Basic Civil Engineering Book

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Basic Civil Engineering Book

Contents

UNIT  - I: CIVIL  ENGINEERING  MATERIALS 

1 TRADITIONAL MATERIALS
1.1 Stones 
1.2 Bricks 
1.3 Lime 
1.4 Cement 
1.5 Timber 
Questions 
2 MORTARS
2.1 Sand 
2.2 Cement Mortar 
2.3 Lime Mortar 
2.4 Mud Mortar 
2.5 Special Mortar 
2.6 Tests on Mortar 
Questions 
3 CONCRETE
3.1 Plain Concrete 
3.2 Reinforced Cement Concrete (R.C.C.) 
3.3 Reinforced Brick Concrete (RBC) 
3.4 Prestressed Concrete (PSC) 
3.5 Fibre-Reinforced Concrete (FRC) 
3.6 Cellular Concrete 
3.7 Ferro-Cement 
Questions 
4 METALS AS BUILDING MATERIALS
4.1 Ferrous Metals 
4.2 Aluminium 
4.3. Copper 
Questions 
5 MISCELLANEOUS BUILDING MATERIALS
5.1 Glass 
5.2 Plastics   60
5.3 Bitumen   62
5.4 Asbestos   62
5.5 Paints   63
5.6 Distempers   65
5.7 Varnishes   65
5.8 Solid and Hollow Concrete Blocks   66
5.9 Roofing and Flooring Tiles   67
Questions   68

U NIT  - II: BUILDING  CONSTRUCTION 

6 BUILDING PLANNING 73–81
6.1 Elements of a Building   73
6.2 Basic Requirements of a Building   76
6.3 Planning   77
6.4 Planning Suitable Orientation   77
6.5 Planning for Energy Efficiency   78
6.6 Planning for Suitable Utility   78
6.7 Planning for Meeting Other Requirements   79
Questions   81
7 FOUNDATIONS 82–91
7.1 Dimensions of Foundation   82
7.2 Conventional Spread Footings   83
7.3 R.C.C. Footings   84
7.4 Grillage Footing   86C ONTENTS
7.5 Arch Foundation   87
7.6 Pile Foundations   87
7.7 Foundations in Black Cotton Soil   89
Questions   91
8 SUPER STRUCTURES 92–127
8.1 Types of Super Structures Based on the Method of Load Transfer   92
8.2 Walls   93
8.3 Stone Masonry   94
8.4 Brick Masonry   97
8.5 Plastering   100
8.6 Pointing   101
8.7 Flooring   101
8.8 Roof   105
8.9 Doors and Windows   113
8.10  Lintels   122
8.11  Stairs   123
Questions   126
9 DAMPNESS AND ITS PREVENTION 128–132
9.1 Causes of Dampness   128
9.2 Ill-Effects of Dampness   129
9.3 Requirements of an Ideal Material for Damp Proofing   129
9.4 Materials for Damp Proofing   130
9.5 Methods of Damp Proofing   130
Questions   132
10 COST EFFECTIVE CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES 133–135
IN MASS HOUSING SCHEMES
10.1 Minimum Standards   133
10.2 Approach to Cost Effective Mass Housing Schemes   134
10.3 Cost Effective Construction Techniques   135
Questions   135

UNIT  - III: SURVEYING 

11 INTRODUCTION TO SURVEYING 139–148
11.1 Object and Uses of Surveying   139
11.2 Primary Divisions in Surveying   140C ONTENTS
11.3 Fundamental Principles of Surveying   141
11.4 Classification of Surveying   142
11.5 Plans and Maps   143
11.6 Scales   144
11.7 Types of Graphical Scales   145
11.8 Units of Measurements   148
Questions   148
12 LINEAR MEASUREMENTS AND CHAIN SURVEYING 149–175
12.1 Methods of Linear Measurements   149
12.2 Instruments used in Chaining   154
12.3 Chain Surveying   156
12.4 Ranging   162
12.5 Obstacles in Chaining   163
12.6 Errors in Chaining   167
12.7 Tape Corrections   168
12.8 Conventional Symbols   173
Questions   175
13 COMPASS SURVEYING 176–194
13.1 Types of Compass   176
13.2 Method of Using a Compass   180
13.3 Bearing   180
13.4 Whole Circle Bearing and Reduced Bearing   180
13.5 Computation of Angles   182
13.6 Declination and DIP   184
13.7 Local Attraction   187
13.8 Chain and Compass Surveying Field Work   190
Questions   193
14 PLANE TABLE SURVEYING 195–208
14.1 Plane Table and its Accessories   195
14.2 Working Operations   198
14.3 Methods of Plane Tabling   199
14.4 Errors in Plane Table Surveying   206
14.5 Advantages and Limitations of Plane Table Survey   207
Questions   207C ONTENTS
15 LEVEL AND LEVELLING 209–225
15.1 Object and Uses of Levelling   209
15.2 Terms Used in Levelling   209
15.3 Levelling Instruments   211
15.4 Levelling Staff   213
15.5 Methods of Levelling   214
15.6 Terms Used in Direct Method of Levelling   215
15.7 Temporary Adjustments of a Level   216
15.8 Types of Direct Levelling   217
Questions   225
16 MODERN TOOLS OF SURVEYING 226–236
16.1 Theodolite   226
16.2 Electromagnetic Distance Measuring Instruments   231
16.3 Total Station   233
16.4 Global Positioning System   235
Questions   236

UNIT  - IV: MAPPING   AND  SENSING 

17 MAPPING AND CONTOURING 239–246
17.1 Mapping   239
17.2 Contours   241
17.3 Methods of Contouring   243
Drawing Contours   246
Questions   246
18 AREAS AND VOLUMES 247–265
18.1 Computation of Areas from Field Notes   247
18.2 Computing Areas from Maps   252
18.3 Computation of Volumes   256
Questions   264
19 REMOTE SENSING AND ITS APPLICATIONS 266–268
19.1 Remote sensing   266
19.2 Geographical Information System (GIS)   267
Questions   268C ONTENTS

UNIT  - V: DISASTER  RESISTANT  BUILDING

20 DISASTER RESISTANT BUILDINGS 271–281
20.1 Earthquakes Resistant Buildings   271
20.2 Types of Earthquakes   271
20.3 Terminology   272
20.4 Magnitude and Intensity   273
20.5 Seismograph   273
20.6 I.S: Codes on Earthquake Resistant Building Design   274
20.7 Improving Earthquake Resistance of Small Buildings   274
20.8 Improving Earthquake Resistance of Tall Buildings   276
20.9 Cyclone Resistant Buildings   278
20.10 Fire Resistant Building   279
Questions   281
21 DISASTER MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING 282–285
21.1 Disaster Prevention Strategy   282
21.2 Early Warning System   283
21.3 Disaster Preparedness   283
21.4 Disaster Mitigation   284
21.5 Disaster Rescue and Relief Measures   284
21.6 Disaster Resettlement, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction   285
Questions   285
22 INDIAN STANDARD CODES 286–287
22.1 IS Codes for Building Design   286
22.2 IS Codes for Building Materials and Construction   287
Questions   287



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