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1. What are the factors that will govern the structural design?
It should have adequate strength
It should have adequate stability and rigidity
It should be durable
It should not interfere with the functional requirement
It should be economical

2. what are the structural element of a building?
Flexural members: beams or girders
Tension members :ties
Compression members : column ,stanchions ,struts
Torsional members
3. What is meant by spandrel beam?
Beam around the outside perimeter of a floor that support the exterior walls and outside edge of the floor
4. What are the steps involved in structural design?
Selection of the structure
Layout of the structure
Determination of force on the structure in the elements of the structure
Checking the performance of the structure under service condition
5. Which type of steel is generally used in construction?
Mild steel
Medium carbon steel
High carbon steel
This three types of steel are known as structural steel
6. What are the various types of structural steel section?
Rolled steel beam section
Rolled steel angle section
Rolled steel bars
Rolled steel sheets or strip
Rolled steel channel section
Rolled steel tee section
Rolled steel plates
Mild steel
7. What are the types of connections used for connecting structural members?
Riveted connections
Bolded connections
Pinned connections
Welded connections
8. What is rivet and riveting?
A piece of round steel forged in place to connect two steel members together is known as a rivet. The body of is termed as shank
Riveting is a method of joining together , structural steel components by inserting ductile metal pins called rivets into holes of the components to be connected

9. What are hot driven and cold driven?
Hot driven:
If the rivets used in structural steel work are steel work are heated and driven, these rivets are known as hot driven rivets
Cold driven:
If the rivets are driven at atmospheric temperature , they are known as cold rivets
10. What are the types of rivets joints?
When one member is placed above the other and the other two are connected by means of rivets , the joint is known as lap joints
11. Define rivet value?
Strength of rivet in shearing and bearing are calculated and the lesser value among two is known as rivet value
12. What are the arrangements of rivets?
Chain riveting
Diamond riveting
13. What are eccentric riveted connection?
When the centre of gravity of a group of rivets does not lie on the line of action of the load, the connections are known as riveted connection
14. Define bolts?
A bolt is a metal pin with a head at one end and the shank threads at the other in order to receive a nut
15. What are the types of welded joints?
Butt weld
Fillet weld
Slot weld and plug weld
Spot weld
Seam weld
Pipe weld
16. Define butt weld?
Butt weld is also called as groove weld. The faces of two members are placed with each other and connected by fillet metals. Butt weld is used to join structural members carrying direct compression or tension.
17. Define fillet weld ?
A fillet weld is a weld of approximately triangular cross section joining two surface approximately at right angles to each other in lap joint.
18. Write down the equation for calculating the effective throat thickness of a weld ?
Effective throat thickness, t=0.7x size of weld.
19. Define factor of safety ?
It is defined as the factor by which the yield stress of the material is divided to give the stress in the material.
20. Write Unwin¡¦s formula ?
t= thickness of plate in mm
d= diameter of rivet in mm.
1. Define tension members ?
Tension member is defined as a structural member subjected to a tensile force in
the direction parallel to its longitudinal axis. A tension member is also called as
tie member or simply a tie. The term tie ia commonly used for tension member
in the roof truss.
2. What are the types of tension members ?
Wires and cables
Rods and bars
Single structural shapes and plates
Built up members.
3. What is net selection area ?
The net selection area of a tension member is the gross sectional area of the member, less the maximum deduction for holes.
4. Why lug angles are not very common ?
They provide eccentric connections because of rivets placed along lug angles
Stress distribution in the rivet of lug is not uniform
Rivets on the lug angle are not as sufficient as other rivets.
5. What is lug angle ?
A lug angle is a short length of an angle section which is attached to the main tension member at the connecting end to provide extra gauge lines for accomodating the recquired number of rivets.
6. Write notes on tension splices ?
When the recquired length of a tension member is less than the available length or two lengths of tension member have different cross sectional area, tesion splices are provided to join the two length of the member. Tension splices are the cover plates used on both side of the butt jointed members.
7. Write notes on lug angles ?
When a tension member is connected to a gusset plate and its ends a large number of rivets are required, especially when the tension member is large, necessitating in the provision of a big size gusset plate. The size of the gusset plate can be decreasd by the use of a lug angle. A lug angle is a short length of an angle section which is attached to a main tension member at the connecting end to provide extra gauge lines for accommodating the recquired number of rivets.
8. How is the net sectional area calculeted in case of i) chain revetting ii)zig zag rivetting ?
Chain rivetting
Anet =t(b-nd)
Zig zag rivetting
Anet =t[(b-nd)+ms2/4g]
t= thikness of plate
d=diameter of the hole
n= no of rivets in the section considered
m =no of zig zag or inclined lines.
9. What is net effictive area ?
The net cross sectional area on a section is reduced to account for this nonuniform stress distribution resulting from eccentricity. The reduced net sectional area of such a section is known as net effective area.
10. How is net effective area of a single angle used as tension member calculated ?
In case of single angle connected through one leg the
Net sectional area =A1+A2k
Where, A1=effective cross sectional area of the connected leg
A2=gross cross sectional area of the un connected leg
11. Write down the formula for permissible stress in axial tension ?
As per IS:800-1984:the permissible stress in axial tension , = 0.6 / 2(Mpa)
Where, fy= minimum yield sterss in steel, N/mm2
12. Write down the specification for the design of lug angle ?
Lug angle connected a channel shaped member shall, as far as possible, be disposed symmetrically with respect to the section.In no case shall fewer than two bolts or rivets be used for attaching the lug angle to the gusset or other supporting member.
13. How is net effective area of a double angle used as tension member calculated ?
In case of double angle connected through one leg,
Net sectional area =A1+A2k
Where, A1=effective cross sectional area of the connected leg
A2=gross cross sectional area of the un connected leg
14. What are hangers ?
A tension member is the one which is intended to resist axial tension. Tension member are also called ties or hangers.
15. What is the advantages of rods and bars ?
The major disadvantage of these section is the inadequate stiffness resulting in noticeable sag under their own weight especially during erection.
16. Notes on single structural shapes and plates ?
The common single structural shapes are angle section, tee section, channel section. Angle sections are considered more rigid than ropes, rods, bars. So=ingle angle are mainly used for bracing, for light truss tension member.
17. If Fe250 grade steel is used, calculated the alliwable stress in axial tension as per IS=800 ?
Allowable stress in axial tension= 0.6 fy
=150 N/mm2.
18. Explain the member?
Tension member are also called as tie member. A tension member per tie member is the one which is intended to resist axial tension.
19. Write notes on biult up section ?
When a member is required to take heavy tensile load, built up sections, consisting of two or more plates or shors are used.Such a built up section is used
to provide Greater area which cannot be provided by a single rolled shape,
Greater rigidity by way of greater moment of inertia,Suitable dimension to proper connection.
20. What is bearing stress ?
When the load is exerted or transferredby the application of load through one surface for the other surface in contact to the sterss is known as bearing stress.The bearing stress is calculated on net projected area of contact.
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