GREEN BUILDINGS

By
Advertisement Flower


GREEN BUILDINGS
                                                                                                                                                                                 Submitted by
THOMAS BRITTO,
Dept. of Civil Engineering
                                           CONTACT NO:
  8807423228
         MAIL ID:thomasbritto3@gmail.com
                             

ABSTRACT
As the environmental impact of buildings becomes more apparent, a concept called green building is gaining momentum. GREEN or sustainable building is the practice of creating healthier and more resource-efficient models of construction, renovation, operation, maintenance, and demolition. Research and experience increasingly demonstrate that when buildings are designed and operated with their lifecycle impacts in mind, they can provide great environmental, economic, and social benefits.
It is estimated that 40 per cent of energy consumption in a building is on account of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning. GREEN buildings have provision for solar protection to prevent heat gain in the premises during the day. This helps in putting less of load on air-conditioning system to maintain ambient temperature within the premises.  
As per estimates, 76 per cent of the electricity generated by all power plants is consumed by buildings. And 35 percent of the energy consumed in a building is because of use of light in the day time. GREEN buildings ensures the usage of natural light to the maximum and that results in the reduction in the consumption of electricity used for lighting. It helps in curbing the recurring energy consumption costs like lightning by the use of natural lights.
Here we come up with the concepts of GREEN buildings with their characters, practicing methods, materials used for sustainable construction as building material (wood, structural insulated building panel, steel, insulated concrete form) and materials using as frames(wood, vinyl, aluminum). Thus gives the idea of reduced energy or zero energy houses, reduction in waste generation during construction.
And we finally give the Indian scenario of GREEN architecture and about The Indian green building Council (IGBC), its vision, successful projects and benefits of green structures.
We have given some examples like (spring lake inn, Katrina kernel inn, Magney house, Leaf house) to express our idea on GREEN buildings.


 INTRODUCTION
The buildings in which we live, work, and play protect us from Nature's extremes. Yet they also affect our health and environment in countless ways. The design, construction, operation, maintenance, and removal of buildings takes enormous amounts of energy, water, and materials, and generates large quantities of waste, air and water pollution.
Worth noticing is that most of us talk about energy consumption and pollution because of  industry and transport when at least 40% of the total energy produced is consumed by buildings.
It is estimated that 40 per cent of energy consumption in a building is on account of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning, or HVAC. Green buildings have provision for solar protection to prevent heat gain in the premises during the day. This helps in putting less of load on air-conditioning system to maintain ambient temperature within the premises. 
Weather sensors help in optimizing the benefits offered by automated solar protection systems. In winters, the natural heat can be allowed in the premises using the same solar shades and for controlling them, depending on the sun effect and heat coming inside the building, thereby helping the heating system perform better. The downsizing of active temperature management systems (air conditioning and heating) in the green buildings reduces the overall building costs. 
As per estimates, 76 per cent of the electricity generated by all power plants is consumed by buildings. And 35 percent of the energy consumed in a building is because of use of light in the day time. So the big question is how to reduce the consumption of this energy? 
The simple answer to this question is the solar protection mechanism in green building. It ensures the usage of natural light to the maximum and that results in the reduction in the consumption of electricity used for lighting. It helps in curbing the recurring energy consumption costs like lightning by the use of natural lights.


DEFINITION

Green Building Defined

 "A green building is one which uses less water, optimises energy efficiency, conserves natural resources, generates less waste and provides healthier spaces for occupants, as compared to a conventional building."
Green building practices aim to reduce the environmental impact of buildings. Buildings account for a large amount of land use, energy and water consumption, and air and atmosphere alteration
Considering these statistics, reducing the amount of natural resources buildings consume and the amount of pollution given off is seen as crucial for future sustainability,
The environmental impact of buildings is often underestimated, while the perceived costs of green buildings are overestimated. A recent survey by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development finds that green costs are overestimated by 300 percent, as key players in real estate and construction estimate the additional cost at 17 percent above conventional construction, more than triple the true average cost difference of about 5 percent. 
 Green architecture, or green design, is an approach to building that minimizes harmful effects on human health and the environment. The "green" architect or designer attempts to safeguard air, water, and earth by choosing eco-friendly building materials and construction practices.
Green architecture may have many of these characteristics:
  • Ventilation systems designed for efficient heating and cooling
  • Energy-efficient lighting and appliances
  • Water-saving plumbing fixtures
  • Landscapes planned to maximize passive solar energy
  • Minimal harm to the natural habitat
  • Alternate power sources such as solar power or wind power
  • Non-synthetic, non-toxic materials
  • Locally-obtained woods and stone
  • Responsibly-harvested woods
  • Adaptive reuse of older buildings
  • Use of recycled architectural salvage
  • Efficient use of space
While most green buildings do not have all of these features, the highest goal of green architecture is to be fully sustainable.
Also Known As:                     
Sustainable development, eco-design, eco-friendly architecture, earth-friendly architecture, environmental                                                  architecture,   natural architecture
 
PRACTISE
Green building brings together a vast array of practices and techniques to reduce and ultimately eliminate the impacts of buildings on the environment and human health. It often emphasizes taking advantage of renewable resources, e.g., using sunlight through passive solar, active solar, and photovoltaic techniques and using plants and trees through green roofs, rain gardens, and for reduction of rainwater run-off. Many other techniques, such as using packed gravel or permeable concrete instead of conventional concrete or asphalt to enhance replenishment of ground water, are used as well. Effective green buildings are more than just a random collection of environmental friendly technologies, however. They require careful, systemic attention to the full life cycle impacts of the resources embodied in the building and to the resource consumption and pollution emissions over the building's complete life cycle.
On the aesthetic side of green architecture or sustainable design is the philosophy of designing a building that is in harmony with the natural features and resources surrounding the site. There are several key steps in designing sustainable buildings: specify 'green' building materials from local sources, reduce loads, optimize systems, and generate on-site renewable energy.

Materials

Building materials typically considered to be 'green' include rapidly renewable plant materials like bamboo (because bamboo grows quickly) and straw, lumber from forests certified to be sustainably managed, ecology blocks, dimension stone, recycled stone, recycled metal, and other products that are non-toxic, reusable, renewable, and/or recyclable (e.g. Trass, Linoleum, sheep wool, panels made from paper flakes, compressed earth block, adobe, baked earth, rammed earth, clay, vermiculite, flax linen, sisal, seagrass, cork, expanded clay grains, coconut, wood fibre plates, calcium sand stone, concrete (high and ultra high performance, roman self-healing concrete , etc. The EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) also suggests using recycled industrial goods, such as coal combustion products, foundry sand, and demolition debris in construction projects  Polyurethane heavily reduces carbon emissions as well. Polyurethane blocks are being used instead of CMTs by companies like American Insulock. Polyurethane blocks provide more speed, less cost, and they are environmentally friendly Building materials should be extracted and manufactured locally to the building site to minimize the energy embedded in their transportation.

 

 

Reduced energy use

Green buildings often include measures to reduce energy use. To increase the efficiency of the building envelope, (the barrier between conditioned and unconditioned space), they may use high-efficiency windows and insulation in walls, ceilings, and floors. Another strategy, passive solar building design, is often implemented in low-energy homes. Designers orient windows and walls and place awnings, porches, and trees to shade windows and roofs during the summer while maximizing solar gain in the winter. In addition, effective window placement (daylighting) can provide more natural light and lessen the need for electric lighting during the day. Solar water heating further reduces energy loads.
Finally, onsite generation of renewable energy through solar power, wind power, hydro power, or biomass can significantly reduce the environmental impact of the building. Power generation is generally the most expensive feature to add to a building.

Reduced waste

Green architecture also seeks to reduce waste of energy, water and materials used during construction. For example, in California nearly 60% of the state's waste comes from commercial buildings During the construction phase, one goal should be to reduce the amount of material going to landfills. Well-designed buildings also help reduce the amount of waste generated by the occupants as well, by providing on-site solutions such as compost bins to reduce matter going to landfills.
To reduce the impact on wells or water treatment plants, several options exist. "Greywater", wastewater from sources such as dishwashing or washing machines, can be used for subsurface irrigation, or if treated, for non-potable purposes, e.g., to flush toilets and wash cars. Rainwater collectors are used for similar purposes.
Centralized wastewater treatment systems can be costly and use a lot of energy. An alternative to this process is converting waste and wastewater into fertilizer, which avoids these costs and shows other benefits. By collecting human waste at the source and running it to a semi-centralized biogas plant with other biological waste, liquid fertilizer can be produced. This concept was demonstrated by a settlement in Lubeck Germany in the late 1990s. Practices like these provide soil with organic nutrients and create carbon sinks that remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, offsetting greenhouse gas emission. Producing artificial fertilizer is also more costly in energy than this process.[
COMMON MATERIALS
Several popular building materials are used to construct the home. Rammed earth, straw bale, auto tires, and glass bottles are more esoteric materials which are gaining acceptance.
Wood 
The ubiquitous 2 x 4 or more specifically dimensional lumber is the primary structural component in homes. A material used for hundreds of years from log cabins to platform structures, this building technique is well understood using a renewable resource. Caution is warranted if considering timber use outside the bounds of sustainable harvesting. In extreme climates termites may be a problem or moisture failure to wood structures. No special tools are needed other than a hammer and nails. Wood is tolerant to novices, and with the use of structural connectors, wood is as attractive as ever.
Structural       Insulated        Building          Panel
A marriage of engineered wood and foam, the building monolithic panel uses EPS (expandable polystyrene) insulation, similar to the foam coffee cup, but 6 to 12 inches thick, sandwiched between two panels of oriented strand board (OSB or engineered wood panel). Both products are environmentally friendly. The OSB uses fast growing trees once considered "trash trees" or unusable to dimensional lumber specifications. With a uniform thickness and construction, all walls are sound without the voids common in wood framing. Many times the panels are finished away from the construction site allowing straighter walls. A superb building system.
Steel
Touted as a replacement for wood, steels is strong, termite resistant, and offers some fire protection. Generally steel is North America's number one recycled material, allowing steel products to become new steel products after their useful lifetime is over. Steel is a nonrenewable resource. The lifetime of a typical home is somewhere between 250 and 500 years, and through mining for the steel components, a much greater environmental impact occurs over wood. Steel is best used where strength is required like car bodies or appliances, and then enter the recycle stream instead of the waste stream or "buried" in a long lived home. Steel studs also require specialized tools and skills.
Insulated        Concrete         Form
While this may seem an odd wall material, just think of all the commercial property that have their walls made from concrete. Using a lightweight form, usually of foam and reinforcing bars, t he concrete fills the hollow cavity between the foam and honeycomb of bars. The wall is rock solid, sound proof, bug proof, and maybe bullet proof. Concrete systems require specialized skills, and make sense where strength is needed. I would think it is a negative system in earthquake regions where seismic impact is directly proportions to the mass of a home.
FRAMING MATERILS
The general differentiation of windows beyond style (double-hung, casement, sliding, etc.) is the glass or glazing and the framing material. There are three main types of frame materials, each addressing several lifespan aspects of the windows.
Wood
A natural product, it is said that the industry grows thousands of windows a year. A moderate insulator (R1 per inch), it requires some maintenance (stain or paint) to prevent rot from moisture build-up. It is warm to the touch in the coldest winters and room temperature in the summer.
Vinyl
A product of the plastics industry, it uses a nonrenewable petroleum source for extrusion. The final product is usually non-paintable, but does offer a lifetime free maintenance. Some radical climatic changes over time may stress the material to failure at the joints allowing water penetration, though it is rare with quality manufacturers.
Aluminum
A metal commonly used in cookware for its thermal conductivity and in airplanes for its strength to weight properties, it features lifetime free maintenance, but usually cannot be painted. Over the course of many years aluminum will oxidize leaving a dull pitted appearance. If not well insulated with a thermal break, it is very cold to the touch in winter and hot in summer.
Beyond the framing material one has a wide selection of glazing or glass combinations to fill the sash or window panels. Once the standard, single pane glass is usually available only as an option, whereas double pain insulated glass is the norm.
Under very harsh environments triple glaze glass is available. What material or substance placed between the panels differentiates dual glazed window systems. With the injection of a noble gas like argon, xenon, or krypton between the panels, the conductive resistance of the window improves. Suspending a polyester film covered with a highly reflective material like silver further improves window performance. Sometimes the second glass panel (interior facing) is spayed with a special coating, called low-e*, which acts as a reflective interface.
When ordering windows it is best to get the low-e coated windows or the suspended film type for greater seasonal comfort and energy savings.
THE INDIAN SCENARIO
The development of Indian economy is creating demand for residential and non-residential construction, as consumers demand more houses, commercial spaces, shopping malls, hotels, other facilities and modern amenities. In property terms, this new demand translates into over 12 million homes, 600 shopping malls, 80 million square feet of offices and 200 townships, along with airports, hotels, hospitals and schools, all slated for construction by 2010. 
Green buildings are steadily increasing their footprint in India with an increase from 6,000 sq m of green space in 2003 to 304,800 sq m expected by the end 2008. Today a variety of green building projects are coming up in the country—residential complexes, exhibition centers, hospitals, educational institutions, laboratories, IT parks, airports, government buildings and corporate offices.
India, which has an estimated 19 years for the domestic oil reserve to last and 86% of its oil consumption being imported, has taken a leading role in promoting green buildings coming close behind the US, Australia and Canada. Green buildings utilize designs and materials that are environment friendly. They ensure pollution-free environment and reduction in energy bills through application of smart energy management, building management, application of solar photovoltaic system, high performance windows and heat resistant paints among others. 
Indian climate provides us natural light for quite a longer duration and if the luminosity coming in can be controlled, then this will be a huge source for energy. This mechanism also protects the premises from the glare and heat of harsh Sun in the summers and maintains the warmth of Sun during the winters. This helps in the increase in the comfort level of users as it enables natural ventilation, natural light and also climate control in a natural way. So, the overall experience in such buildings is quite soothing.

The Indian Green Building Council (IGBC)

VISION

To usher in a green building movement and facilitate in India emerging as one of the world leaders in green buildings by 2010.  
IGBC Green Homes Rating System
 Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) Green Homes is the first rating programme developed in India, exclusively for the residential sector. It is based on accepted energy and environmental principles and strikes a balance between known established practices and emerging concepts. The system is designed to be comprehensive in scope, yet simple in operation.
The Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) estimates the demand for green building materials and equipment will reach $4 billion per annum by 2010. Going green is the latest trend among corporate. Green building, as the concept is called, ensures environment protection, water conservation, energy efficiency, use of recycled products and renewable energy. In tune with global trend to protect the environment, the number of green building projects in India is expected to go up from the current 164 to over 2,000 by 2012, industry experts feel.
A two pronged strategy can be considered. One, to make sure that the “trend” doesn’t become a marketing buzz but a real step to be taken by construction equipments suppliers, developers/ builders, architects/interior designers. Second, to educate end users in a way that they are responsible towards next generations.
Although the initial investment will be 4-5 per cent costlier than the traditional buildings, in the long run, the return on investment will be very high. Indian developers are realizing this fast and the interest level is increasing.
The main interest is that maybe with intelligent systems and controls, we can manage the environmental constraints favourably to save and reduce energy consumption.
Benefits          of         Green Homes

A Green Home can have tremendous benefits, both tangible and intangible. The immediate and most tangible benefit is in the reduction in water and operating energy costs right from day one, during the entire life cycle of the building.

Tangible         benefits

Your browser may not support display of this image.Energy savings : 20 – 30         %

Your browser may not support display of this image.Water savings : 30 -    50%
 


Intangible       benefits

Your browser may not support display of this image.Enhanced air   quality,

Your browser may not support display of this image.Excellent         day      lighting,

Your browser may not support display of this image.Health & wellbeing of the      occupants,

Your browser may not support display of this image.Conservation of scarce national          resources

Your browser may not support display of this image.Enhance marketability for the            project.

Eligibility

IGBC Green Homes Rating System is a measurement system designed for rating new residential buildings which include construction categories such as

Your browser may not support display of this image.Individual       homes

Your browser may not support display of this image.High rise residential    apartments,

Your browser may not support display of this image.Gated  communities

Your browser may not support display of this image.Row    houses
 


Your browser may not support display of this image.Existing residential buildings which retrofit and redesigned in accordance with the
IGBC Green Homes   criteria.

The project team can evaluate all the possible points to apply under the rating system using a suitable checklist. The project can apply for IGBC Green Homes certification if it can meet all mandatory requirements and achieve the minimum required points.

IGBC Green Homes Rating System and other resources

The rating system describes in detail goal, compliance options, documentation required and approach and methodologies for each credit under each module. 
GREEN STRUCTURE IN INDIA
Your browser may not support display of this image.
Your browser may not support display of this image.GREEN BUILDINGS
                                                                                                                 Submitted by
THOMAS BRITTO,SIVARAMKRISHAN
Dept. of Civil Engineering
                                       CONTACT NO:
  8807423228
         MAIL ID:thomasbritto3@gmail.com
             

ABSTRACT
As the environmental impact of buildings becomes more apparent, a concept called green building is gaining momentum. GREEN or sustainable building is the practice of creating healthier and more resource-efficient models of construction, renovation, operation, maintenance, and demolition. Research and experience increasingly demonstrate that when buildings are designed and operated with their lifecycle impacts in mind, they can provide great environmental, economic, and social benefits.
It is estimated that 40 per cent of energy consumption in a building is on account of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning. GREEN buildings have provision for solar protection to prevent heat gain in the premises during the day. This helps in putting less of load on air-conditioning system to maintain ambient temperature within the premises.  
As per estimates, 76 per cent of the electricity generated by all power plants is consumed by buildings. And 35 percent of the energy consumed in a building is because of use of light in the day time. GREEN buildings ensures the usage of natural light to the maximum and that results in the reduction in the consumption of electricity used for lighting. It helps in curbing the recurring energy consumption costs like lightning by the use of natural lights.
Here we come up with the concepts of GREEN buildings with their characters, practicing methods, materials used for sustainable construction as building material (wood, structural insulated building panel, steel, insulated concrete form) and materials using as frames(wood, vinyl, aluminum). Thus gives the idea of reduced energy or zero energy houses, reduction in waste generation during construction.
And we finally give the Indian scenario of GREEN architecture and about The Indian green building Council (IGBC), its vision, successful projects and benefits of green structures.
We have given some examples like (spring lake inn, Katrina kernel inn, Magney house, Leaf house) to express our idea on GREEN buildings.


 INTRODUCTION
The buildings in which we live, work, and play protect us from Nature's extremes. Yet they also affect our health and environment in countless ways. The design, construction, operation, maintenance, and removal of buildings takes enormous amounts of energy, water, and materials, and generates large quantities of waste, air and water pollution.
Worth noticing is that most of us talk about energy consumption and pollution because of  industry and transport when at least 40% of the total energy produced is consumed by buildings.
It is estimated that 40 per cent of energy consumption in a building is on account of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning, or HVAC. Green buildings have provision for solar protection to prevent heat gain in the premises during the day. This helps in putting less of load on air-conditioning system to maintain ambient temperature within the premises. 
Weather sensors help in optimizing the benefits offered by automated solar protection systems. In winters, the natural heat can be allowed in the premises using the same solar shades and for controlling them, depending on the sun effect and heat coming inside the building, thereby helping the heating system perform better. The downsizing of active temperature management systems (air conditioning and heating) in the green buildings reduces the overall building costs. 
As per estimates, 76 per cent of the electricity generated by all power plants is consumed by buildings. And 35 percent of the energy consumed in a building is because of use of light in the day time. So the big question is how to reduce the consumption of this energy? 
The simple answer to this question is the solar protection mechanism in green building. It ensures the usage of natural light to the maximum and that results in the reduction in the consumption of electricity used for lighting. It helps in curbing the recurring energy consumption costs like lightning by the use of natural lights.


DEFINITION
Green Building Defined
 "A green building is one which uses less water, optimises energy efficiency, conserves natural resources, generates less waste and provides healthier spaces for occupants, as compared to a conventional building."
Green building practices aim to reduce the environmental impact of buildings. Buildings account for a large amount of land use, energy and water consumption, and air and atmosphere alteration
Considering these statistics, reducing the amount of natural resources buildings consume and the amount of pollution given off is seen as crucial for future sustainability,
The environmental impact of buildings is often underestimated, while the perceived costs of green buildings are overestimated. A recent survey by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development finds that green costs are overestimated by 300 percent, as key players in real estate and construction estimate the additional cost at 17 percent above conventional construction, more than triple the true average cost difference of about 5 percent.
 Green architecture, or green design, is an approach to building that minimizes harmful effects on human health and the environment. The "green" architect or designer attempts to safeguard air, water, and earth by choosing eco-friendly building materials and construction practices.
Green architecture may have many of these characteristics:
•    Ventilation systems designed for efficient heating and cooling
•    Energy-efficient lighting and appliances
•    Water-saving plumbing fixtures
•    Landscapes planned to maximize passive solar energy
•    Minimal harm to the natural habitat
•    Alternate power sources such as solar power or wind power
•    Non-synthetic, non-toxic materials
•    Locally-obtained woods and stone
•    Responsibly-harvested woods
•    Adaptive reuse of older buildings
•    Use of recycled architectural salvage
•    Efficient use of space
While most green buildings do not have all of these features, the highest goal of green architecture is to be fully sustainable.
Also Known As:     
Sustainable development, eco-design, eco-friendly architecture, earth-friendly architecture, environmental    architecture,    natural    architecture

PRACTISE
Green building brings together a vast array of practices and techniques to reduce and ultimately eliminate the impacts of buildings on the environment and human health. It often emphasizes taking advantage of renewable resources, e.g., using sunlight through passive solar, active solar, and photovoltaic techniques and using plants and trees through green roofs, rain gardens, and for reduction of rainwater run-off. Many other techniques, such as using packed gravel or permeable concrete instead of conventional concrete or asphalt to enhance replenishment of ground water, are used as well. Effective green buildings are more than just a random collection of environmental friendly technologies, however. They require careful, systemic attention to the full life cycle impacts of the resources embodied in the building and to the resource consumption and pollution emissions over the building's complete life cycle.
On the aesthetic side of green architecture or sustainable design is the philosophy of designing a building that is in harmony with the natural features and resources surrounding the site. There are several key steps in designing sustainable buildings: specify 'green' building materials from local sources, reduce loads, optimize systems, and generate on-site renewable energy.
Materials
Building materials typically considered to be 'green' include rapidly renewable plant materials like bamboo (because bamboo grows quickly) and straw, lumber from forests certified to be sustainably managed, ecology blocks, dimension stone, recycled stone, recycled metal, and other products that are non-toxic, reusable, renewable, and/or recyclable (e.g. Trass, Linoleum, sheep wool, panels made from paper flakes, compressed earth block, adobe, baked earth, rammed earth, clay, vermiculite, flax linen, sisal, seagrass, cork, expanded clay grains, coconut, wood fibre plates, calcium sand stone, concrete (high and ultra high performance, roman self-healing concrete , etc. The EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) also suggests using recycled industrial goods, such as coal combustion products, foundry sand, and demolition debris in construction projects  Polyurethane heavily reduces carbon emissions as well. Polyurethane blocks are being used instead of CMTs by companies like American Insulock. Polyurethane blocks provide more speed, less cost, and they are environmentally friendly Building materials should be extracted and manufactured locally to the building site to minimize the energy embedded in their transportation.


Reduced energy use
Main articles: Low-energy house and Zero-energy building
Green buildings often include measures to reduce energy use. To increase the efficiency of the building envelope, (the barrier between conditioned and unconditioned space), they may use high-efficiency windows and insulation in walls, ceilings, and floors. Another strategy, passive solar building design, is often implemented in low-energy homes. Designers orient windows and walls and place awnings, porches, and trees to shade windows and roofs during the summer while maximizing solar gain in the winter. In addition, effective window placement (daylighting) can provide more natural light and lessen the need for electric lighting during the day. Solar water heating further reduces energy loads.
Finally, onsite generation of renewable energy through solar power, wind power, hydro power, or biomass can significantly reduce the environmental impact of the building. Power generation is generally the most expensive feature to add to a building.
Reduced waste
Green architecture also seeks to reduce waste of energy, water and materials used during construction. For example, in California nearly 60% of the state's waste comes from commercial buildings During the construction phase, one goal should be to reduce the amount of material going to landfills. Well-designed buildings also help reduce the amount of waste generated by the occupants as well, by providing on-site solutions such as compost bins to reduce matter going to landfills.
To reduce the impact on wells or water treatment plants, several options exist. "Greywater", wastewater from sources such as dishwashing or washing machines, can be used for subsurface irrigation, or if treated, for non-potable purposes, e.g., to flush toilets and wash cars. Rainwater collectors are used for similar purposes.
Centralized wastewater treatment systems can be costly and use a lot of energy. An alternative to this process is converting waste and wastewater into fertilizer, which avoids these costs and shows other benefits. By collecting human waste at the source and running it to a semi-centralized biogas plant with other biological waste, liquid fertilizer can be produced. This concept was demonstrated by a settlement in Lubeck Germany in the late 1990s. Practices like these provide soil with organic nutrients and create carbon sinks that remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, offsetting greenhouse gas emission. Producing artificial fertilizer is also more costly in energy than this process.[
COMMON MATERIALS
Several popular building materials are used to construct the home. Rammed earth, straw bale, auto tires, and glass bottles are more esoteric materials which are gaining acceptance.
Wood
The ubiquitous 2 x 4 or more specifically dimensional lumber is the primary structural component in homes. A material used for hundreds of years from log cabins to platform structures, this building technique is well understood using a renewable resource. Caution is warranted if considering timber use outside the bounds of sustainable harvesting. In extreme climates termites may be a problem or moisture failure to wood structures. No special tools are needed other than a hammer and nails. Wood is tolerant to novices, and with the use of structural connectors, wood is as attractive as ever.
Structural    Insulated    Building    Panel
A marriage of engineered wood and foam, the building monolithic panel uses EPS (expandable polystyrene) insulation, similar to the foam coffee cup, but 6 to 12 inches thick, sandwiched between two panels of oriented strand board (OSB or engineered wood panel). Both products are environmentally friendly. The OSB uses fast growing trees once considered "trash trees" or unusable to dimensional lumber specifications. With a uniform thickness and construction, all walls are sound without the voids common in wood framing. Many times the panels are finished away from the construction site allowing straighter walls. A superb building system.
Steel
Touted as a replacement for wood, steels is strong, termite resistant, and offers some fire protection. Generally steel is North America's number one recycled material, allowing steel products to become new steel products after their useful lifetime is over. Steel is a nonrenewable resource. The lifetime of a typical home is somewhere between 250 and 500 years, and through mining for the steel components, a much greater environmental impact occurs over wood. Steel is best used where strength is required like car bodies or appliances, and then enter the recycle stream instead of the waste stream or "buried" in a long lived home. Steel studs also require specialized tools and skills.
Insulated    Concrete    Form
While this may seem an odd wall material, just think of all the commercial property that have their walls made from concrete. Using a lightweight form, usually of foam and reinforcing bars, t he concrete fills the hollow cavity between the foam and honeycomb of bars. The wall is rock solid, sound proof, bug proof, and maybe bullet proof. Concrete systems require specialized skills, and make sense where strength is needed. I would think it is a negative system in earthquake regions where seismic impact is directly proportions to the mass of a home.
FRAMING MATERILS
The general differentiation of windows beyond style (double-hung, casement, sliding, etc.) is the glass or glazing and the framing material. There are three main types of frame materials, each addressing several lifespan aspects of the windows.
Wood
A natural product, it is said that the industry grows thousands of windows a year. A moderate insulator (R1 per inch), it requires some maintenance (stain or paint) to prevent rot from moisture build-up. It is warm to the touch in the coldest winters and room temperature in the summer.
Vinyl
A product of the plastics industry, it uses a nonrenewable petroleum source for extrusion. The final product is usually non-paintable, but does offer a lifetime free maintenance. Some radical climatic changes over time may stress the material to failure at the joints allowing water penetration, though it is rare with quality manufacturers.
Aluminum
A metal commonly used in cookware for its thermal conductivity and in airplanes for its strength to weight properties, it features lifetime free maintenance, but usually cannot be painted. Over the course of many years aluminum will oxidize leaving a dull pitted appearance. If not well insulated with a thermal break, it is very cold to the touch in winter and hot in summer.
Beyond the framing material one has a wide selection of glazing or glass combinations to fill the sash or window panels. Once the standard, single pane glass is usually available only as an option, whereas double pain insulated glass is the norm.
Under very harsh environments triple glaze glass is available. What material or substance placed between the panels differentiates dual glazed window systems. With the injection of a noble gas like argon, xenon, or krypton between the panels, the conductive resistance of the window improves. Suspending a polyester film covered with a highly reflective material like silver further improves window performance. Sometimes the second glass panel (interior facing) is spayed with a special coating, called low-e*, which acts as a reflective interface.
When ordering windows it is best to get the low-e coated windows or the suspended film type for greater seasonal comfort and energy savings.
THE INDIAN SCENARIO
The development of Indian economy is creating demand for residential and non-residential construction, as consumers demand more houses, commercial spaces, shopping malls, hotels, other facilities and modern amenities. In property terms, this new demand translates into over 12 million homes, 600 shopping malls, 80 million square feet of offices and 200 townships, along with airports, hotels, hospitals and schools, all slated for construction by 2010. 
Green buildings are steadily increasing their footprint in India with an increase from 6,000 sq m of green space in 2003 to 304,800 sq m expected by the end 2008. Today a variety of green building projects are coming up in the country—residential complexes, exhibition centers, hospitals, educational institutions, laboratories, IT parks, airports, government buildings and corporate offices.
India, which has an estimated 19 years for the domestic oil reserve to last and 86% of its oil consumption being imported, has taken a leading role in promoting green buildings coming close behind the US, Australia and Canada. Green buildings utilize designs and materials that are environment friendly. They ensure pollution-free environment and reduction in energy bills through application of smart energy management, building management, application of solar photovoltaic system, high performance windows and heat resistant paints among others. 
Indian climate provides us natural light for quite a longer duration and if the luminosity coming in can be controlled, then this will be a huge source for energy. This mechanism also protects the premises from the glare and heat of harsh Sun in the summers and maintains the warmth of Sun during the winters. This helps in the increase in the comfort level of users as it enables natural ventilation, natural light and also climate control in a natural way. So, the overall experience in such buildings is quite soothing.
The Indian Green Building Council (IGBC)
VISION
To usher in a green building movement and facilitate in India emerging as one of the world leaders in green buildings by 2010. 
IGBC Green Homes Rating System
 Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) Green Homes is the first rating programme developed in India, exclusively for the residential sector. It is based on accepted energy and environmental principles and strikes a balance between known established practices and emerging concepts. The system is designed to be comprehensive in scope, yet simple in operation.
The Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) estimates the demand for green building materials and equipment will reach $4 billion per annum by 2010. Going green is the latest trend among corporate. Green building, as the concept is called, ensures environment protection, water conservation, energy efficiency, use of recycled products and renewable energy. In tune with global trend to protect the environment, the number of green building projects in India is expected to go up from the current 164 to over 2,000 by 2012, industry experts feel.
A two pronged strategy can be considered. One, to make sure that the “trend” doesn’t become a marketing buzz but a real step to be taken by construction equipments suppliers, developers/ builders, architects/interior designers. Second, to educate end users in a way that they are responsible towards next generations.
Although the initial investment will be 4-5 per cent costlier than the traditional buildings, in the long run, the return on investment will be very high. Indian developers are realizing this fast and the interest level is increasing.
The main interest is that maybe with intelligent systems and controls, we can manage the environmental constraints favourably to save and reduce energy consumption.
Benefits    of    Green    Homes

A Green Home can have tremendous benefits, both tangible and intangible. The immediate and most tangible benefit is in the reduction in water and operating energy costs right from day one, during the entire life cycle of the building.

Tangible    benefits 

 Energy savings : 20 – 30    % 

 Water savings : 30 -    50%



Intangible    benefits 

 Enhanced air    quality, 

 Excellent    day    lighting, 

 Health & wellbeing of the    occupants, 

 Conservation of scarce national    resources

 Enhance marketability for the    project.

Eligibility 

IGBC Green Homes Rating System is a measurement system designed for rating new residential buildings which include construction categories such as 

 Individual    homes

 High rise residential    apartments,

 Gated    communities

 Row    houses 


 Existing residential buildings which retrofit and redesigned in accordance with the
IGBC Green Homes    criteria. 

The project team can evaluate all the possible points to apply under the rating system using a suitable checklist. The project can apply for IGBC Green Homes certification if it can meet all mandatory requirements and achieve the minimum required points. 

IGBC Green Homes Rating System and other resources 

The rating system describes in detail goal, compliance options, documentation required and approach and methodologies for each credit under each module.
GREEN STRUCTURE IN INDIA

 


 



EXAMPLES
SPRING LAKE INN
 
Spring Lake Inn is a rambling, shingle-sided Victorian with enormous energy needs. The inn has a grand parlor and dining room with 12-foot ceilings. On the two upper floors are 16 spacious guest rooms. Located steps from the beach in Spring Lake, New Jersey, the inn is a popular summer getaway. However, the inn also maintains a thriving business during the winter months.
Because the inn operates year-round, both heating and cooling are essential. Rooms on the upper level can be especially challenging to cool in July and August.
Seeking ways to conserve costs and also protect the environment, innkeepers Andy and Barbara Seaman looked to the sun for low-cost, eco-friendly energy solutions. 

KATRINA KERNAL COTTAGE
 
After Hurricane Katrina destroyed homes and communities along America's Gulf Coast, architects and designers developed cheerful, inexpensive, energy-efficient emergency housing known as "Katrina Cottages." These photos show a version of the Katrina Cottage designed by architect Steve Mouzon. Like other versions of the Katrina Cottage, Steve Mouzon's "Katrina Kernal Cottage II" is constructed with decay-resistant steel framing and steel-reinforced wall board. Click the pictures for larger views and more information.
MAGNEY HOUSE


Date: 1982 -    1984
Architect: Glenn    Murcutt
Location: Bingie Point, Moruya, on the New South Wales South Coast, Australia
Pritzker Prize-winning architect Glenn Murcutt designed the Magney House to capture the northern light. The long low roof and large windows capitalize on natural sunlight.

LEAF HOUSE


Students from the University of Maryland drew inspiration form nature's ultimate solar collector when they designed this "LEAFHouse." The house was a second place winner at the Solar Decathlon in Washington    DC.

HOUSES AT MEXICO 
Here you see homes near completion in Founders' Neighborhood at Loreto Bay, Mexico. The compressed earth block walls have been reinforced with wire and parged with plaster.
The houses appear to be attached, but there is actually a two-inch space between facing walls. Recycled Styrofoam fills the gap.
Conclusion
As a result of the increased interest in green building concepts and practices, a number of organizations have developed standards, codes and rating systems building professionals and consumers embrace green building with confidence.
In some cases, codes are written so local governments can adopt them as bylaws to reduce the local environmental impact of buildings.
Green building rating systems such as BREEAM (United Kingdom), LEED (United States and Canada), and CASBEE (Japan) help consumers to determine a structure’s level of environmental performance.
They award credits for optional building features that support green design in categories such as location and maintenance of building site.
 Conservation of water, energy, and building materials, and occupant comfort and health. The number of credits generally determines the level of achievement
References
1. Environmental Science and Engineering by Anubha Kaushik, C.P.Kaushik.
2 .www.osun.org


Your browser may not support display of this image.
 



EXAMPLES 
SPRING LAKE INN 
Your browser may not support display of this image.
Spring Lake Inn is a rambling, shingle-sided Victorian with enormous energy needs. The inn has a grand parlor and dining room with 12-foot ceilings. On the two upper floors are 16 spacious guest rooms. Located steps from the beach in Spring Lake, New Jersey, the inn is a popular summer getaway. However, the inn also maintains a thriving business during the winter months.
Because the inn operates year-round, both heating and cooling are essential. Rooms on the upper level can be especially challenging to cool in July and August.
Seeking ways to conserve costs and also protect the environment, innkeepers Andy and Barbara Seaman looked to the sun for low-cost, eco-friendly energy solutions.  

KATRINA KERNAL COTTAGE
Your browser may not support display of this image.
After Hurricane Katrina destroyed homes and communities along America's Gulf Coast, architects and designers developed cheerful, inexpensive, energy-efficient emergency housing known as "Katrina Cottages." These photos show a version of the Katrina Cottage designed by architect Steve Mouzon. Like other versions of the Katrina Cottage, Steve Mouzon's "Katrina Kernal Cottage II" is constructed with decay-resistant steel framing and steel-reinforced wall board. Click the pictures for larger views and more information.
MAGNEY HOUSE
Your browser may not support display of this image.
Date: 1982 -    1984
Architect: Glenn        Murcutt
Location: Bingie Point, Moruya, on the New South Wales South Coast, Australia
Pritzker Prize-winning architect Glenn Murcutt designed the Magney House to capture the northern light. The long low roof and large windows capitalize on natural sunlight.
 
LEAF HOUSE 

Students from the University of Maryland drew inspiration form nature's ultimate solar collector when they designed this "LEAFHouse." The house was a second place winner at the Solar Decathlon in Washington            DC.
 
HOUSES AT MEXICO Your browser may not support display of this image.
Here you see homes near completion in Founders' Neighborhood at Loreto Bay, Mexico. The compressed earth block walls have been reinforced with wire and parged with plaster.
The houses appear to be attached, but there is actually a two-inch space between facing walls. Recycled Styrofoam fills the gap.
Conclusion
As a result of the increased interest in green building concepts and practices, a number of organizations have developed standards, codes and rating systems building professionals and consumers embrace green building with confidence.
In some cases, codes are written so local governments can adopt them as bylaws to reduce the local environmental impact of buildings.
Green building rating systems such as BREEAM (United Kingdom), LEED (United States and Canada), and CASBEE (Japan) help consumers to determine a structure’s level of environmental performance.
They award credits for optional building features that support green design in categories such as location and maintenance of building site.
 Conservation of water, energy, and building materials, and occupant comfort and health. The number of credits generally determines the level of achievement
References
1. Environmental Science and Engineering by Anubha Kaushik, C.P.Kaushik.
2 .www.osun.org

Post a Comment
Powered by Blogger.
Don't Forget To Join US Our Community
×
Widget