CE 1255 Highway Engineering
1. Define central road fund?
On the recornmendation of Jayhawker committee, central
Road fund came into existence on 1st march 1929, Upon the authority
of a resolution adopted by the Indian legislature.
2. Define National Highway Act 1956?
In 1956, National Highway act was passed declaring the
National Highways and empowering the central Govt to declare any
other highway to be NH. This act came into force with effect from
15 th April 1957.
3. Explain CRRI?
CRRI- The central Road Research Institute Delhi in 1950
It is an organ of the council of scientific and industrial research, and
in function include.
4. Write Short notes on Highway Research Board?
This board was set up by I.R.C in 1973 to give proper
direction and guidance to road research work in India.
5. What are classified roads in Nagpur plan?
1. National Highways (NH)
2. State Highways (SH)
3. District Roads:
(1) Major district Roads
(2) Other district Roads
4. Village roads.
6. Define Express ways?
These roads are of higher, day than National highway. There
are Such roads on which only font moving vehicles like car and
jeeps are classified.
7. What are the modified classification of Road system by Third
1. Primary System
2. Secondary System
3. Tertiary system
8. What are type of Road patterns?
1. Rectangular (or) Black pattern.
2. Radial (or) Star and black pattern.
9. Write short notes or Nagpur plan (or) Its 20-year Road plan.
The first attempt for proper Scientific planning of roads in
India, Wan made in chief Engineers conference held at Nagpur in 1943. Nagpur conference finalized at 20 years (1943-1963) road development
10. Write short notes on Second twenty year road plan (1961-81)
A Second road development programmer (1961-81) was finalized
by the chief engineers connected with road development, both at centre
and Staten in a meeting held at Hyde Chad in 1959.
11. What are the fundamental principles of alignment?
1. Length of road should be shortest
2. The Proposed road should form a most economical line.
3. The alignment should provide corny.
12. What are the function which control the selection of alignment?
1. Volume and type of traffic
2. Obligatory points
3. Canal river (or) railway crossings
4. Geotechnical standard to he adopted
13. Define obligatory point?
Obligatory point are such points which act to control points in
14. What are special considerations for him road alignment?
1. Stability 2. Drainage 3. Geometric standard 4. Deep writing
and heavy fillings should he avoided.
15. What are the varies type of Engineering surveys?
1. Map shady
2. Reconnaissance survey
3. Preliminary survey
4. Detailed Survey
16. What are two type of road project?
1. A new highway Project
2. Re-alignment (or) revenging Highway project
17. What are head involved in Highway Geometric?
1. Cross Section eleventh like camber, Super elevation
2. Sight distance character sight like stopping sight distance,
overtaking sight distance etc.
3. Honzontal and vertical alignments
18. Define camber?
Traverse slope given to the road surface in called camber. It is
provided mainly to drain off rain water from the road surface.
19. What are the factors deepens on camber?
1. Account of Surface
2. Type ground surface 20. What camber recommended in WBM Road?
Water Bound Macadam road
1 to 33 (3%) 1 in 40 (2.5%).
21. What camber recommended in bihiminour road?
Bihiminour surface 1 in 40 (2.5%) 1 in 50 (2%)
22. What camber recommended in cement concrete Road?
Cement concrete Road 1 in 50 (2%) 1 in 60 (1.7%)
23. What are the different type of camber?
1. parabolic camber
2. Sloped camber
3. Composite camber
24. Define carriage way width?
Metal led puce strip of road meant for vehicular traffic
movement in called carriage way.
25. Define dual carriageways?
Each portion of the carriageway is reserved for traffic moving in
opposite direction. Such carriage ways are called dual carriageways.
26. What are the width of carriage way in meteor two lane without
raised wert state highways?
State highways 7.0 m
27. Write note on high speed barrier herb?
This herb is 23cm to 45cm to height . This herb is mainly used
at initial location such as bridge and hill roads.
28. Define formation width?
Formation width is also called road way. It is the sum of
width of carriage way shoulders, and separations it provided
29. Define Right of way:-
Area to the acquired along the road alignment in called right
30. Define sight distance?
Sight distance in the actual length of road over which a driver
sitting at a specified height in a vehicle can see objects either moving
(or) stationary on the road surface.
31. What are classification of sight distance depending upon the
1. Stopping sight distance
2. Sate overtaking sight distance
3. Sight distance at intersection
32. Define S.S. D? Stopping sight distance is the minimum distance required with
in which a vehicle moving at designed speed can be stopped without
colliding with a stationary object on the road surface.
33. What is the height of driver eye above the road surface?
IRC recommended height of driver eye is 1.22m.
34. Define reaction time:-
It is the time in seconds which a driver can take from the
instant the objects visible to him to the instant the brakes are
35. Define perception period?
Perception period is the time taken by an average driver to
realize a danger a head before actually trying to apply the breaker.
36. Define overtaking sight distance (OSD)
The distance visible to the driver of a vehicle intending to
overtake another slow moving vehicle, without causing any
inconvenience (or) possibility of accident to the traffic in the opposite
direction in called overtaking sight distance (or) safe passing sight
37. Define design speed?
Design speed can be defined as the speed which is permissible
for safe and comfortable driving on a given surface of the highway.
38. What are the two effects of centrifugal force?
1. Tendency to overturn the vehicle.
2. Tendency to skid the vehicle laterally.
39. Define super elevation?
The outer edge of the road in raised above the inner edge
called super elevation (or) cant (or) banking.
40. What is the elation between super elevation, continuant of friction
and centrifugal force
elf = v2
e = super elevation whose value is taken an 4 0 (or) 1/15
f = Lateral frictional coefficient whose value in
R = Radian of curve in metros .
g = 9.8
V = speed of vehicle in m/sec.
41. What is the maximum rules of super elevation ?
e = ----
This formula assumer that centrifugal force corresponding to 75% of
the designed speed is balanced by super elevation and the next winter
acted by the side friction.
42. Define horizontal curve?
It is a curve in plan to provide change in the direction of the
central time by the road surface.
43. What are the factors attesting the design of curve?
1. Design speed of the vehicle
2. Allowable friction
3. Maximum allowable super elevation.
4. Permissible centrifugal ration.
44. Define vertical curve?
It is a curve in the longitudinal section of a highway to
provide a easy change of the gradient.
45. What are curve used in a highway.
1. Circular curve
2. Transition curve
3. Parabolic curve
46. What is the value of radian of the simple curve?
R= 1720m app
47. Define compound curve?
A compound curve currish of a serial of hoot (or) more
simple curve that run in the same direction and joint at common
48. Define Reverse curve?
A reverse curve consist of two simple curve opposite direction
that point at the common tangent point. This common point in
called the point of reverse curve
49. What are the types of transition curve?
1. True spiral (or clothed.
2. cubic spiral.
3. cubic parabolic.
50. What are characteristics of Transition curve?
1. It should meet the straight path tangentially 2. It should meet the circular curve tangentially
51. What is the equation of a spiral transition curve?
Ls = m v Q
Where m = v2RL = a constant
Q = tangent of deflection angle in radians
52. How many methods to determine the length of transition curve?
(1) By the rate of charge of radial acceleration
(2) By empirical formula
53 . Define gradient?
It is the rate of rise (or) fall of road level along if length
54. What are the factors governs the gradient?
(1) characteristics û of the traffic.
(2) Physical factors of the site such a drainage, safety,
(3) Bridge, approach Road and railway Line intersection etc.
55. What are different types of gradient?
1. Maximum gradient
2. Puling gradient
3. Limiting gradient
4. Exceptional gradient
56. What are the driaclvantager of Exceptional gradient?
1. More fuel consumption
2. More friction losses
3. Efficiency of engine reducer
4. Early fatigue to animals.
57. What are the hyper of vertical curve?
1. Summit curve
2. Valley curve
58. what is the minimum Radian of vertical curve?
The minimum ration of the curve is given by
R = ---
59. What is the length of valley curve?
L= 0.38 (NV 3) ½
L = Total Length of valley curve
N = Deviation angle
v = Design speed in triumph
60.What are the materials required for W.B.M roads?
1. Coarse aqqregate.
2. Screenings. 3. Filler materials
61. What are type of bituminous road?
1. Surface dressing
2. Bituminous bound macadam
62. Define seal coat?
Premised snail bitumen (or) surface dressing type seal coat is
applied either immediately (or) after a few days.
63. What are method adopted consummation of cement concrete
1. Cement grout method
2. Rolled concrete method.
3. cement connate slab method
64. What types of join provided in cement concrete pavements?
1. Expansion joint
2. Contraction joint
3. warping joint.
65. What material used as joint Filler?
1. Soft wood
2. Impregnated fiber board
3. Cork (or) cork bound with bitumen
4. Coir fiber
66. What mate rich used an joint sealer?
2. Rubén bitumen
67. Write short notes on Hair pin bend?
A hair pin bend should he located on the hill side
having the minimum slope and maximum stability It should be sate
against land slide and ground water. Hair pin bends with long arms
and further spacing should he provided.
68. What are the methods of pavement?
1. Flexible pavement
2. Rigid pavement
69. what are the component of a fallible pavement?
1, Soil sub grade
2. sub base course
3. Base course
4. Wearing course
70. Define sub grade?
The soil sub grade in a layer of natural soil prepared to
receive the other lays of the pavement. 71. What properties posses soil sub grade?
c. Ease of compaction
d, permanency of compaction etc.
72.. What are tests conducted the strength properties of the sub
1. California bearing ratio tests
2. California resistance value test
3. Plate bearing test
4. Trysail shear test
73. Define bone course?
It is the foundation layer, designed for the structural stability
The main function of the bare course in edible pavements is to
improve the load supporting capacity by distributing the load through
a finite ethicalness'.
74. Define leaving course ?
It is that component of pavement with which the wheels of vehicular
are in archival contain.
75. What are the factors attaching stability of pavement?
a. Traffic factors.
b. Mosher factors.
c. Climatic factors.
d. Soil factors
e. Stets dissipation factors.
76. Define contact presume?
Contact presume = loud on wheel
77. Define Rigidity factor?
Rigidity factor = contact presume
78. What is ESUL?
Equivalent Single Used Load
79. What understand by Repetition of load?
The repeated loading may produce permanent and non uniform
deformation of sub grade.
80. What are the causes of increase in moisture? 1. Percolation of surface water through Erath in the pavement
2. Entry of water through edger of the pavement
4. Capillary rise from high water table
81. What is meaning of frost heave?
The terms frost heave return to rising up of the pavement
82. What method is used for strengthening of flexible pavement?
Benkelman Beam Reflection method.
83. What is the basic principle of Benkelman Beam deflection
The deflection method is based on the concept that pavement
section which have been conditioned by traffic elastically under a
84. What are the factor considered deformation under a given load?
1. sub grade soil type
2. Soil mousier content and its compaction
3. Thickness of pavement layers
4. Drainage conditions.
85. What are factors causing stressor in slab?
1. used loads
2. cyclic changer in temperature
3. Changes in moisture
4. Volumetric changer in bare course.
86. Define hand aggregator give example?
Hand aggregator are used to resist crushing effect and adverse
weather effect (ex) granite trap
87. What is the user of soft aggregator ?
They can also be used in lower layer of good type of roads. Soft
aggregator are usable in low cost road.
88. What are the proportion of aggregator?
1. Strength 2.Hardness 3. Toughens 4. Sound ness
5, shape of aggregate 6. Bushmen adhesion properly
89. What are test for Road aggregator?
1. Abrasion test
2. Lost angler abrasion test
90. Define Elongation index? This test is also suitable for aggregate of size greater than
6.3mm and is carried our in the same way a how been explained
in flakiness index
91. What are the proportion of bihiminour material
92. What are test of bitumen?
1. Generation test
2. Ductility test
3. Solubility test
93. What are different grade of bitumen?
30/40, 80/100 , 60/70
94. Define emulsion?
Emulsion is a combination of water bitumen and an
95. What are test for bitumen emulsion?
1. Sieve test
2. Mining test
96. What are general causer of pavement failure?
1. Faulty material of commotion
2. Faulty construction and improper quality control during
97. What are typical failover of flexible pavement?
1. Shear failure
2. Longitudinal cracks.
98. What are typical failure of cement concrete pavements?
1. mud pumping 2. spelling of join
99. what are the classification of maintenance?
1. Routine maintenance (0r) repairs
2. Periodic maintenance
3. Special repairs.
100. What are two methods of pavements evaluation?
1. Structural evaluation of pavement
2. Evaluation of pavement surface conditions.
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