Geotechnical Engineering Book

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Geotechnical Engineering Book


CONTENTS
Preface to the Third Edition   i
Preface to the First Edition   ii
Purpose and Scope of the Book   iv
1  SOIL AND  SOIL MECHANICS  1
1.1      Introduction   1
1.2      Development or SoH Mechanics   2
1.3      Fields of Application of Soil mechanics   3
1.4      Soil Formation   4
1.5      Residual and Transported Soils   6
1.6      Some Commonly Used Soil Designations   7
1.7      Structure of Soils   8
1.8      Texture of Soils   9
1.9      Major Soil Deposits of India   9
Summary of Main Points   10
References   10
Questions   11
2  COMPOSITION  OF  SOIL TERMINOLOGY  AND  DEFINITIONS  12
2.1      Composition of Soil   12
2.2      Basic Terminology   13
2.3      Certain Important Relationships   17
2.4      Illustrative Examples   21
Summary of Main Points    27
References  27
Questions and Problems   28
3  INDEX PROPERTIES  AND  CLASSIFICATION TeSTS  30
3.1      Introduction   30
3.2      Soil Colour   30
3.3      Particle Shape  31
3.4      Specific Gravity of Soil Solids   31
3.5      Water Content  34
xIII xlv
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
·3.12
3.13
Density Index   37
In.-Situ  Unit Weight   41
Particle Size Distribution (Mechanical Analysis)  45
Consistency of Clay So4a   68
Activity of Clays   71
Unconfined CompreSHion Strength and Senaitivity of Claya   72
Thixotropy of Clays   73
Illustrative Examples   73
Summary of Main Points   sa
References   88
Questions and Problema   89
4  IDENTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF  SOILS  92
4.1      Introduction   92
4.2      Field Identification of Soils   92
4.3      Soil Classification-  The Need   94
4.4      Engineering Soil Cla88ification-~l'hle Fe,atures  ~.
4.5      Classification Systems-More Co~on Ones   95
4.6      Illustrative Examples   105
Summary of Main Points   109
References   110
Questions and Problems   110
5  SOIL MOISTURe-PERMEABILITY AND  CAPILLARITY  112
5.1      Introduction   112
5.2      Soil Moisture and Modes of Occurrence   112
5.3      Neutral and Effective Pressures   11"
5.4      Flow of Water Through Soil-Permeability   116
5.5      Determination of Permeability   121
5.6      Factors Affecting Permeabllity   130
5.7      Values ofPenneability   134
5.B     Permeability of Layered Soils   134
*5.9      Capillarity   136
5.10    Illus trative Examples   147
Summary of.Main Points'  160
References   161
Questions and Problems   162
6  SeEPAGE AND  FLOW' NETS  165
6.1      Introduction   165
6.2      Flow Net for  One-dimensional Flow   165
CONTENTS CONTENTS  KY
6.3       Flow Net for Two-Dimensional Flow   168
6.4      Basic Equation for Seepage   172
*6.5      Seepage Through Non-Homogeneous and Anisotropic Soil   176
6.6      Top Flow Line in an Earth Dam   178
*6.7      Radial Flow Nets   187
6.8      Methods of Obtaining Flow Nets   190
6.9      Quicksand   192
6.10    Seepage Forces   193
6.11    Effective Stress in a Soil Mass Under Seepage   194
6.12    lIlustrative Examples   194
Summary of Main Point8   199
References   199
Questions and Problems   200
7  COMPRESSIBILITY AND CONSOLIDATION OF  SOILS  202
7.1      Introduction   202
7.2      Compressibility of Soils   202
7.3      A Mechanistic Model for Consolidation   220
7.4      Ten:agW's Theory of One-dimensional Consolidation   224
7.5      Solution ofTerzaghi's Equation for One-dimensional Consolidation   228
7.6      Graphical Presentation of Consolidation Relationships   231
7.7      Evaluation of Coefficient of Consolidation from Odometer Test Data   234
*7.8      Secondary Consolidation   238
7.9      Illustrative Examples   240
Summary of Main Points   248
References   248
Question,; and Problems   249
8  SHEARING STRENGTH  OF  SOILS  253
8.1      Introduction   253
8.2      Friction   253
8.3      Principal Planes and Principal Stresses-Mohr's Circle   255
8.4      Strength Theories for Soils   260
8.5      Shearing Strength-A Function of Effective Stress  263
*8.6      Hvorslev's True Shear Parameters  264
8.7      Types of Shear Tp.sts Basod on Drainage Conditions   265
B.8      Shearing Strength Tests   266
*8.9      Pore Pressure Parameters  280
*8.10    Stress-Path Approach   282
8.11    Shearing Characteristics of Sand~  285
8.12    Shearing Characteristics of Clays   290 xvi
9
10
8.13    lIJustrative Examples   297
Summary of Main Points  312
References   313
Questions and Prob1ems   314
STABILITY OF EARTH  SLOPES  318
9. 1      Introduction   318
9.2      Infinite Slopes   318
9.3      Finite Slopes   325
9.4      Illustrative Examples   342
Summary of Main Points   349
References   350
Questions and Problems   350
STRESS  DISTRIBUTION  IN  SOIL
10.1    Introduction   352
10.2    Point Load   353
10.3    Line Load   361
10.4    Strip Load   363
352
10.5    Uniform Load on Circular Area   366
10.6    Uniform. Load on Rectangular Area   370
10.7    UniConn Load on Irregular Areas-Newmark's Chart  374
10.8    Approximate Methods   377
10.9    lIluMtrative Examples   378
Summary of Main Points   386
References   387
Questions and Problems   388
11  SETTLEMENT ANALYSIS  390
1.1      Introduction   390
11.2    Data for Settlement Analysia   390
11.3    Settlement  393
· 11.4    Corrections to Computed Settlement  399
· 11.5   Further Factors Affecting Settlement   401
11.6    Other Factors Pertinent to Settlement   .c04-
11.7    Settlement Records   407
11.8    Contact Pressure and Active Zone From Pressure Bulb Concept   407
11.9    Dlustrative ExampJes   411
Summary of Main Points   419
Reference8   420
Que8tions and Problems   421 CONTENTS
12  COMPACTION  OF SOIL  423
12.1    Introduction   423
12.2    Compaction Phenomenon   423
12.3    Compaction Test   424
12.4    Saturation (Zero-air-voids) Line   425
12.5    Laboratory Compaction Tests   426
12.6    In-situ or Field Compaction   432
*12.7    Compaction of Sand   437
12.8    Compaction versus Consolidation   438
12.9    Illustrative Examples   439
Summary ufMain Points   445
References   446
Questions and Problems   446
xvii
13  LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE AND  STABILITY OF RETAINING WALLS  449
13.1    Introduction   449
13.2    Types of Earth-retaining Structures   449
13.3    Lateral Earth Pressures  451
13.4    Earth Pressure at Rest   452
13.5    Earth Pressure Theories   454
13.6    Rankine's Theory   455
13.7    Coulomb's Wedge Theory   470
13.8    Stability Considerations for Retaining Walls   502
13.9    Illustrative Examples   514
Summary of Main Points   536
References   538
Questions and Problems   539
14  BEARING CAPACITY  541
14.1    Introduction and Definitions   541
14.2    Bearing Capacity   542
14.3    Methods of Determining Bearing Capacity   543
14.4    Bearing Capacity from Building Codes   543
14.5    Analytical Methods of Determining Bearing Capacity   546
14.6    Effect of Water Table on Bearing Capacity  ,569
14.7    Safe Bearing Capacity   571
14.8    Foundation Settlements   572
14.9    Plate Load Tests   574
·14.10  Bearing Capacity from Penetration Tests   579 ·
·14.11  Bearing Capacity from Model Tests-Housel's Approach   579 xvIII
14.12  Bearing Capacity from Laboratory Tests   ~BO
14.13  Bearing Capacity of Sands   580
14.14  Bearing Capacity ofelays  585
14.15  Recommended Practice (1.8)   585
14.16  Illustrative Examples   586
Summary of Main Points   601
References   602
Questions and Problems   S03
15   SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS    607
15.1    Introductory Concepts on Foundations   607
15.2    General Types of Foundations   S07
15.3    Choice of Foundation Type and Preliminary Selection   613
15.4    Spread Footi ngs   617
15.5    Strap Footings  630
15.6    Combined Footings   631
15.7    Raft Foundations  634
·15.8    Foundations on Non-uniform Soils   639
15.9    Illustrative Examples   641
Summary of Main Points  647
References   648
Questions and Problems   S49
16   PILE  FOUNDATIONS    651
16.1    In troduction   651
16.2    Classification of Piles   651
16.3    Use of Piles   653
16.4    Pile Driving  654
16.5    Pile Capaci ty   656
16.6    Pile Groups   677
16.7    Settlement of Piles and Pile Groups
· 16.8    Laterally Loaded Piles   685
*16.9    Batter Pites   686
16.10  Design of Pile Foundations  688
683
l S.11  Construction of Pile Foundation.8   689
16.12  J1I ustrative Examples   689
Summary of Main Points   693
References   694
Questions and Problems   695
CONTENTS CONTENTS
17  SOIL STABILISATION  697
17.1    Introduction   697
17.2    Clafl!'lification of the Methods of Stabilisation  697
17.3    Stabilisation of Soil Without Additives   69B
17.4    Stabilisation ofSoi1 with Additives   702
17.5    California BcaTing Ratio   710
"' 17.6    Reinforced Earth and Geosynthetics   716
17.7    Illustrative Examples   71B
Summary of Main Points   721
Refercnces   72 1
Questions and Problems   722
18  SOIL  EXPLORATION  724
IB.l     Introduction   724
1B.2   Site Investigation   724
18.3    Soil Exploration   726
1B.4   Soil Sampling   732
18.5    Sounding and P.cnetration Tests   738
1B.6    Indirect Methods---Geophysical Methods   746
18.7    The Art of Preparing a Soil Inve~tigation Report   750
IB.8    Illustrative Examples   752
Summary of Main Points   754
References   755
Questions and Problems   756
19  CAISSONS ANO  WELL  FOUNOATIONS  .758
19.1    Introduction   758
19.2    DcsignAspccts of Caissons   759
19.3    Open Caissons   763
19.4    Pneumatic Caissons   764
19.5    Floating Caissons   766
19.6 .   Construction Aspects of Caissons   768
19.7    Illustrative Examples on Caissons   770
19.8    Well Foundations  775
19.9    Design Aspects of Well Foundati?ns   778
· 19.10  Lateral StabilityofWeU Foundations   789
19.11  Construction Aspects ofWel1 Foundations   802
19.12  Illustrative Examples on Well  Foundations   805
Summary of Main Points   808
References   809
Questions and P roblems  810
xix xx  CONTENTS
20  ELEMENTS OF  SOIL DYNAMICS ANO  MACHINE FOUNDATIONS  812
20.1    Introduction   812
20.2    Fundamentals of Vibration   815
20.3    Fundamentals of Soil Dynamics   828
20.4    Machine Foundations-Special Features  840
20.5    Foundations for Reciprocating Machines   846
20.6    Foundations for Impact Machines   849
20.7    Vibration Isolation   858
20.8    ~onstruction Aspects of Machine Foundations  862
20.9    illustrative Examples   863
Summary of Main Points   873
References   874
Questions and Problems   875
Anl5wers to NumeriCal Problems   877
Objective Questions   880
Answers to Objective Questions   896
Appendix A : A Note on SI Units   901
Appendix B : Notation   905
Author Index   919
Subject Index   921

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