NEW TECHNOLOGIES CONSTRUCTION
Build 30-Story Hotel In Just 15 Days!
Dept Of Civil Engineering
This thesis embraces the “Sustainability” concept in the construction industry being the logical outcome the development of this industry that faces environmental, social and economical challenges, which enterprises have to consider in the beginning of this century. This thesis aims at demystifying the “Sustainable Construction” concept. Due to bad examples in the past, that hopefully will not be repeated in the present and future, this concept became almost irremediably associated to construction, in which the prime objective was reducing environmental impact leaving important parameters, like quality, durability and cost behind. This concept has lost and continues to loose credibility due to constant marketing manoeuvres by companies in this sector, that deceivingly associate this concept to their products, in order to, in a fiercely manner, maximise sales and profit.The construction industry is one of the most important economical sectors. Nevertheless, this sector continues to base itself on traditional construction systems and unqualified workers, being characterised by excessive usage of natural and energetic resources. This situation causes great environmental impact with great potentialities to be reduced.This thesis identifies, in general, the environmental impacts in the construction industry, and particularly, in the building sector.A few measures and examples of new construction technologies and others are also presented, that are the result of technological renewal and improvement of building technologies, some of them, already applied thousands of years ago.The development and application of these technologies aim at a construction, more and more sustainable, that settles evenly on environmental, economical and social domains.A methodology, that is expected to be adequate to validate the sustainability of construction solutions, is presented at the end. This methodology is then applied to some conventional and non-conventional solutions of pavements and exterior walls. It is hoped that the practices approached, the methodology developed and the results obtained, may serve as a basis for the various construction intervenients, in the decision making process, in accomplishing buildings more sustainable.
Keywords: Building automation; Direct digital control; Energy management system; prefabrication,T30
Although statistics suggested that highrise buildings have a lower risk of fire per unit floor area , highrise buildings account for a very large share of people and property exposed, especially for the large number of super highrise buildings currently constructing in Asia and Middle East. The definition of super highrise building changes as construction technology and human perception advanced. The highrise building with height more than 23m. This is the maximum elevation resulted from the less favorable rescue and fire fighting operations with the use of extendable ladders. Since highrise buildings are unique with regard to their elevated height from conventional lower buildings, different design considerations including additional features are required for fire safety. Prescriptive codes in a number of countries (3, 4) have separate section to cater for highrise building fire safety design. The additional enhancements in the prescriptive codes include suppression system, detection and alarm, but do not include the egress component.
FIRE SAFETY CHALLENGES TO HIGHRISE BUILDINGS
The fire safety in highrise buildings has raised special attention by the general public and authorities. The special report on the operation considerations for highrise firefighting.The special fire safety issues related to highrise buildings can be summarized into six major areas: fire department accessibility, egress and people movement, natural forces, increase in occupant and fire load, combination of occupancies, and arrangement of internal utility services.Among the above fire safety challenges, half of them are directly or indirectly related to the evacuation of building occupants (extended vertical travel distance, high occupant number and different occupant types). Therefore the challenges of highrise building evacuation will be discussed in detail.
Building Automation Systems (BAS)
The process of specifying, designing, and installing building automation systems (BAS) typically begins with the plans and specifications produced by the mechanical, electrical, and plumbing (MEP) design engineer. The MEP plans and specifications include equipment and process schematics that specify the location of sensors and control elements for the mechanical system. Also included is a narrative “Sequence of Operations” which describes how the mechanical system is to be controlled. Despite its name, the “Sequence of Operations” does not describe a sequential process; it is an overall specification of the control strategy for the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. This information is provided to the control system integrator, who then creates a configuration database for the control system, which establishes communication, network, and device parameters as well as input/output (I/O) configuration parameters. The control system integrator also develops control application programs for the controlled equipment based on the narrative “Sequence of Operations.” There is a great deal of variability in the level of detail provided in the “Sequence of Operations.”
How does Building Automation work?
HVAC and Lighting Controls – Stand alone computerized controllers are installed to take over the control of building HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) systems
and lighting. The building is not only scheduled more closely but it is also operated more intelligently and efficiently.
Outside Air Optimization
Proper control of outside air provides necessary inside air changes for occupant comfort and health, minimizes energy costs by space pre-conditioning, allows for enthalpy-based free cooling, and reduces the use of outside air when it is not needed.
Orchestrating the operation of building systems, so that equipment works together, saves energy and improves comfort. Individual control systems that are not centrally monitored and coordinated can fight each other or malfunction, causing comfort problems and wasting considerable energy. BACnet based BAS can interface to existing or planned systems so that the building will run smoothly and at peak efficiency without expensive duplication of controls or unnecessary complexity.
Simplifying facility operation and integrating data from various systems in a "seamless" manner is best accomplished with a graphical user interface. This eliminates the need to memorize commands or point numbers, and allows the operator to take a walking tour of the facility from the console. Existing systems can be easily upgraded to add this powerful operational tool. Point and click graphics empowers management by letting everyone see what is going on and taking the mystery out of proper operations.
Direct Digital Controls (DDC)
Upgrade older existing equipment to DDC to match new equipment functionality. These controllers come standard on most new mechanical equipment and are more reliable, require less maintenance, provide more sophisticated control, and are less expensive to purchase and operate.
Conventional controls, such as time clocks, are inaccurate and are typically setup to run equipment longer than the actual need. By automating this function with computerized controls, the computer can predict the optimum time to start/stop equipment and eliminate waste caused by excessive runtime.
HVAC equipment is typically sized to handle the building load under worst-case conditions. Most conventional controls are set up to meet these design criteria at all times.With the automation system, control set points and strategies can be adjusted to meet only the actual load, eliminating unnecessary waste.
Tower 30(30-story hotel built in just 15 days)
Chinese workers build 30-story hotel in just 15 days! If we hadn’t seen a of the T30 Hotel going up in China, we might not have believed that anyone, anywhere could erect a prefabricated 30-story tower in just over 2 weeks. But it’s true – Broad Sustainable Building (BSB), a subsidiary of the BroadGroup construction company, has broken their previous record of constructing a 15-story building in one week with their latest project in Hunan Province. Not only did BSB get the T30 Hotel up in 15 days or 360 hours (with the help of 200 superspeedy construction workers),but the company claims that their 17,000 square meter tower is 5 times more energy efficient than the competition and generates a fraction of thewaste. It is also said to have the capacity to withstand an earthquake that measures up to 9 on the Richter Magnitude Scale! Take a look at the incredible time-lapse video of the hotel’s construction after the jump. Prefabricated building constructions are often advocated for, because they greatly reduce energy and material waste, and BSB claims that
the China Academy of Building Research certified their new T30 Hotel to be perfectly safe, but one has to wonder what China will look like in 20 years if contractors throw up a new 17,000 square foot tower every 2 weeks... While an impressive engineering feat that boasts enormous eco-credentials such as external solar shading, superb energy efficiency, a heat recovery system, and a state of the art air purification system makes the air quality inside the hotel 20 times better than it is outside, we aren’t 100% convinced that this kind of scaled prefabricated construction is the most appropriate answer to the challenges posed by climate change, pollution, or population growth. BroadGroup’s Zhang Zue disagrees. He told WAN that China needs to “speed up [their]environmental thinking.” He added that “We need buildings like this all over China.” We’d love to hear from our readers.Do you think that the T30 Hotelis setting a good precedent in China?
This demonstrates the Chinese company Broad Sustainable Building did not exaggerate about its construction speed. Time-lapse segment starts from 1:19. (Courtesy Broad Group) Chinese construction workershave once again awed the world,this time by erecting a 30-story hotel in 360 hours in HunanProvince. The building is the latest achievement of Broad Sustainable Building (BSB), a Chinese construction company renowned for its eye-openingefficiency. A five-star hotel to be Ground was broken on the hotel on December 2, 2011, in the Lin Gang Industrial Zone in Xiangyin County near the provincialcapital Changsha. The building was completed in 15 days. Named T30, the 17,000-square- meter hotel is due to open on January 18, and is expected tobe a five-star establishment. The hotel will feature 316 standard rooms, 32 suites, eight ambassador suites and two presidential suites. Other facilities include a restaurant, bar, gym and swimming pool on the top floor, underground parking space for 73 vehicles and even a helicopter pad. The entire hotel costs a total of US$17 million to build. The building's owner, BSB, is asubsidiary of Chinese technology enterprise Broad Group, whose portfolio includes assembling its own pavilion (the six-story Broad Pavilion) for the 2010 Shanghai Expo within 24 hours, and erecting a 15-story building in six days in June 2010. The key to achieving such stunning speed is an innovative construction technique developed by Broad.
Ninety- three percent of the tower was pieced together with pre-made components, explained Broad Group's senior vice president Juliet Jiang. Jiang said that the company might be able to construct similar buildings in 200 hours once workers become more skilful. Jiang also said that the reason for the emphasis on speedy construction was "to avoid rain." Reaction to doubts Jiang said BSB is unconcerned about doubts regarding the quality of buildings erected within such short time frames. "It's because people don't understand [the technologies used for the building]," she said. "Let time prove everything." According to a press release by China Academy of Building Research (CABR), T30 was constructed with a newstructural system designed and developed by BSB. A simulation model of the building withstood a series of earthquake resistance tests -- from 7.0 to 9.0 in magnitude -- conducted by CABR last May.
It is alsosaid to have the capacity to withstand an earthquake that measures up to 9 on the Richter Magnitude Scale! Take a look at the incredible time-lapse video of the hotel’s construction after the jump. We typically advocate prefabricated building construction because it greatly reduces energy and material waste, and BSB claims that the China Academy of Building Research certified their new
square foot tower every 2 weeks. While an impressive engineering feat that boasts enormous eco- credentials such as externalsolar shading, superb energyefficiency, a heat recovery system, and a state of the art air purification system makes theair quality inside the hotel 20 times better than it is outside, we aren’t 100% convinced thatthis kind of scaled prefabricated construction is the most appropriate answer to the challenges posed by climate change, pollution, or population growth.
BroadGroup’s Zhang Zue disagrees. He told WAN that China needs to “speed up [their] environmental thinking.” He added that “We need buildings like this all over China.” We’d love to hear from our readers.Do you think that the T30 Hotel is setting a good precedent in China?
Prefabrication is the practice of assembling components of a structure in a factory or other manufacturing site, and transporting complete assemblies or sub-assemblies to the construction site where the structure is to be located. The term is used to distinguish this process from the more conventional construction practice of transporting the basic materials to the construction site where allassembly is carried out. The term prefabrication also applies to the manufacturing of things other than structures at a fixed site. It is frequently used when fabrication of a section of a machine or any movable structure is shifted from the main manufacturing site to another location, and the sectionis supplied assembled and readyto fit. It is not generally used to refer to electrical or electronic components of a machine, or mechanical parts such as pumps, gearboxes and compressors which are usually supplied as separate items, but to sections of the body of the machine which in the past were fabricated with the whole machine. Prefabricated parts of the body of the machine may be called 'sub-assemblies' to distinguish them from the other components. The process and theory of prefabrication An example from house-building illustrates the process of prefabrication.
The conventional method of building a house is to transport bricks, timber, cement, sand, steel and construction aggregate, etc. to the site, and to construct the house on site from these materials. In prefabricated construction, only the foundations are constructed in this way, while sections of walls, floors and roof are prefabricated (assembled) in a factory (possibly with window and door frames included), transported to the site, lifted into place by a crane and bolted together. Prefabrication is used in the manufacture of ships, aircraft and all kinds of vehicles and machines where sections previously assembled at the final point of manufacture areassembled elsewhere instead, before being delivered for final assembly. The theory behind the method is that time and cost is saved if similar construction tasks can be grouped, and assembly line techniques can be employed in prefabrication at a location where skilled labour is available, while congestion at the assembly site, which wastes time, can be reduced. The method finds application particularly where the structure is composed of repeating units or forms, or where multiple copies of the same basic structure are being constructed. Prefabrication avoids the need to transport so many skilled workers to the construction site, and other restricting conditions such as a lack of power, lack of water, exposure to harsh weather or a hazardous environment are avoided. Against these advantages must be weighed the cost of transporting prefabricated sections and lifting them into position as they will usually be larger, more fragile and more difficult to handle than the materials and components of which they are made.
Prefabricated steel and glass sections are widely used for the exterior of large buildings. Prefabrication saves engineering time on the construction site in civil engineering projects. This can be vital to the success of projects such as bridges and avalanche galleries, where weather conditions may only allow brief periods of construction. Prefabricated bridge elements and systems offer bridge designers and contractors significant advantages in terms of construction time, safety, environmental impact, constructibility, and cost. Prefabrication can also help minimize the impact on traffic from bridge building. Additionally, small, commonly-used structures such as concrete pylons are in most cases prefabricated. Prefabrication has become widely used in the assembly of aircraft and spacecraft, with components such as wings and fuselagesections often being manufactured in different
countries or states from the final assembly site. However this is sometimes for political rather than commercial reasons - e.g. Airbus
Advantages of prefabrication
1. Self-supporting ready-made components are used, so the need for formwork, shuttering and scaffolding is greatly reduced.
2.Construction time is reduced and buildings are completed sooner, allowing an earlier return of the capital invested.
3.On-site construction and congestion is minimized.
4. Quality control can be easier in a factory assembly line setting than a construction site setting.
5. Prefabrication can be located where skilled labour is more readily available and costs of labour, power, materials, space and overheads are lower.
6. Time spent in bad weather or hazardous environments at the construction site is minimized.
7. Less waste may occur
8. Advanced materials such as sandwich-structured composite can be easily used, improving thermal and sound insulation and airtightness
1. Careful handling of prefabricated components such as concrete panels or steel and glass panels is required.
2. Attention has to be paid to the strength and corrosion- resistance of the joining of prefabricated sections to avoid failure of the joint.
3. Similarly, leaks can form at joints in prefabricated components.
4. Transportation costs may be higher for voluminous prefabricated sections than for the materials of which they are made, which can often be packed more efficiently.
5. Large prefabricated sections require heavy-duty cranes and precision measurement and handling to place in position.
6. Larger groups of buildings from the same type of prefabricated elements tend to look drab and monotonous.
7. Local jobs are lost
Prefabricated Building material
Prefabricated building materials are used for buildings that are manufactured off site and shipped later to assemble at the final location. Some of the commonly used prefabricated
building materials are aluminum, steel, wood, fiberglass and concrete. Prefabricated metal buildings use galvanized steel and galvalume as the chief materials for building. Galvalume is a form of steel coated with aluminum-zinc.This is to protect the building against corrosion, rust and fire. It also provides a sturdy and protective covering to the prefabricated building. Almost all the components of a metal building such as beams, frames, columns, walls and roofs, are made of steel. Most prefabricated military buildings use steel or aluminum frames. Synthetic materials are used for the walls and roofs. To provide enhanced security, a combination of both metal and cloth materials are used. Plastic flooring materials can be quickly assembled and are very durable. Prefabricated building materials used for small prefabricated buildings are steel, wood, fiberglass, plastic or aluminum materials. These materials are cheaper than regular brick and concrete buildings. Materials like steel, fiberglass, wood and aluminum are used as prefabricated building materials for sports buildings.
These materials provide flexibility and are preferred for making structures and accessories like stands and seats for stadium and gyms. For making low cost houses, prefabricated materials likestraw bale, Ferro cement,Calcium silicate products,composites and other cheap wood based materials are currently being used. Calcium silicate bricks are strong and durable. Ferro cement consists of a cement matrix reinforced witha mesh of closely-spaced iron rods or wires. In this type of construction, the techniques used are simple and quick. Using prefabricated materials one can make durable, water and fire resistant and cheap prefabricated buildings. Most of the prefabricated building materials are eco-friendly and affordable. Prefabricated Buildings provides detailed information on prefabricated building,prefabricated metal buildings, small prefabricated buildings, prefabricated building manufacturers and more. Prefabricated Buildings is affiliated with Manufactured home floor plans
What Are Prefabricated Building Materials
These are construction materials specifically designed to be manufactured offsite but later brought on to the real site.They are made up of factory built components which are assembled away from the main location. The most considered types are the Galvavolume and the Galvanized steel. Steel coated with aluminum zinc are the most commonly preferred prefabricated building materials. They prevent corrosion, fire and rust from destroying the building. This greatly reduces the construction cost. Fabricated building materials are commonly used in the military buildings to improve on the security. The builders normally combine both cloth and metal materials when flooring. These materials are very durable and can easily be assembled. The ceiling is commonly made up of frames, beams, walls and roofs of steel. Most commonly used fabricated materials are fiber glass, concrete, steel and aluminum. They are given consideration because of the hardness..
is a building process in which elements or modules of the structure are prefabricated at plants, then transported to the construction site for installation. Using this method can reduce the time of building, also saving construction cost. Prefabricated construction is now widely
applied for new houses or other building structures like bridge, tunnels, culverts, water supply system… The benefits of prefabricated construction method is from the fabrication of standard components on factory floor. This production is less time consumption compared to actual condition of construction process. The prefabricated elements are transported to the site for installing process. At the site, the modules are unloaded, moved into position with the support of heavy cranes, and assembled to form a designed building.
Together with the fast assembly,prefabricated construction also saves a lot of money on the construction project. By using standard patterns, the building materials are saved at the manufacturing factories. This help to reduce the waste in formwork and other materials that can occur during traditional building procedures. Another considerable profit using prefabricated construction method is the energy efficiency. Because the prefab elements of a panelized home are precut, they fit snugly together, making for a tighter edifice. This means less effort for heating and cooling, resulted in lower energy bills.
The rapid development of prefabricated houses has led to the increasing of construction templates that homeowners have more choice for designs of their houses. By combining these templates, it is possible to design the layout of the house, specify the dimensions of each room, and build a home that is exactly to the specification of the owners.
There are also complex building plans for prefabricated construction that can be adjusted slightly and still have the benefit of using materials of standard lengths, widths, and textures. Prefabricated houses are not the only type of construction structures that can be produced using prefabrication construction method. As mentioned above, this method is widely used in many types of constructions like bridges, culverts or even swimming pools.
Prefab Housing Cost:
Buyers can typically expect to pay less for a prefab home than they would for stick-built construction. Modular homes do offer pricey customization, but the material costs still decrease with assembly-line construction. Because prefab home parts like windows and walls are made uniformly, there is no need for skilled workers to manufacture parts individually, which drives down costs. Also, factories, unlike most individual tradesmen, can buy the supplies in bulk. Prefabricated houses are constructed indoors and away from the weather, which also reduces delays and subsequent costs.
Prefabricated houses, like stick-built homes, do not have fixed prices, so buyers can negotiate. In general, they can expect to pay 10 to 25 percent less for prefabricated houses over stick-built construction. Typically, land is the biggest cash outlay for a prefabricated house. And, depending on your skill level, construction could be the other big expense. People who ordered Sears, Roebuck and Co. homes in the 1900s usually possessed carpentry skills, but mostmodern homeowners wouldn't feel comfortable laying their own foundation.
There are other regulations for building, including zoning restrictions, survey requirements and electrical and water hookups. Some companies offer their own services – for an extra fee, of course. Once buyers have the land and the house they want, financing can be a hurdle. Manufactured homes aren't considered real estate until they are permanently installed, so it can be more difficult to get financing for them. Even then, manufactured homes can depreciate in value, so lenders are less likely to give out loans. Modular homes, however, do
not suffer as much from this lower- quality stigma, so financing for them is more similar to that for stick-built houses.
When hot dip galvanized steel is painted, the duplex system provides a more sophisticated manner of corrosion protection. The galvanized coating protects the base steel, supplying cathodic and barrier protection. Paint, in turn, grants barrier protection to the galvanized coating. The paint slows down the rate at which the zinc is consumed, greatly extending the life of the galvanized steel. In return, once the paint has been weathered down or damaged, the zinc is still available to provide cathodic and barrier protection. When painted steel corrodes, voluminous rust grows under the paint and eventually causes the paint to peel. However, if the steel is galvanized, the corrosion is minimal and the paint will not peel, thereby greatly increasing the life of the structure and minimizing paint peeling. As one of the most frequent reasons for paint failure is discontinuity in the coating, a galvanized coating will eliminate early rusting at pinholes. In turn, the life of the product is greatly increased
An emergency lift evacuation strategy has been proposed and discussed which can be put into practical use without significant violation to existing stair evacuation strategy and additional investment in evacuation safety provisions. The shuttle lifts have been used in the proposed strategy which can eliminate the dedicated lift shaft pressurization and water spillage protection since there is no shaft opening on typical floors. Using refuge floors as lift evacuation pick up and occupant staging floors can protect the occupants from fire and smoke hazards since refuge floors are designed to be a temporary place of safety for occupant’s refuge.
A computational simulation using a proposed super highrise building as an example has been carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed lift evacuation strategy. It has been shown that the proposed strategy of lift evacuation has advantages over stair evacuation in terms of total building evacuation time and percentage of occupants discharged.
Sensitivity analyses have also been carried out based on different occupant number and the use of lower deck or both decks of shuttle lifts for evacuation to investigate the changes in effectiveness of lift evacuation. It has been found that the evacuation time is dependent on a number of variables such as building height, staircase width, occupant distribution and number which the proposed lift evacuation strategy should be tailor made using performance based fire engineering design for individual building.
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