Civil Engineering Formulas Book

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Chapter 1.   Conversion Factors for Civil

Engineering Practice

Chapter 2.   Beam Formulas

Continuous Beams
Ultimate Strength of Continuous Beams
Beams of Uniform Strength
Safe Loads for Beams of Various Types
Rolling and Moving Loads
Curved Beams
Elastic Lateral Buckling of Beams
Combined Axial and Bending Loads
Unsymmetrical Bending
Eccentric Loading
Natural Circular Frequencies and Natural Periods of
Vibration of Prismatic Beams
Torsion in Structural Members
Strain Energy in Structural Members
Fixed-End Moments in Beams

Chapter 3.   Column Formulas

General Considerations
Short Columns
Eccentric Loads on Columns
Columns of Special Materials
Column Base Plate Design
American Institute of Steel Construction
Allowable-Stress Design Approach
Composite Columns
Elastic Flexural Buckling of Columns
Allowable Design Loads for Aluminum Columns
Ultimate Strength Design Concrete Columns
Design of Axially Loaded Steel Columns

Chapter 4.   Piles and Piling Formulas

Allowable Loads on Piles
Laterally Loaded Vertical Piles
Toe Capacity Load
Groups of Piles
Foundation-Stability Analysis
Axial-Load Capacity of Single Piles
Shaft Settlement
Shaft Resistance in Cohesionless Soils

Chapter 5.   Concrete formulas

Reinforced Concrete
Water/Cementitious Materials Ratio
Job Mix Concrete Volume
Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete
Tensile Strength of Concrete
Reinforcing Steel
Continuous Beams and One-Way Slabs
Design Methods for Beams,
Columns, and Other Members
Properties in the Hardened State
Tension Development Lengths
Compression Development Lengths
Crack Control of Flexural Members   /   128
Required Strength   /   129
Deflection Computations and Criteria
for Concrete Beams   /   130
Ultimate-Strength Design of Rectangular Beams with
Tension Reinforcement Only   /   130
Working-Stress Design of Rectangular Beams with
Tension Reinforcement Only   /   133
Ultimate-Strength Design of Rectangular
Beams with Compression Bars   /   135
Working-Stress Design of Rectangular
Beams with Compression Bars   /   136
Ultimate-Strength Design of I- and T-beams   /   138
Working-Stress Design of I- and T-beams   /   138
Ultimate-Strength Design for Torsion   /   140
Working-Stress Design for Torsion   /   141
Flat-Slab Construction   /   142
Flat-Plate Construction   /   142
Shear in Slabs   /   145
Column Moments   /   146
Spirals   /   147
Braced and Unbraced Frames   /   147
Shear Walls   /   148
Concrete Gravity Retaining Walls   /   150
Cantilever Retaining Walls   /   153
Wall Footings   /   155

Chapter 6.   Timber Engineering Formulas 157

Grading of Lumber   /   157
Size of Lumber   /   157
Bearing   /   159
Beams   /   159
Columns   /   160
Combined Bending and Axial Load   /   161
Compression at Angle to Grain   /   161
Recommendations of the Forest Products Laboratory   /   162
Compression on Oblique Plane   /   163
Adjustment Factors for Design Values   /   164
Fasteners for Wood   /   169
Adjustment of Design Values for
Connections with Fasteners   /   171
Roof Slope to Prevent Ponding   /   172
Bending and Axial Tension   /   173
Bending and Axial Compression   /   173
Solid Rectangular or Square Columns with Flat Ends   /   174

Chapter 7.   Surveying Formulas 177

Units of Measurement   /   177
Theory of Errors   /   178
Measurement of Distance with Tapes   /   179
Vertical Control   /   182
Stadia Surveying   /   183
Photogrammetry   /   184

Chapter 8.   Soil and Earthwork Formulas 185

Physical Properties of Soils   /   185
Index Parameters for Soils   /   186
Relationship of Weights and Volumes in Soils   /   186
Internal Friction and Cohesion   /   188
Vertical Pressures in Soils   /   188
Lateral Pressures in Soils,
Forces on Retaining Walls   /   189
Lateral Pressure of Cohesionless Soils   /   190
Lateral Pressure of Cohesive Soils   /   191
Water Pressure   /   191
Lateral Pressure from Surcharge   /   191
Stability of Slopes   /   192
Bearing Capacity of Soils   /   192
Settlement under Foundations   /   193
Soil Compaction Tests   /   193
Compaction Equipment   /   195
Formulas for Earthmoving   /   196
Scraper Production   /   197
Vibration Control in Blasting   /   198

Chapter 9.   Building and Structures Formulas 207

Load-and-Resistance Factor Design
for Shear in Buildings   /   207
Allowable-Stress Design for Building Columns   /   208
Load-and-Resistance Factor Design for Building Columns   /   209
Allowable-Stress Design for Building Beams   /   209
Load-and-Resistance Factor Design for Building Beams   /   211
Allowable-Stress Design for Shear in Buildings   /   214
Stresses in Thin Shells   /   215
Bearing Plates   /   216
Column Base Plates   /   217
Bearing on Milled Surfaces   /   218
Plate Girders in Buildings   /   219
Load Distribution to Bents and Shear Walls   /   220
Combined Axial Compression or Tension and Bending   /   221
Webs under Concentrated Loads   /   222
Design of Stiffeners under Loads   /   224
Fasteners in Buildings   /   225
Composite Construction   /   225
Number of Connectors Required
for Building Construction   /   226
Ponding Considerations in Buildings   /   228
Lightweight Steel Construction   /   228
Choosing the Most Economic Structural Steel   /   239
Steel Carbon Content and Weldability   /   240
Statically Indeterminate Forces and Moments
in Building Structures   /   241
Roof Live Loads   /   244

Chapter 10.   Bridge and Suspension-Cable Formulas 249

Shear Strength Design for Bridges   /   249
Allowable-Stress Design for Bridge Columns   /   250
Load-and-Resistance Factor Design for Bridge Columns   /   250
Additional Bridge Column Formulas   /   251
Allowable-Stress Design for Bridge Beams   /   254
Stiffeners on Bridge Girders   /   255
Hybrid Bridge Girders   /   256
Load-Factor Design for Bridge Beams    /   256
Bearing on Milled Surfaces   /   258
Bridge Fasteners   /   258
Composite Construction in Highway Bridges   /   259
Number of Connectors in Bridges   /   261
Allowable-Stress Design for Shear in Bridges   /   262
Maximum Width/Thickness Ratios for Compression
Elements for Highway Bridges   /   263
Suspension Cables   /   263
General Relations for Suspension Cables   /   267
Cable Systems   /   272
Rainwater Accumulation and Drainage on Bridges   /   273

Chapter 11.   Highway and Road Formulas 275

Circular Curves    /   275
Parabolic Curves   /   277
Highway Curves and Driver Safety   /   278
Highway Alignments   /   279
Structural Numbers for Flexible Pavements   /   281
Transition (Spiral) Curves   /   284
Designing Highway Culverts   /   285
American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI)
Design Procedure   /   286

Chapter 12.   Hydraulics and Waterworks Formulas 291

Capillary Action   /   291
Viscosity   /   291
Pressure on Submerged Curved Surfaces   /   295
Fundamentals of Fluid Flow    /   296
Similitude for Physical Models   /   298
Fluid Flow in Pipes   /   300
Pressure (Head) Changes Caused by Pipe
Size Change   /   306
Flow through Orifices   /   308
Fluid Jets   /   310
Orifice Discharge into Diverging Conical Tubes    /   311
Water Hammer   /   312
Pipe Stresses Perpendicular
to the Longitudinal Axis   /   312
Temperature Expansion of Pipe   /   313
Forces due to Pipe Bends   /   313
Culverts   /   315
Open-Channel Flow    /   318
Manning’s Equation for Open Channels   /   320
Hydraulic Jump   /   321
Nonuniform Flow in Open Channels    /   323
Weirs   /   329
Flow over Weirs   /   330
Prediction of Sediment-Delivery Rate   /   332
Evaporation and Transpiration   /   332
Method for Determining Runoff for Minor
Hydraulic Structures   /   333
Computing Rainfall Intensity    /   333
Groundwater   /   334
Water Flow for Fire Fighting   /   335
Flow from Wells   /   335
Economical Sizing of Distribution Piping   /   336
Venturi Meter Flow Computation   /   336
Hydroelectric Power Generation   /   337
Pumps and Pumping Systems   /   338
Hydraulic Turbines   /   344
Dams   /   348

Chapter 13.   Stormwater, Sewage, Sanitary

Wastewater, and Environmental Protection 361
Determining Storm Water Flow   /   361
Flow Velocity in Straight Sewers   /   361
Design of a Complete-Mix Activated Sludge Reactor   /   364
Design of a Circular Settling Tank   /   368
Sizing a Polymer Dilution/Feed System   /   369
Design of a Solid-Bowl Centrifuge for Sludge Dewatering   /   369
Design of a Trickling Filter Using the NRC Equations   /   371
Design of a Rapid-Mix Basin and Flocculation Basin   /   373
Design of an Aerobic Digester   /   374
Design of a Plastic Media Trickling Filter   /   375
Design of an Anaerobic Digestor   /   377
Design of a Chlorination System for Wastewater Disinfection   /   379
Sanitary Sewer System Design   /   380
Design of an Aerated Grit Chamber   /   383
Index      385



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