Engineered Concrete Mix Design and Test Methods Book

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Engineered Concrete Mix Design and Test Methods Book


Contents
Acknowledgment ........................................................................................................................................ xiii
About the Author ..........................................................................................................................................xv
1     Part      Introduction
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 3
Brief Overview of Portland Cement and Concrete Technology .............................................................. 5
Cementing Materials ......................................................................................................................................5
Aggregates .......................................................................................................................................................8
Water ..............................................................................................................................................................10
Objectives in Designing a Concrete Mixture ...............................................................................................10
Mix Design Procedures ..................................................................................................................................11
The International System of Measurements ................................................................................................15
Illustrative Problem for Concrete Mix Design by the Absolute Volume Method ....................................15
The U.S. Standard System of Measurements ...............................................................................................19
Illustrative Problem for Concrete Mix Design by the Absolute Volume Method ....................................19
2     Part      Tests for Aggregates, Portland Cement, and Mortar
Rodded Unit Weight of Coarse Aggregates (C 29) ................................................................................... 27
Purpose ............................................................................................................................................................27
Equipment and Materials ...............................................................................................................................27
Test Procedure .................................................................................................................................................27
Explanation of Computations and Data Sheet ..............................................................................................28
Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars (C 109) ................................................................. 29
Purpose .............................................................................................................................................................29
Equipment and Materials .............................................................................................................................29viii  Contents
Test Procedure ..............................................................................................................................................29
Explanation of Computations and Data Sheet: C 109 ............................................................................ 31
Specific Gravity and Absorption Tests of Coarse and Fine Aggregates for Use in the
Design of Portland Cement Concrete Mixtures (C 127/128) ................................................................ 33
Purpose ........................................................................................................................................................33
Equipment and Materials ..........................................................................................................................33
Test Procedure ............................................................................................................................................33
Explanation of Computations and Data Sheet .........................................................................................35
Resistance to Degradation of Small-Sized Coarse Aggregates by Abrasion and
Impact in the Los Angeles Machine (C 131) .......................................................................................... 37
Purpose ........................................................................................................................................................37
Equipment and Materials ..........................................................................................................................37
Test Procedure .............................................................................................................................................37
Explanation of Computations and Data Collection .................................................................................37
Dry Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates (C l36) .................................................................. 39
Material Finer than 75 μm (No. 200 Sieve) by Washing (C 117) ......................................................... 39
Purpose ........................................................................................................................................................39
Equipment and Materials ..........................................................................................................................39
Test Procedure ............................................................................................................................................39
Explanation of Computations and Data Sheets .......................................................................................40
Clay Lumps and Friable Particles in Aggregates (C 142) .................................................................... 45
Purpose ........................................................................................................................................................45
Equipment and Materials ..........................................................................................................................45
Test Procedure ............................................................................................................................................45
Explanation of Computations and Data Sheet .........................................................................................46
Density of Hydraulic Cement (C 188) .......................................................................................................47
Purpose ........................................................................................................................................................47
Equipment and Materials ..........................................................................................................................47
Test Procedure ............................................................................................................................................47
Explanation of Computations and Data Sheet .........................................................................................48
Tensile Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars (C 190) ........................................................................51
Purpose ........................................................................................................................................................51
Equipment and Materials ..........................................................................................................................51
Test Procedure .............................................................................................................................................51
Explanation of Computations and Data Sheet ..............................................................................................53Contents  ix
Time of Set of Hydraulic Cement by Vicat Needle (C 191) .................................................................. 57
Purpose .........................................................................................................................................................57
Equipment and Materials ...........................................................................................................................57
Test Procedure .............................................................................................................................................57
Preparation of the Cement Paste ...............................................................................................................57
Consistency Determination ........................................................................................................................58
Time of Setting Determination ..................................................................................................................59
Explanation of Computations and Data Sheet .........................................................................................59
Fineness of Portland Cement by Air Permeability Apparatus (C 204) .................................................61
Purpose ...................................................................................................................................................... 61
Equipment and Materials ........................................................................................................................ 61
Test Procedure .......................................................................................................................................... 61
Explanation of Computations and Data Sheet .........................................................................................63
Sand Equivalent Value of Soils and Fine Aggregates (D 2419) ........................................................... 65
Purpose ........................................................................................................................................................65
Equipment and Materials ...........................................................................................................................65
Test Procedure ............................................................................................................................................65
Explanation of Computations and Data Sheet .........................................................................................67
Index of Aggregate Particle Shape and Texture (D 3398) .................................................................... 69
Purpose .........................................................................................................................................................69
Equipment and Materials ...........................................................................................................................69
Test Procedure ..............................................................................................................................................69
Explanation of Computations and Data Collection ...................................................................................71
Flat or Elongated Particles in Coarse Aggregate (D 4791) .................................................................... 73
Purpose .........................................................................................................................................................73
Equipment and Materials ............................................................................................................................73
Test Procedure ..............................................................................................................................................73
Explanation of Computations and Data Sheet ............................................................................................74
Standard Specifications for Wire Cloth and Sieves for Testing Purposes (E 11) ................................ 79
Purpose ..........................................................................................................................................................79
3     Part      Tests for Portland Cement Concrete
Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens (C 39) ...................................................... 85
Purpose ........................................................................................................................................................85
Equipment and Materials .........................................................................................................................85x  Contents
Test Procedure ...........................................................................................................................................85
Preparation of Cylindrical Specimens .....................................................................................................85
Curing of the Concrete Specimens ...........................................................................................................86
Compression Testing Procedure ...............................................................................................................86
Explanation of Computations and Data Sheet .........................................................................................86
Flexural Strength of Concrete Using Simple Beam with Third-Point Loading (C 78) ...................... 89
Purpose ........................................................................................................................................................89
Equipment and Materials .............................................................................................................................89
Test Procedure ..............................................................................................................................................89
Explanation of Computations and Data Sheet ..............................................................................................91
Unit Weight, Yield, and Air Content of Concrete (C 138) ..................................................................... 95
Purpose ........................................................................................................................................................95
Equipment and Materials .............................................................................................................................95
Test Procedure ..............................................................................................................................................95
Explanation of Computations and Data Sheet ..............................................................................................96
Slump of Hydraulic Cement Concrete (C 143) ......................................................................................... 99
Purpose ........................................................................................................................................................99
Equipment and Materials .............................................................................................................................99
Test Procedure ..............................................................................................................................................99
Explanation of Computations and Data Sheet ............................................................................................100
Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the Volumetric Method (C 173) ………………………..103
Purpose ......................................................................................................................................................103
Equipment and Materials ...........................................................................................................................103
Test Procedure ............................................................................................................................................103
Explanation of Computations and Data Sheet ............................................................................................105
Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Laboratory (C 192) .............................................107
Purpose ......................................................................................................................................................107
Equipment and Materials ...........................................................................................................................107
Test Procedure ............................................................................................................................................107
Explanation of Computations and Data Sheets ..........................................................................................108
Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the Pressure Method (C 231) ...........................................109
Purpose ......................................................................................................................................................109
Equipment and Materials ...........................................................................................................................109
Test Procedure ............................................................................................................................................109
Explanation of Computations and Data Sheet ............................................................................................ 113Contents  xi
Bond Strength of Concrete Developed with Reinforcing Steel (C 234) .................................................115
Purpose ...................................................................................................................................................... 115
Equipment and Materials ........................................................................................................................... 115
Test Procedure ............................................................................................................................................ 115
Explanation of Computations and Data Sheets .......................................................................................... 117
Ball Penetration in Freshly Mixed Concrete (C 360) ..............................................................................127
Purpose ......................................................................................................................................................127
Equipment and Materials ...........................................................................................................................127
Test Procedure ............................................................................................................................................127
Explanation of Computations and Data Sheet ............................................................................................128
Static Modulus of Elasticity and Poisson’s Ratio of Concrete in Compression (C 469) ………………..131
Purpose ...................................................................................................................................................... 131
Equipment and Materials ........................................................................................................................... 131
Test Procedure ............................................................................................................................................ 131
Explanation of Computations and Data Sheet ............................................................................................ 132
Splitting Tensile Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens (C 496) ..................................................139
Purpose ......................................................................................................................................................139
Equipment and Materials ...........................................................................................................................139
Test Procedure ............................................................................................................................................139
Explanation of Computations and Data Sheet ............................................................................................ 141
Rebound Number of Hardened Concrete (C 805) ...................................................................................145
Purpose ...................................................................................................................................................... 145
Equipment and Materials ........................................................................................................................... 145
Test Procedure ............................................................................................................................................ 145
Explanation of Computations and Data Sheet ............................................................................................ 147
Direct Tensile Test of Portland Cement Concrete .....................................................................................151
Purpose ...................................................................................................................................................... 151
Equipment and Materials ........................................................................................................................... 151
Test Procedure ............................................................................................................................................ 151
Explanation of Computations and Data Sheet ............................................................................................ 152
4     Part      Appendices
A: Measurement Conversion Factors between the S.I. System and the U.S. Standard
Units .............................................................................................................................................................161
B: Laboratory Rules of Safety and Procedures .....................................................................163xii  Contents
C: Tables of Portland Cement Specifications from ASTM Designation: C 150 ................................165
D: Concrete Admixtures and Other Cementitious Materials ..........................................................171
E: Development of ASTM Standards .................................................................................................175
F: Sample Course Outlines for 10-Week and 15-Week Laboratory Sessions ...................................177
Suggested Course Outline for 10-Week Quarter ........................................................................................ 178
Suggested Course Outline for 15-Week Semester ...................................................................................... 179
G: New Developments in Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) Technology ................................................181
High-Strength Concrete (HSC) .................................................................................................................. 182
High-Strength Lightweight Concrete ......................................................................................................... 182
Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) .............................................................................................................. 182
Mass Concrete ............................................................................................................................................ 183
H: Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................185
Additional Copies of Laboratory Data Sheets ......................................................................................187
Index ....................................................................................................................................................... 225

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