Pile Design for Structural and Geotechnical Engineers Book

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Pile Design for Structural and Geotechnical Engineers Book




A
Aerial photographs, 4
American Association of State
Highway and Transpor-
tation Officials
caisson design in clay soils, 151
pile group guidelines, 183–184
American Concrete Institute, 130
American Petroleum Institute,
82–83
As-built plans and drawings,
423–424
ASTM standards
for pile testing, 129
for pipe piles, 129
for timber piles, 129
Auger cast pile, 109–111
Augered pressure grouted concrete
piles, 128

Augering, 367
Axial deformation
of caissons, 174–176
pile settlement caused by, 201
Axial pile resistance, 299
B
Batter angle, 423–424
Batter piles
applications of, 293
center of gravity of, 302–305
design of, 293–302
force polygons, 295
negative skin friction and, 294
in retaining wall, 296
Bearing capacity factor,
44, 47
Bearing stratum, 146
Belled caissons, 143,
167–173
Belled piles, 411–412
Bending strain, 320–321
Bitumen coating
behavior of
description of, 267
during driving, 273–274
during storage, 272–273
description of, 266
shear strain rate of, 267–268
temperature considerations,
274–275
viscosity, 268–269, 271
Bitumen-coated piles
case study of, 277–278
design of, 265–276
installation of, 264–265
for negative skin friction,
269–276
Bored piles
in clay soils
end bearing capacity, 81
skin friction, 83–84
driven piles and, comparison
between, 112–114
in offshore piling, 410
Borings, 6
Boston Blue clay layer, 94
Boundary element method, 339
Bridge pile design, 107–108
Burland method, 84
C
Caissons
axial deformation of, 174–176
belled, 143, 167–173
cased, 142–143, 148
in clay soils
AASHTO method for
designing, 151
equations for, 147–149
multiple clay layers,153–155
single clay layer, 152–153
skin friction, 150–151
weight, 149–150
construction of, 142–145
defects in, 144–145
definition of, 141
description of, 11–12, 37–38
dry method for constructing,
142–145
end bearing capacity of,
155–156
equations for, 147–149
history of, 141–142
inspection of, in soil, 145–147
integrity of, 143–144
machine digging of, 142
Meyerhof equation for,
155–158
repairing of, 144
in rock, 237–243
in sandy soils, 161–167
settlement of, 173–179
skin friction for, 150, 157–158
uplift forces, 158–161
weight of, 149–150
Calcareous sands, 408
Casing
caisson construction using,
142–143
description of, 123
Casing removal type, 28–29
Chelurids, 18
Clay soils
adhesion coefficient, 76
bored piles in
end bearing capacity, 81
skin friction, 83–84,
86–91
cohesion in, 78–80
in continental crust, 408
description of, 8
driven piles in
end bearing capacity, 81
skin friction, 82–83
end bearing capacity in, 81
foundation designs
belled piers ending in sand
and gravel, 94–95
deep piles ending in till or
shale, 95–96
description of, 91
floating, 96–97
shallow footing placed on
compacted backfill,
92–93
timber piles ending in Boston
Blue clay layer, 94
timber piles on sand and
gravel layers, 92–93
hammers for, 369
Janbu equation for, 210–211
Janbu procedure for,
209–212, 221
medium-stiff, 38
pile groups in, 192–194
piles in
bored, 83–84, 86–91, 91
description of, 38
driven, 81–83
forces, 75–76
maximum allowable loads,
97–98
parameters that affect, 80
settlement of, 207–2132
shear strength, 77–78
434       Indexsingle pile in a uniform clay
layer, 87–88
single pile in a uniform clay
layer with groundwater
present, 88–90
residual stresses in, 256
skin friction in, 76–77, 82–86
water jetting in, 383
Closed-end pipe piles, 22–23
Cohesion in clay soil, 78–80
Composite piles, 32–33
Compressed base piles, 29
Concrete piles
augered pressure grouted, 128
design recommendations
for, 127
design stresses for, 130–131
driving stresses for, 130–131
inspection of, 362
maximum driving stress
for, 128
precast, 25–27, 33, 127, 335
prestressed
case study of, 131–133
description of, 26
design recommendations
for, 127–128
shell piles, 127–128
Concrete slabs, 402–403
Contaminants, 5
Continental crust, 407–408
Creosote, 100
Critical depth
of skin friction for sandy soils,
67–69
for pile settlement, 205
D
Danish Formula, 345
Delta piles, 28
Design drawings, 417–422
Diesel hammers, 351–353, 409
Dip angle, 227–228
Displacement piles, 15
Domestic water distribution lines,
377–379
Double eccentricity, 189–192
Double-acting hammers
diesel, 352–353, 364
steam, 350, 364
Drawings
as-built, 423–424
design, 417–422
Drilled piles, 411–412
Driven piles
bored piles and, comparison
between, 112–114
in clay soils
end bearing capacity, 81
skin friction, 82–83
mandrel, 31
underpinning with, 401–402
Driving. See Pile driving
Driving stresses
calculation of, 133–134
concrete piles, 130–131
maximum allowable, 135
timber piles, 130–131
Dynamic analysis
Danish Formula, 345
definition of, 343
Engineering News Formula,
343–344
E
Earthquakes
faults, 314
inertial loads, 318–319
kinematic loads, 318
peak ground acceleration, 316
Richter magnitude scale,
315–316
rock joints created by, 223
soil liquefaction caused by,
327–328
waves for, 314
Index 435Eccentric loading on pile groups,
186–189
Effective stress, 44
Elasticity in soil, 252–253
Embankment loads, 266
End bearing capacity
of auger cast piles, 111
of caissons, 155–156
of clay soils, 81
of open-end pipe piles, in
sandy soils, 120
of sandy soils
critical depth, 69–73
description of, 62–63
parameters that affect,
66–67
skin friction and, 137–139
End bearing piles
description of, 183
neutral plane for, 261
settlement of, 203–206
Engineering News Formula,
343–344
Environmental issues, 375–376
Equations
caissons, 147–149
end bearing capacity in sandy
soils, 46–49
Hook’s, 196
Kraft and Lyons, 50–51
McClelland, 49–50
Meyerhof. See Meyerhof
equation
Newton’s, 319
skin friction in sandy soils,
49–52
Existing piles, 374–375
Expansive soils, 279–281
Extensional joints, 226
F
Faults, 314–315
Fiber-reinforced plastic piles, 34–35
Floating foundations,
96–97
Floating pile settlement,
203–206
Foundation
caissons, 11–12, 37–38
design options for, 91–97
floating, 96–97
mat, 10, 12
pile, 11
raft, 10
selection criteria for, 11–13
shallow, 10, 12
Foundation plan drawing,
419–420
Frankie piles, 28
Friction angle
description of, 8–9
variations in, 45–46
Friction piles, 114–118
Fungi, timber pile decay caused
by, 17
G
Geotechnical Engineering
Report, 361
Glacial tills, 408
Grade beams, 413–414
Gravel
timber piles on, 93
water jetting in, 383
Groundwater
description of, 4, 6
negative skin friction caused by
changes in level of,
263–264, 266
uplift forces caused by, 136
Group failure, of pile groups,
192–194
Group settlement ratio, 215
Grouted base piles, 30,
110–111
Grouted piles, 411–412
436       IndexH
Hammers
for clay soils, 369
diesel, 351–353, 409
hydraulic, 353–355, 364, 409
for offshore piling, 409–410
for prestressed concrete
piles, 132
for sandy soils, 368
selection of, 364–365, 367–369
steam-operated, 350, 364
vibratory. See Vibratory
hammers
Hand digging, 5
Hollow tubular section concrete
piles, 26–27
Hook’s equation, 196
Horizontal fault, 314
H-piles
ASTMstandardsfordesignof,129
concrete piles and, 33
description of, 21–22
ideal situations for, 39
inspection of, 362
penetrating of obstructions
using, 366
Hydraulic hammers, 353–355,
364, 409
I
Incremental filling ratio, 119
Inertial loads, 318–319, 325–326
Integrity testing of piles, 372–374
International Building Code
description of, 6–7
vibratory hammers, 311
J
Jack underpinning, 399–401
Janbu procedure
for clay soils, 209–212, 221
for sandy soils, 213, 220
Jetting, water, 381–385, 409–410
Joint alteration number, 234–235
Joint roughness number, 232–233
Joint set, 223–224
Joint set number, 232
Joint water reduction factor, 235
K
Kinematic loads
description of, 318
seismic pile design for, 318–325
Kinematic pile bending, 318
Kolk and Van der Velde method,
84–85, 90–91
Kraft and Lyons equation, 50–51
L
Lateral earth pressure coefficient,
45, 51
Lateral loading analysis, 248–250,
339–342
Lateral pile resistance, 299
Limnoriids, 18
Liquefaction
analysis of, 327–334
description of, 319
soil resistance to, 329–334
Literature survey, 3–5
Load distribution
computation of, 256–257
description of, 137–139, 251
elasticity in soil, 252–253
inside a pile
with large load applied, 255
prior to loading, 252
with small load applied,
254–255
M
Magma, 7
Mandrel-driven piles, 31
Marine borers, timber pile decay
caused by, 17–18
Index 437Marine environments, 100
Mat foundations, 10, 12
Maximum allowable driving
stresses, 135
Maximum allowable pile loads in
clay soils, 97–98
Maximum tensile stress, 133–134
McClelland equation, 49–50
Medium-stiff clay, 38
Meyerhof equation
for caissons, 155–158
description of, 50
end bearing capacity, 62–63
modified, 63–65, 156
for skin friction
for caissons, 157–158
description of, 64–66
Moment of inertia, 188
Mudjacking, 402–403
N
National Geological surveys, 3
Negative skin friction
batter piles and, 294
bitumen-coated piles for
design of, 265–276
installation of, 264–265
causes of, 263–266
consolidation as cause of, 13
definition of, 263
neutral plane and, 260
Neutral axis, 253
Neutral plane, 259–261
Newton’s equation, 319
Nondisplacement piles, 15
O
Obstructions, pile driving
through, 365–367
Offshore piling
bored piles in, 410
drilled piles, 411–412
drilling before driving, 410
grouted piles, 411–412
land piling vs., 407
seabed, 407–408
structures for, 409–410
Open-end pipe piles, 23–24
Oriented rock coring, 228–230
P
Peak ground acceleration, 316
Peak shear strain, 321
PEN number, 269
Pholads, 18
Pier underpinning, 396–398
Pile(s)
batter. See Batter piles
belled, 411–412
bitumen-coated. See Bitumen-
coated piles
composite, 32–33
compressed base, 29
concrete. See Concrete piles
Delta, 28
displacement, 15
existing, 374–375
in expansive soils, 279–281
fiber-reinforced plastic, 34–35
forcing acting on, 75
Frankie, 28
grouted base, 30, 111–112
H-piles, 21–22, 33
integrity testing of, 372–374
laterally loaded, 249–250
mandrel-driven, 31
nondisplacement, 15
pipe. See Pipe piles
precast concrete, 25–27
prestressed concrete, 26
reinforced concrete, 25–26
selection criteria for, 37–39
settlement of, 117
timber. See Timber piles
toe strengthening of, 367
Vibrex, 29
438       IndexPile bending, 182–183
Pile bending strain, 320–321
Pile cap, 281, 414–416, 421–422
Pile capacity
factors that determine, 114
using vibratory hammers,
310–311
Pile design software
boundary element method, 339
description of, 337–339
finite element computer
programs, 338
lateral loading analysis,
339–342
Pile driving
bitumen coating behavior
during, 273–274
cost estimates for, 387–388
equipment for
hammers. See Hammers
inspection of, 362
heaving after, 370
International Building Code
criteria, 345
load distribution before, 252
mechanisms of, 349–350
procedures for, 359
re-driving, 370–371
soil displacement during,
371–372
through obstructions, 365–367
water jetting for, 381–385
Pile foundations, 11
Pile group
American Association of State
Highway and Transpor-
tation Officials guide-
lines, 183–184
capacity of, 181, 184–185
in clay soils, 192–194
design of, 216–221
double eccentricity, 189–192
eccentric loading on, 186–189
end bearing piles, 183
failure of, 192–194
soil disturbance during driving
of, 181
spacing of, 185–186
Pile group settlement
in clay soils
computation of, 207–209
consolidation equation for,
207–208
Janbu method, 209–212
factors that affect, 215
group design based on,
216–221
in sandy soils, 212–214
single pile settlement vs.,
215–216
Pile hammers. See Hammers
Pile heave, 370–371
Pile inspection
checklist for, 361
Geotechnical Engineering
Report review, 361
guidelines for, 362
report, 363
Pile load tests, 389–393
Pile loads, maximum allowable,
97–98
Pile point, settlement at, 202
Pile resistance, 299
Pile settlement
in clay soils, 207–212
comparison of, 203–206
critical depth for, 205
description of, 117
end bearing vs. floating,
203–206
factors that affect, 204–205
group settlement vs.,
215–216
measurement of, 195–198
in sandy soils, 206–207,
212–214
Index 439Pipe settlement (continued)
single piles, 200–203
underpinning to stop, 395–396
Pile testing, 129
Pin piles
construction of, 122–124
description of, 121–122
in sandy soils, 124–125
Pipe piles
ASTMstandardsfordesignof,129
bitumen-coated, 277–278
characteristics of, 22
closed-end, 22–23
ideal situations for, 39
open-end
description of, 23–24
design of, 118–121
end bearing capacity of, in
sandy soils, 120
incremental filling ratio, 119
soil plugging of, 118, 121
penetrating of obstructions
using, 366
splicing of, 25
telescoping, 24
timber pile and, composite pile
of, 32–33
Pore pressures, 118
Precast concrete piles, 25–27,
127–128, 335
Pressure treated, 18
Prestressed concrete piles
case study of, 131–133
description of, 26
design recommendations for,
127–128
maximum allowable driving
stress for, 135
Punching failure, 13
P-waves, 314
Q
Q system, 231–237
R
Radar analyzer, 373–374
Raft foundations, 10
Rapid loading, soil strength under,
286–288
Re-driving, 370–371
Reinforced concrete piles, 25–26
Residual compression, 256
Residual stresses, 253, 256
Resonance-free vibratory pile
drivers, 358–359
Richter magnitude scale, 315–316
Rock
caisson design in, 237–243
soil conversion to, 7
water color used to determine
type of, 225
Rock cores
fractured zones, 225
loss information, 224–225
Rock coring, oriented, 228–230
Rock joints
alteration number, 234–235
definition of, 223
dip angle, 227–228
extensional, 226
filler materials in, 224, 226
roughness number, 232–233
set number, 232
set of, 223–224
shear, 226
strike line and direction, 227
surface of, 233
types of, 224, 226–227, 233
water reduction factor, 235
Rock mass classification systems,
230–231
Rock mass rating system, 231
Rock quality designation,
231–232, 236–237
Rock structure rating, 231
Rock tunneling quality index, 231
Round timber piles, 101–102
440       IndexS
Sandy soils
auger cast pile design in,
110–111
bearing capacity factor, 47
caisson design in, 161–167
compaction of, 182
description of, 8
end bearing capacity
critical depth for, 69–73
equations, 46–49
parameters that affect,
66–67
hammers for, 368
Janbu procedure for, 213, 220
liquefaction of, 327–335
pile design in
Meyerhof equation used
for, 62–63
multiple sand layers with
groundwater present,
59–62
multiple sand layers with
no groundwater present,
56–59
single pile in uniform sand
layer, 52–56
skin friction, 67–69
terminology, 44–46
Terzaghi bearing capacity
equation, 43–44
pile settlement in, 206–207
pin pile design in, 124–125
skin friction in, 49–52
vibratory hammer use in, 358
water jetting in, 382
Seismic pile design
description of, 317–318
general guidelines for, 335
for inertial loads, 318–319,
325–326
for kinematic loads, 318–325
Seismic waves, 316–317
Seismology. See also Earthquakes
description of, 313–317
faults, 314–315
Settlement
of caissons, 173–179
of pile groups. See Pile group
settlement
of piles. See Pile settlement
skin friction as cause of,
176–179
tip load as cause of, 176
Sewer systems, 378
Shallow foundation, 10, 12
Shear failure, 78
Shear joints, 226
Shear modulus, 200
Shear strain rate of bitumen
coating, 267–268
Shear strength
clay soils, 77–78, 82
undrained, 82, 87
Shear zone, 199
Shell piles, concrete-filled,
127–128
Shipworms, 18
Shotcrete encasement of timber
piles, 19
Silt
in continental crust, 408
water jetting in, 382–383
Single-acting hammers
diesel, 351–352, 364
steam, 350, 364
Site investigation
literature survey, 3–5
site visit, 5–6
subsurface, 6–7
Skin friction
for caissons
in clay soils, 150
development of, 173–174
Meyerhof equation,
157–158
Index 441in clay soils
bored piles in, 83–84, 86–91
caissons, 150
calculation of, 76–77,
82–86, 217
end bearing and, 137–139
illustration of, 75
Kolk and Van der Velde
computation method
for, 84–85, 90–91
Meyerhof equation for
for caissons, 157–158
description of, 64–66
negative. See Negative skin
friction
of auger cast piles, 110–111
pile settlement caused by,
202–203
in sandy soils
calculation of, 67–69, 217
open-end pipe piles in, 120
settlement caused by, 176–179
under rapid loading condition,
287–288
Winkler springs used to model,
247–248
Slickensided rock joint
surfaces, 233
Slurry, 143
Software
boundary element method, 339
description of, 337–339
finite element computer
programs, 338
lateral loading analysis,
339–342
Spile, 342
Soil
clay. See Clay soils
cohesion of, 8
conversion to rocks, 7
displacement of, during pile
driving, 371–372
disturbance of, during pile
group driving, 181
elasticity in, 252
expansive, 279–281
rock conversion to, 7
sandy. See Sandy soils
stiffness of, 198–200
subsurface information sources
regarding, 3–5
Soil plugging, of open-end pipe
piles, 118, 121
Soil sampling, 6–7
Soil spring constant, 248
Soil strength under rapid loading,
286–288
Spile, 342
Splicing
of concrete piles, 27
of H-piles, 21–22
of pipe piles, 25
of timber piles, 19–20
Spring constant, 248
Springs
stiffness of, 198
Winkler, 247–248
SPT, 8–9
Spudding, 367
Steam-operated hammers,
350, 364
Steel piles
design recommendations
for, 126
deterioration of, 375
existing, reuse of, 375
H-piles. See H-piles
maximum driving stress for,
128, 135
minimum dimensions of, 126
Stiffness
of soil, 198–200
of springs, 198
Storm drains, 378–379
Strain transfer ratio, 324
442       IndexStress reduction factor, 236
Strike direction, 227
Strike line, 227
Subsurface investigation, 6–7
Surface waves, 314
Suzuki’s equation, 125
S-waves, 314
T
Telescoping pipe piles, 24
Tensile failure, 77
Tensile stress, maximum,
133–134
Teredines, 18
Terzaghi bearing capacity
equation, 43, 76
Tie beams, 413
Timber piles
allowable stresses in, 100–102
ASTM standards for, 129
Boston Blue clay layer, 94
bridge pile design using,
107–108
case study, 102–106
characteristics of, 16
concrete pile and, composite
pile of, 33
contraindications, 37
creosote preservation of, 100
decay of, 17–18
design of
ASTM standards for, 129
description of, 99–108
design stresses for, 130–131
deterioration of, 375
driving stresses for, 130–131
existing, reuse of, 375
holes in, 99
ideal situations for, 39
inspection of, 362
installation of, 19–20
knots in, 99
in marine environments, 100
maximum driving stress
for, 128
on sand and gravel layers, 93
pipe pile and, composite pile
of, 32–33
preservation of, 18–19, 99
round, 101–102
shotcrete encasement of, 19
splicing of, 19–20
straightness criteria for, 101
uplift forces, 20
Tip load, 176
Tip resistance, under rapid
loading, 287
Toe strengthening, 367
U
Unconfined compressive strength
test, 78–79
Underpinning
case study of, 403–406
companies that provide, 403
concrete slabs, 402–403
with driven piles, 401–402
jack, 399–401
pier, 396–398
reasons for, 395
settlement stopped using,
395–396
Undrained shear strength, 82, 87
Uplift forces
caisson design for, 158–161
description of, 135–136
groundwater as cause of, 136
wind as cause of, 137
Uplift piles
description of, 20
lateral earth pressure coeffi-
cient in, 51
Utilities
description of, 5, 376–377
domestic water lines, 377–379
outline of, 377
Index 443V
Vertical fault, 315
Vibratory hammers
amplitude of, 308
components of, 356
driving using, 307
eccentric movement, 357
frequency of, 308
guidelines for selecting, 364
International Building Code
guidelines, 311
offshore piling using, 409
principles of, 356–358
properties of, 308–309
resonance-free, 358–359
sandy soil use of, 358
ultimate capacity of pile driven
using, 310–311
weights of, 308
Vibrex piles, 29
Viscosity, bitumen, 268–269, 271
W
Water distribution lines,
377–379
Water jetting, 381–385, 409–410
Water-migrating pathways,
375–376
Wave equation analysis
description of, 283–285
pile representation in,
285–286
software for, 288–291
Wick effect, 376
Wind, uplift forces caused
by, 137
Winkler springs, 247–248
Wood preservatives, 18–19

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