ROAD MAINTENANCE

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Rounded Rectangle: UNIT  15 



ROAD MAINTENANCE

 OBJECTIVES


General Objective

To understand the management and the types of road maintenance.


Specific Objectives

At the end of the unit you should be able to:-
·         identify the types of maintenance operation.
·         describe the categories of maintenance.
·         explain the purpose of road maintenance.
·         identify the organizations  of  road maintenance in Malaysia.
·         state  the maintenance operation activities.




ROAD MAINTENANCE



 
Text Box: INPUT


15.0 INTRODUCTION

Road maintenance is a  continuous process that involves keeping and repairing the existing road   . So, it is carried out  to control the rate of damage and to ensure the safety  towards the  road users or  the public.  Thus, the maintenance is done in order ;

a.    to ensure the durability of the road.
b.    To maintain the usage for the traffic user.
c.   To improve the traffic system operation.

15.1 MAINTENANCE OPERATION

The highway maintenance operation is specifically planned according to restorative and preventive methods.  It is categorized into the following ;

a.   Immediate maintenance.
b.   Routine maintenance.
c.   Periodic maintenance.
d.   Rehabilitation maintenance.




15.1.1    Immediate Maintenance

Immediate maintenance is carried out to overcome an incident that happened  outside   the immediate maintenance area  . The incidents are  ;

a.   bank avalanche
b.   erosion
c.   flood
d.   carcass
e.   traffic light damage
f.    accident

15.1.2  Routine maintenance

Routine and periodic maintenance are implemented in order  to avoid massive destruction that was caused by heavy traffic and weather condition. These two types of maintenance are also needed to ensure the safety of the road users  , in terms of environment and the road condition. The following table is on routine operation maintenance.
a.   Routine Operation Maintenance
Activities
Return period

- Grass cutting.
- Drainage cleaning
- Puddle patch/tile.
- Road shoulder maintenance.
- Bridge and culvert cleaning.
- Sign board cleaning.
- Bridge maintenance.
- Traffic light and
       intersection checking.  

- 4 – 6 times per year
- 12 times per year
- if needed
- 2 – 3 times per year
- 2 times per year
- 2 – 3 times per year
- 1 – 2 times per year
- When have any requirement.
b.   Periodic Operation Maintenance

Activities
Return period

- Rebuild A2 road surface with
  premix.
- Surface dressing.
- Grading and rebroadcast
  shoulder roads stone.
- Replace the members of
   wooden bridge.
- Paint the center road line.


7 – 10 years per time

3 – 5 years per time
2 – 3 years per time

2 – 3 years per time

1 – 2 times per year


15.2   UPGRADING

Road upgrading is needed when routine and periodic maintenance are not sufficient  to achieve a quality that is required. Therefore, road maintenance is carried out when the number of traffic increases. 

The maintenance work routine depends on the road and the  traffic condition. It is usually determined by obtaining the   Benkelmen Beam Test result of the existing  road surface. Examples of the upgrading work are:-
a.   Flatten road tile.
b.   Maintaining the road shoulder and roadside drain.





Text Box: ACTIVITY 15A
“WANT TO IMPROVE YOUR UNDERSTANDING? TRY THESE ACTIVITIES AND GOOD LUCK!!!”
15.1  What is the general purpose of road maintenance?
a. ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­______________________________
b. ______________________________
c. ______________________________


15.2  Write down 4 categories that include in the maintenance operation.
a. ______________________________
b. ______________________________
c. ______________________________
d. ______________________________

15.3  Match the correct return period and  its activities of routine operation maintenance  below.






Grass cutting
 


12 times per year

 



Drainage cleaning

 


4 – 6 times per year

 



Puddle patch/tile.

 


If need

 



Road shoulder maintenance
 


2 times per year

 



Bridge and culvert cleaning
 


2 – 3 times per year

 

Return PeriodActivities












Text Box: FEEDBACK ON
ACTIVITY 15A
         Let’s Check The Answer!
15.1  What is the general purpose of road maintenance?
a.    Make the road that built everlasting and stronger.
b.    Highway maintenance for the traffic use.
c.    Improve the traffic system operation.

15.2  Write down 4 categories that include in the maintenance operation.
a.    Immediate maintenance.
b.    Routine maintenance.
c.    Periodic maintenance.
d.    Rehabilitation maintenance.

16.3  Match the correct return period on activities of routine operation maintenance as listed below.












15.2    MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATION

The organizations that are involved with the road maintenance in Malaysia are:

  1. Federation Government by Highway Malaysian Boarded for highway link maintenance.
  2. Federation Government by Federation JKR for federation road link maintenance.
  3. State Government by State JKR, District JKR, Town Council etc. 

The size , manpower , location and equipment / machines of the maintenance organizations vary according to the types and length of roads and types of work to be done. The immediate maintenance and routine maintenance  are usually done by class F contractors where the maintenance work is done by using  hand tools and observed by Foreman.


















Road Division
(District JKR)
 









O.B
 


Division Supervisor
(Technician)
 









 














In implementing the routine maintenance  and upgrading works , it is done  by increasing the manpower, material, tools and machines . They are operated as  one gang. The jobs will then be carried out by the contractor’s workers. While the Supervisor Division will be monitoring them.

A good relationship between the road maintenance contractor  or organization and  the civilian or the public is important in  providing  good services and safety  for the road users Roads are public property and  the road maintenance contractor is responsible to maintain it

15.3.1 Example of Maintenance Management

This is example for maintenance management that has been done by JKR.

a.   Puddle patch.

Substances     :     Premix
Tools/Machinery  :     1 – 2 lories.
                     1 small plate.
                     1 compaction machine
                     1 machinery platform.
                     1 set traffic controller.
                           1 set of safety jacket, hammer and
scoops.

             Main powers    :     1 foreman
                                8 workers
                                1 driver
    
             Work limited    :     2 – 3 mile/day

b.   Road center line painted ( main power  )

Substances     :     Paint ( white/yellow )
Tools/Machinery  :     3 – 5 painted brush
                     3 painting rope line
                     20 cylinders con.
                     1 safety jacket.
                     1 set of road-crossing controller.
             Workers       :     1 foreman
                     5 workers.

Work limited    :     ½ - ¾ mile/day


c.   Single layer surface ( surface dressing )

Substances     :     Well crusher run
                     Binder course – 80/100 bitumen
             Tools/Machinery  :     1 carriage machine
                     1 pneumatic tyre roller                                    1 sprayer bitumen machine
                     1 sweep machine.
                     3 unit 10 ton carriage lorry.
             Workers       :     1 foreman
                     8 drivers
             Work limited    :     2/3 mile for 18ft road width
             Note          :     The work will be done in dry surface  
                                condition and well whether.
               

    
d.   Grass cutting routine on Road Shoulder
    
   Substances     :     3 grass cutting machine
                     1 van
                     3 sickle
             Workers       :     1 foreman
                     3 workers
                     1 driver
           e. Culvert cleaning

               Substances     :     capping stone cover layer, mine sand
                                cement and ext drain.
             Tool/ Machinery :     Scoops
                                Small exe
                                Mortar hand tools
                                Wheel barrow
                                1 small lorry
                                1 digging machine
             Workers       :     1 foreman
                                1 driver
                                1 digging machine driver
                                10 workers
             Work efficiency  :     depend on situation
               







15.3    ROAD MANTENANCE ACTIVITIES

The maintenance operation  and  its  process are stated in  the table of  the previous sub topic;   they are  routine time, immediate time and emergency time  .

However, the maintenance operation activities can be categorized into :-

a.   Maintenance of road surface.
b.   Maintenance of road shoulder and road side drain.
c.   Maintenance of culvert.
d.   Maintenance of road sign and road furniture.
e.   Maintenance of puddle and hole.



15.4.1 Maintenance of road surface.

Road surface maintenance or resurfacing work must be done regularly.  Surface maintenance program will be done as follow:-

a.   Resurfacing A2 class by premix.

This is done due to the high traffic flow (approximately 1000 pcu/hr of traffic per day). Roads under A2 class must be resurfaced from time to time. Before any resurfacing of road is  being carried out, several important criteria should be considered , namely:-

-          Proper drainage system.
-          Culvert line is not clog.
-          Side drain must be cleaned with sufficient design gradient.
-          Stabilize road shoulder with its sufficient design gradient.
-          Precaution signage and safety divider must be provided.
-          All kind of machineries such as Road Premix Vehicle, steam roller vehicle, a tanker and bitumen emulsion binder must be at the wok site.
-          Premix substances at plant provider must be ready and all means of transportation to transport workers are also necessary.

During the resurfacing of the road  , heat or temperature control is a stringent step. Since premix is a hot substance ,all processes involved such as transporting, premixing and rolling ,should be carried out instantly  before   its   temperature drop. Before premixing is done, the substance’s temperature should not be under 1350 C ( 2750 F ). While during premixing, it is not wise to resurfacing the road under humid surface or during raining day.

  Standard BS 1621 bitumen macadam premix is seldom used by JKR.  While premix quarries is becoming less in usage compared to Asphalt Concrete Premix . This is because it is  , stronger and   lasting .

b.   Surface Dressing

Surface dressing is carried out by resurfacing the road on B and C class where the average traffic are below than 100 pcu/hr. Surface dressing is done by resurfacing one or two layers. If it is done correctly, the surface is smooth with a good skidding resistance. Compared to premix, the surface dressing method does not last long and the surface is a bit rough. However, the sealing effect is good and can withstand water sealing effect or withstand the humidity underneath.

Good surface dressing works need:-

-          Suitable gravel grading according to sizes.
-          Free dust and free humidity of the gravel or aggregate.
-          Cuboids gravel are preferred in order to have a suitable mixing ratio with bitumen.
-          Gravel distribution rate with binder substance must suit to existing road surfaces which are due to sizes and the traffic volume.
-          New road surface must be premixed before any treatment process can be carried out.

c.   Gravel and Soil Road Surface Maintenance.

                              i.   Gravel Road

Gravel surface road consists of selected gravel and is not given any bitumen’s mix. State and village road from D and E class are from this types of road. This kind of gravel contains laterite soil, gravel hill and shale.
               
                             ii.   Soil Road

Normally, soil road  is appropriate to be used during dry weather. Although dusty, soil road also can give condusive surface for driving. Soil road is normally build from the nearest soil. The strength of the road to support the traffic depends on the location of the road, type of the soil around it  and weather. To ensure the construction of the road (E class road ) is good, full concentration must be given to the maintenance works especially shaping and drainage.

15.4.2 Road Shoulder and Road Side Drain Maintenance

            a. Road Shoulder
              The functions of a road shoulder are;   it
i.         prepares a flat support to the road pavement.
ii.        drains the water surface to the road side drain and avoid humidity from diffusion.
iii.       provides space  for traffic users to stop by the roadside of the road and also for emergency lane during overtaking, especially on the one way street road.
iv.       provides lane/ path for pedestrians and cyclists
v.        provides space for traffic signs and guard rails.

The maintenance process of the soil and   gravel of the road shoulder are:-

i.          reshaping and leveling the road shoulder using motor grader.
ii.        Topping/ Adding new substances  to fill up the lost substance due to erosion and traffic impact.
iii.       Compacting  the new and existence  substances by leveling and rolling.





b. Roadside drain.
         It is located at the side of the road. The functions are; it

i.         removes the water from the road surface.
ii.        avoids the water from high level to flow over to  the road area.
iii.       avoids water diffusion that will  cause the  sub-grade failure.























Text Box: ACTIVITY 15B
“WANT TO IMPROVE YOUR UNDERSTANDING? TRY THESE ACTIVITIES AND GOOD LUCK!!!”


15.4    Name the organizations that are involved in road maintenance in Malaysia.
     1. __________________________________________________
     2. __________________________________________________
     3. __________________________________________________


15.5    The maintenance operation activities can be categorized  into  5 categories. List down all the categories.
i.         __________________________________________________
ii.        __________________________________________________
iii.       __________________________________________________
iv.       __________________________________________________
v.        __________________________________________________








Text Box: FEEDBACK ON 
ACTIVITY 15B
         Let’s Check The Answer!


15.4 Name the organizations that involve with   road maintenance in Malaysia.

1.   Federation Government by Highway Malaysian Boarded for highway link maintenance.
2.   Federation Government by Federation JKR for federation road link maintenance.
3.   State Government by State JKR, District JKR, Town Council ect. For local and state roads link.


15.5    The maintenance operation activities can be categorized into 5 categories. List down all the categories.

i.         Maintenance of road surface.
ii.        Maintenance of road shoulder and road side drain.
iii.       Maintenance of culvert.
iv.       Maintenance of road sign and road furniture.
v.        Maintenance of puddle and hole.









 



Question 15 - 1
 
 


Self-Assessment







The highway maintenance operation is specifically planned according to restorative and preventive. It can be categorized into several types of maintenance. Describe  the   immediate maintenance.


Question 15 - 2
 
 



Surface maintenance or resurfacing work must be done regularly. Explain briefly about Resurfacing A2 class by Premix.


Question 15 - 2
 
 


State three functions of roadside drain.












 
 


Feedback on Self-Assessment
Answer 15.1
 










Immediate maintenance is required to overcome the incident which happens outside  of the   immediate maintenance area. The incidents are 
a.   bank avalanche
b.   erosion
c.   flood
d.   carcass
e.   traffic light damage
f.    accident


Answer 15.2
 
 


d.   Resurfacing A2 class by premix.

This is done due to the high traffic flow (approximately 1000 pcu/hr of traffic per day). Roads under A2 class must be resurfaced from time to time. Before any resurfacing of road is  being carried out, several important criteria should be considered , namely:-

-          Proper drainage system.
-          Culvert line is not clog.
-          Side drain must be cleaned with sufficient design gradient.
-          Stabilize road shoulder with its sufficient design gradient.
-          Precaution signage and safety divider must be provided.
-          All kind of machineries such as Road Premix Vehicle, steam roller vehicle, a tanker and bitumen emulsion binder must be at the wok site.
-          Premix substances at plant provider must be ready and all means of transportation to transport workers are also necessary.

During the resurfacing of the road  , heat or temperature control is a stringent step. Since premix is a hot substance ,all processes involved such as transporting, premixing and rolling ,should be carried out instantly  before   its   temperature drop. Before premixing is done, the substance’s temperature should not be under 1350 C ( 2750 F ). While during premixing, it is not wise to resurfacing the road under humid surface or during raining day.

  Standard BS 1621 bitumen macadam premix is seldom used by JKR.  While premix quarries is becoming less in usage compared to Asphalt Concrete Premix . This is because it is  , stronger and   lasting .












Answer 15.3
 
 



The functions of roadside are:-


1.   It removes the water from the road surface.
2.   It avoids the water from high level to flow over to  the road area.
3.   It avoids water diffusion that will  cause the  sub-grade failure.








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