Civil Engineering Formulas Book

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Chapter 1.   Conversion Factors for Civil
Engineering Practice 1
Chapter 2.   Beam Formulas 11
Continuous Beams   /   11
Ultimate Strength of Continuous Beams   /   46
Beams of Uniform Strength   /   52
Safe Loads for Beams of Various Types   /   53
Rolling and Moving Loads   /   53
Curved Beams   /   65
Elastic Lateral Buckling of Beams   /   69
Combined Axial and Bending Loads   /   72
Unsymmetrical Bending   /   73
Eccentric Loading   /   73
Natural Circular Frequencies and Natural Periods of
Vibration of Prismatic Beams   /   74
Torsion in Structural Members   /   76
Strain Energy in Structural Members   /   76
Fixed-End Moments in Beams   /   79
Chapter 3.   Column Formulas  81
General Considerations    /   81
Short Columns   /   81
Eccentric Loads on Columns   /   83
Columns of Special Materials   /   88
Column Base Plate Design   /   90
American Institute of Steel Construction
Allowable-Stress Design Approach   /   91
Composite Columns   /   92
Elastic Flexural Buckling of Columns   /   94
Allowable Design Loads for Aluminum Columns   /   96
Ultimate Strength Design Concrete Columns   /   97
Design of Axially Loaded Steel Columns   /   102
vChapter 4.   Piles and Piling Formulas 105
Allowable Loads on Piles   /   105
Laterally Loaded Vertical Piles   /   105
Toe Capacity Load   /   107
Groups of Piles   /   107
Foundation-Stability Analysis   /   109
Axial-Load Capacity of Single Piles   /   112
Shaft Settlement   /   112
Shaft Resistance in Cohesionless Soils   /   113
Chapter 5.   Concrete formulas 115
Reinforced Concrete   /   115
Water/Cementitious Materials Ratio   /   115
Job Mix Concrete Volume   /   116
Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete   /   116
Tensile Strength of Concrete   /   117
Reinforcing Steel   /   117
Continuous Beams and One-Way Slabs   /   117
Design Methods for Beams,
Columns, and Other Members   /   118
Properties in the Hardened State   /   127
Tension Development Lengths   /   128
Compression Development Lengths   /   128
Crack Control of Flexural Members   /   128
Required Strength   /   129
Deflection Computations and Criteria
for Concrete Beams   /   130
Ultimate-Strength Design of Rectangular Beams with
Tension Reinforcement Only   /   130
Working-Stress Design of Rectangular Beams with
Tension Reinforcement Only   /   133
Ultimate-Strength Design of Rectangular
Beams with Compression Bars   /   135
Working-Stress Design of Rectangular
Beams with Compression Bars   /   136
Ultimate-Strength Design of I- and T-beams   /   138
Working-Stress Design of I- and T-beams   /   138
Ultimate-Strength Design for Torsion   /   140
Working-Stress Design for Torsion   /   141
Flat-Slab Construction   /   142
Flat-Plate Construction   /   142
Shear in Slabs   /   145
Column Moments   /   146
Spirals   /   147
Braced and Unbraced Frames   /   147
Shear Walls   /   148
Concrete Gravity Retaining Walls   /   150
Cantilever Retaining Walls   /   153
Wall Footings   /   155
vi CONTENTSChapter 6.   Timber Engineering Formulas 157
Grading of Lumber   /   157
Size of Lumber   /   157
Bearing   /   159
Beams   /   159
Columns   /   160
Combined Bending and Axial Load   /   161
Compression at Angle to Grain   /   161
Recommendations of the Forest Products Laboratory   /   162
Compression on Oblique Plane   /   163
Adjustment Factors for Design Values   /   164
Fasteners for Wood   /   169
Adjustment of Design Values for
Connections with Fasteners   /   171
Roof Slope to Prevent Ponding   /   172
Bending and Axial Tension   /   173
Bending and Axial Compression   /   173
Solid Rectangular or Square Columns with Flat Ends   /   174
Chapter 7.   Surveying Formulas 177
Units of Measurement   /   177
Theory of Errors   /   178
Measurement of Distance with Tapes   /   179
Vertical Control   /   182
Stadia Surveying   /   183
Photogrammetry   /   184
Chapter 8.   Soil and Earthwork Formulas 185
Physical Properties of Soils   /   185
Index Parameters for Soils   /   186
Relationship of Weights and Volumes in Soils   /   186
Internal Friction and Cohesion   /   188
Vertical Pressures in Soils   /   188
Lateral Pressures in Soils,
Forces on Retaining Walls   /   189
Lateral Pressure of Cohesionless Soils   /   190
Lateral Pressure of Cohesive Soils   /   191
Water Pressure   /   191
Lateral Pressure from Surcharge   /   191
Stability of Slopes   /   192
Bearing Capacity of Soils   /   192
Settlement under Foundations   /   193
Soil Compaction Tests   /   193
Compaction Equipment   /   195
Formulas for Earthmoving   /   196
Scraper Production   /   197
Vibration Control in Blasting   /   198
CONTENTS viiChapter 9.   Building and Structures Formulas 207
Load-and-Resistance Factor Design
for Shear in Buildings   /   207
Allowable-Stress Design for Building Columns   /   208
Load-and-Resistance Factor Design for Building Columns   /   209
Allowable-Stress Design for Building Beams   /   209
Load-and-Resistance Factor Design for Building Beams   /   211
Allowable-Stress Design for Shear in Buildings   /   214
Stresses in Thin Shells   /   215
Bearing Plates   /   216
Column Base Plates   /   217
Bearing on Milled Surfaces   /   218
Plate Girders in Buildings   /   219
Load Distribution to Bents and Shear Walls   /   220
Combined Axial Compression or Tension and Bending   /   221
Webs under Concentrated Loads   /   222
Design of Stiffeners under Loads   /   224
Fasteners in Buildings   /   225
Composite Construction   /   225
Number of Connectors Required
for Building Construction   /   226
Ponding Considerations in Buildings   /   228
Lightweight Steel Construction   /   228
Choosing the Most Economic Structural Steel   /   239
Steel Carbon Content and Weldability   /   240
Statically Indeterminate Forces and Moments
in Building Structures   /   241
Roof Live Loads   /   244
Chapter 10.   Bridge and Suspension-Cable Formulas 249
Shear Strength Design for Bridges   /   249
Allowable-Stress Design for Bridge Columns   /   250
Load-and-Resistance Factor Design for Bridge Columns   /   250
Additional Bridge Column Formulas   /   251
Allowable-Stress Design for Bridge Beams   /   254
Stiffeners on Bridge Girders   /   255
Hybrid Bridge Girders   /   256
Load-Factor Design for Bridge Beams    /   256
Bearing on Milled Surfaces   /   258
Bridge Fasteners   /   258
Composite Construction in Highway Bridges   /   259
Number of Connectors in Bridges   /   261
Allowable-Stress Design for Shear in Bridges   /   262
Maximum Width/Thickness Ratios for Compression
Elements for Highway Bridges   /   263
Suspension Cables   /   263
General Relations for Suspension Cables   /   267
Cable Systems   /   272
Rainwater Accumulation and Drainage on Bridges   /   273
viii CONTENTSChapter 11.   Highway and Road Formulas 275
Circular Curves    /   275
Parabolic Curves   /   277
Highway Curves and Driver Safety   /   278
Highway Alignments   /   279
Structural Numbers for Flexible Pavements   /   281
Transition (Spiral) Curves   /   284
Designing Highway Culverts   /   285
American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI)
Design Procedure   /   286
Chapter 12.   Hydraulics and Waterworks Formulas 291
Capillary Action   /   291
Viscosity   /   291
Pressure on Submerged Curved Surfaces   /   295
Fundamentals of Fluid Flow    /   296
Similitude for Physical Models   /   298
Fluid Flow in Pipes   /   300
Pressure (Head) Changes Caused by Pipe
Size Change   /   306
Flow through Orifices   /   308
Fluid Jets   /   310
Orifice Discharge into Diverging Conical Tubes    /   311
Water Hammer   /   312
Pipe Stresses Perpendicular
to the Longitudinal Axis   /   312
Temperature Expansion of Pipe   /   313
Forces due to Pipe Bends   /   313
Culverts   /   315
Open-Channel Flow    /   318
Manning’s Equation for Open Channels   /   320
Hydraulic Jump   /   321
Nonuniform Flow in Open Channels    /   323
Weirs   /   329
Flow over Weirs   /   330
Prediction of Sediment-Delivery Rate   /   332
Evaporation and Transpiration   /   332
Method for Determining Runoff for Minor
Hydraulic Structures   /   333
Computing Rainfall Intensity    /   333
Groundwater   /   334
Water Flow for Fire Fighting   /   335
Flow from Wells   /   335
Economical Sizing of Distribution Piping   /   336
Venturi Meter Flow Computation   /   336
Hydroelectric Power Generation   /   337
Pumps and Pumping Systems   /   338
Hydraulic Turbines   /   344
Dams   /   348
CONTENTS ixChapter 13.   Stormwater, Sewage, Sanitary
Wastewater, and Environmental Protection 361
Determining Storm Water Flow   /   361
Flow Velocity in Straight Sewers   /   361
Design of a Complete-Mix Activated Sludge Reactor   /   364
Design of a Circular Settling Tank   /   368
Sizing a Polymer Dilution/Feed System   /   369
Design of a Solid-Bowl Centrifuge for Sludge Dewatering   /   369
Design of a Trickling Filter Using the NRC Equations   /   371
Design of a Rapid-Mix Basin and Flocculation Basin   /   373
Design of an Aerobic Digester   /   374
Design of a Plastic Media Trickling Filter   /   375
Design of an Anaerobic Digestor   /   377
Design of a Chlorination System for Wastewater Disinfection   /   379
Sanitary Sewer System Design   /   380
Design of an Aerated Grit Chamber   /   383
Index      385


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