8.3         Finite element analysis 223
8.4         Effect of adhesive material 231
8.5         Prestressed 18.0m concrete beams 231
8.6         Beams with unstressed plates 234
8.7         Beams with stressed plates 237
8.8         Concluding remarks 240
8.9         References 241
8.10       Bibliography 241
9 Design and specifications for FRP plate bonding
of beams 242
M   B   L E E M I N G   A N D   J   J   D A R B Y
9.1         Introduction 242
9.2         Practical design rules and guidelines 242
9.3         Application of the technique 257
9.4         Materials 258
9.5         Workmanship 260
9.6         Quality control 261
9.7         In-service inspection and maintenance 266
9.8         References 267
9.9         Bibliography 268
10         Site construction techniques 270
A   P   R I M O L D I
10.1       Introduction 270
10.2       Steel plate bonding 270
10.3       Adhesive bonding of carbon fibre composite plates –
site requirements 272
10.4       Economics 286
10.5       Conclusion 287
10.6       References 287
11         Case studies of carbon fibre bonding worldwide 288
M   A   S H A W   A N D   J   F   D R E W E T T
11.1       Introduction 288
11.2       System properties 289
11.3       Case histories 290
11.4       References 324
Index 325

325
Index
3M adhesive, 104
absorption of water into adhesives and
adherends, 161
adherends, 170
surface preparations for, 72–6
adhesives, 12, 57, 61, 62
adhesive
application, 76–7, 261
behaviour (under load) of, 164
bond strength, 15
bonding characteristics, 47
bonding to CFRP plates – site
requirements, 272–6
concrete interfaces, 174
curing, 77, 264
durability, 80
effects of environment on joints and
interfaces, 173
heat distortion temperature, 264
joints, effects of surface treatment on,
173
mechanical properties, 264
mixing, 76–7, 264
moisture resistance, 264
placing, 264
properties, 61–7
quality control, 261
selection, 160, 259
storage time, 264
structural, 12
tests, 67, 263–6
thickness effects of, 106
usable life of, 61, 264
adhesion, 68
promoters, 61
primers, 61
aliphatic polyamines, 60
aramid fibre, 48, 50, 55
composite (bi-directional), 55
composite (unidirectional fibres), 55
reinforced plastics, 55, 74
anchorage of composite plate, 101–6
applications of FRP strengthening, 36
ASTM (1983) and (1984), 68
Auckland New Zealand floor strengthening,
316–17
autoclave moulding technique, 50
bi-linear kinematic hardening (BKIN) –
FEA option, 225–6
Boeing wedge cleavage test, 25
bonded joints (experimental
considerations), 164
bonding of
anchored plates, 280–2
multi-plates, 281
prestressing CFRP plates, 282
unanchored plates, 276–80
undrilled plates, 281
bonding operation, 75
bond line thickness control, 77
Brno hospital Czech Republic floor slab
strengthening, 315–16
BS EN 29142 (1993), 163
Budapest strengthening of floor, 313–14
CarboDur strengthening system,
application of, 297
carbon fibre, 1, 9, 48, 49, 54, 80
CFRP, 24, 54–5
Unidirectional, 53, 171
Toray T700, 54
composite behaviour under load, 64
composite material, 47, 52, 258–9
behaviour under load, 164
deterioration of, 171
environmental effect on, 166
plate end geometry, 25
unidirectional, 54
cost comparison of steel and composite
plate bonding, 22
coupling agent, 61
creep
of FRP composites, 9, 56, 194–6
of structural adhesives, 184–7
of steel plated beams, 192–4
testing of CFRP material, 197
testing of CFRP plated beam, 197–200326       Index
degradation, processes involved in joint,
162
Department of Transport, 17
diffusion of water into adhesive and
adherends, 161
Dresden concrete bridge beam
strengthening, 320–1
Drucker–Prager FEA option, 225–6
durability, 8, 9, 256
of concrete, 156
main factors affecting, 159
dynamic fatigue, 200
economics of CFRP plated beams, 286
environmental conditions, effects on
adhesive joints, 157, 163
assessing degradation on joints, 163
durability of adhesive joints, 156, 160
moisture on adhesive joints, 161
end anchorage, 255
end anchorage peel stresses, 246–50
environmental effects on
fatigue behaviour, 202
small scale specimens, 178
EMPA, 18, 24, 31
epoxy resins, 1, 12, 46, 48, 54, 58, 59
epoxy resin additives, 60
epoxy resin rubber toughened, 29
EUROCOMP, 74
failure mode of plated RC beam, 243–6
fatigue, discussion of plated beam tests
under, 216–17
fatigue
of adhesives, 203–6
of aramid composites, 55
of FRP material, 206–8
of FRP plated short span beams, 211–13
of FRP plated long span, 213–15, 255
of post tensioned prestressed beams, 200
of R.C. concrete bridge decks, 201
of steel plated beams, 208–10, 255
fatigue, Dynamic, 200
fatigue of E-glass composites, 55
finite element analysis of
18 metre beams, 231–3
effect of adhesive material on beams, 231
effect of mesh density on beams, 229–31
plated beam, 2D, 225–6
plated beam, 3D, 227–9
prestressed concrete, 223
RC, 223
results of prestressed plated beams, 237–9
results of unstressed plated beam, 234–7
finite element analysis, crack approach for
concrete
discrete, 224
smeared, 224
fire comparison, steel and CFRP plated
beams, 23
fire resistance, 6, 80, 256
of vinylester, 179–81
freeze thaw resistance, 6
FRP, fatigue of, 206–8
adherends, 170
deterioration of mechanical property,
170
surface environment on properties –
chemical, 170; mechanical, 170;
physical, 170
FRP plate
anchorage, 18
separation, 18
Fujimi bridge culvert, Japan, 38
galvanic corrosion, 80
glass fibre, 1, 48, 55
A, 48, 49, 54
E, 48, 49, 54, 55
environmental attack on, 172
R, 48, 49, 54
reinforcement, 9
S, 49, 54
glass transition temperature, 58, 63, 163,
164, 168, 171
Great Missenden underpass strengthening,
310–11
grit blasting, 6
heat distortion temperature (HDT), 67, 265
heat distortion tests, 265
Hata bridge Japan, 38
Horgen ferry bridge strengthening, 322–3
Ibach bridge, 36
inspection and maintenance of strengthened
structures, 266
interface – FRP/adhesive joint, 176
isophthalic polyesters, 158, 172
joints, adhesive
degradation of, 162
effect of environment on, 173
environmental and service conditions, 157
factors affecting joint durability, 158
surface treatment of, 173
joints, adhesive/concrete interfaces, 174
joint performance
fire, 179
freeze/thaw, 179
Kevlar 29, 50
Kevlar 49, 50, 55
Kings College Hospital roof strengthening,
37, 290–3
lap joint test, 262
limit state for strengthening beams, 254
limit state partial safety factors, 254
Loano Genova apartment balconies
strengthening, 318
Magdeburg Olvenstedt strengthening of
balconies, 312–13
maintenance
of CFRP plated beams, 286of strengthened structure, 266
masonry walls, strengthening of, 301–4
methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), 73
mixing requirements for adhesives, 264
moisture resistance of adhesives, 264
Oberriet Meiningen bridge, Switzerland,
293–301
structural analysis and design of, 295
orthophthalic polyester, 158, 172
partial safety factors, limit state, 254
peel
at end anchorage, 246–50
at wide shear/yield crack, 250–2
ply, 9, 52, 73, 260
stress, 47
test, modified, 16
plate end geometry, 100
plate stiffness, effect of increasing, 106
polyacrylonitrile PAN fibre, 49
polyester resin, 12, 48
polyester, unsaturated, 13
prepreg, 50
prepreg tapes, 99
prestressing of CFRP plates, 31, 282–6
externally bonded plates, 136
laboratory techniques for, 138–40
prestressed concrete beams, testing of, 113
prestressed plates, 135
segmental construction using, 135
strengthening of prestressed concrete
beams by, 135
properties
of Sika CarboDur material, 289
of Sikadur 30, 289
pultrusion, 51–2
CFRP plates, 54
pull-off tests PrEN 1542 (1996), 174
quality control of adhesives, 261
Quinton bridge, 17
reinforced concrete beams
plated, 85–91
unplated, 84
RILEM 15
shear
connection in steel/concrete construction,
16
effects in R.C. theory, 252
lap joints, 105
span/beam depth ratio, 88, 91, 93, 94, 97,
98, 100, 105, 108, 252
strengthening, 34
stress between plate and concrete,
longitudinal, 252
test slant, 15, 16, 165
Sikadur 31 PBA, properties
creep, 187
environmental, 166, 168
interfacial failure, 169
material characteristics, 169
mechanical, 63
moisture absorption, 168
thermal cycling, 168
toughness of joints, 169
Silane surface primer, 16
Sin wooden bridge, 37
strengthening of, 305–9
Skipton bridge strengthening, 323
steel plates external strengthening, 17
steel plate bonding, site technique for, 270–1
strengthening of structures
advantages, 4
marketing, 2
techniques, 3
stress rupture, 56
structural adhesives
bond tests, 15
requirements for, 14
type of, 12
Stuttgart waffle slab strengthening, 319–20
surface preparation of adherends, 68, 70, 76,
260
thermal expansion coefficient, 56, 171
thermomechanical performance, 48
thermosetting resin, 48
thick adherend shear test (TAST), 67
time dependent characteristics of
adhesive polymer, 184–7
composite plated beams, 196
concrete, 184
FRP composites, 194–6
steel, 184
steel plated beams, 192–4
Tokando Highway bridge Japan, 38
Tougheners, 61
Transport Research Laboratory, 17, 18, 193,
201
transverse tensile stress, 48
Tutbury UK, beam strengthening, 324
Tyne and Wear UK, subway strengthening,
309–10
urethane adhesive, 16
urethane methacrylate, 48
vacuum bag moulding, 50, 53
vandalism, 256
vinylester, 1, 46, 48
in fire, 179–81
wedge cleavage test, 262–3
Yoshino Route Tunnel, Japan, 38
zirconia glass, 9
Zurich, ground floor strengthening of rail
terminal, 37
strengthening of masonry wall,
Switzerland, 301

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