CE2304 Environmental Engineering – I Question bank

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CE2304 Environmental Engineering – I
Question bank

Prepared by
J.Thomas britto
Dept  of Civil Engg

1.        Define the term potable water.
2.        State the causes for water pollution.
3.        Write the advantage of sub-surface sources
4.        What are the uses of nomograms?
5.        Define the terms ‘Sedimentation’
6.        Differentiate between Temporary and Permanent hardness.
7.        Draw the typical line sketch of ‘Dead end system’.
8.        What is meant by equalizing reservoirs?
9.        Rainwater harvesting is the need of the hour – justify.
10.      List the commonly using disinfectant.
11.        What are the different tests done during water analysis?
12. What do you understand by the term per capita demand? In a town or city for what       purpose
generally water required.
13. What major precautions are taken in handling and laying water  pipe lines?
14.  What are the factors be considered for locating a pumping station?
15. Sketch the layout plan of water treatment plan.
16. What are various processes required to remove the various types of impurities?
17. What are the requirements of a good distribution system?
18. Compare the merit and demerits of continuous and intermittent supply system water
19. What are the factors to be considered for rain water harvesting?
20. What are the various methods by which ground water recharge is accomplished?
21. List out any four factors affecting rate of demand
22. What are the objectives of public water supply scheme?
23. What are the intakes?
24. What are the advantages of steel pipes in water supply project?
25. What is the purpose of coagulation?
26. How can you classify filters into different categories?
27.  What are the general considerations of the water distribution system design?
28. Distinguish between Gravity system of distribution and pumping system of distribution?
29. What is meant by “Ground Water Re-charge”?
30. List out the various methods of “Water Conservation” presently followed in India?
31.    State the effects when each of the following substances exceeds the prescribed limits in a water
      (a) Nitrates        (b) fluorides  
32.      Define ‘percapita demand’.
33.       What are intakes?
34.       What do you mean by ‘tuberculation’ in pipelines?
35.       Draw the sequence of treatment you would recommend for ground water free from pollution but containing dissolved salts in large concentrations.
 36.       What do you mean by disinfection?
 37.       What are the various methods of distributing water?
 38.       What do you mean by ‘hydraulically balanced network?
 39.       What do you mean by ‘appurtenances?
 40.       Write a note on reuse of waster water.
 41.       Define the term “Per capita demand”.
 42.       Give a list of different sources of water.
 43.       Differentiate between ‘dry’ and ‘wet’ intake.
 44.       What are the different materials used for water supply pipes?
 45.       What is meant by super chlorination?
 46.       List out four coagulants used in treatment of water.
 47.       Mention any two differences between intermittent and continuous water supply.
 48.       Give any two methods of leak detection in pipes.
 49.       Define specific yield of ground water.
 50.       What is reuse of waste water? Give an example.

PART – B  
11.   Define  the  term  ‘per  capita  demand’.    Write  the  factors  affecting   ‘per   capita   demand’   and   state   the   reasons   for  variations in demand.
12.   What  are  the  causes  for  pollution  of  surface  and  subsurface  sources  of  water?  State  the  measures  to  be  adopted  to  prevent  pollution of water.
13.   Draw  a  neat  sketch  of  canal  intake  and  explain  the  working  principle.  State its merit and demerits.
14.   Describe the procedure adopted for laying and testing of water  mains.
 15.   Draw a typical line sketch of water treatment plant and explain  the various components in it.
16.   What do you understand by the term water softening?  Explain  with neat sketch the zeolite process for softening of water.
 17.   Describe the various methods for laying the distribution lines.
18.   Write a brief note leak detection and state the various tests used  to detect the leakage of water.
 19.   Draw  a  neat  sketch  of  a  rain  water  harvesting  structure  and  write  the  problems  associated  with  operation  and  maintenance  of rain water harvesting structures.
20.   Discuss in detail the concept of linking of Indian rivers.  Write  the various constraints in executing this project.
 21 .Write in detail about “Water Pollution” in India.                 (4)
(b)  Explain  in  detail  about  the  “Reasons  for  the  analysis  of  water”.                                                                           (4)
(c)  What  are  the  requirements  of  potable  water  for  domestic
22.   (a) What are the various methods of population forecasts?   (4)
        (b) The census records of a city show population as follows:
                Present                                                    50,000
                Before one decade                                  47,100
                Before two decades                                 43,500
                Before three decades                              41,000

Workout  the  probable  population  after  one,  two  and  three  decades by using Incremental increase method                     (8)
 23.   (a) What considerations govern the choice of a particular type  of pump in water supply project?                                           (6)
        (b)  List  out  the  advantages  of  cement  concrete  pipes  in  water  supply project.                                                                         (6)
24.   (a) What are ‘Air Valves’? Explain their working in detail.  (4)
        (b) Explain in detail about ‘Canal intakes’ with a neat diagram. 
25.   (a) Explain with a neat sketch, the working of a continuous flow  type sedimentation tank.                                                         (8)
        (b) Explain the principle of coagulation                                 (4)
26.   (a) List out the differences between slow sand and Rapid sand  filters.                                                                                     (8)
        (b) What is the necessity for disinfection of water?               (4)

27.   (a)  Compare  the  merits  and  demerits  of  the  ‘Continuous’  and  ‘intermittent’ systems of water supply.                                  
        (b) Give sketches of the following:
(i)      Elevated Reservoir
(ii)    Surface Reservoir                                                  
28.   (a)  Discuss  in  detail  about  ‘Radial  method’  of  layout  of  distribution pipes                                                                    (6)
        (b) What are the points to be considered in the maintenance of  distribution system of water supply?

29.   (a)  Explain  in  detail  about  how  the  ‘Rain  water  harvesting’  is  useful in the conservation of water.                                         (8)
        (b)  ‘Waste  Water  is  also  an  unused,  misplaced  resource’  Explain.                                                                                     (4)
30.   (a)  Explain  the  advantages  and  disadvantages  of  ‘Linking  of  Indian  Rivers’  from  Economical,  Environmental  and  Social  point of views.
 31.  Mention the common impurities in water which should be taken  into  account  in  deciding  the  potability  of  water.  sample.
Describe the essential tests to be performed on such a sample.
32.   The  population  figures  of  a  town  during  the  four  decades  ie   1960,  1970,  1980  and  1990  are  25,000,  30,500,  35,500  and   42,000 respectively. Predict its population in the year 2000 and  compare    the    results    through    Arithmetical    progression. Geometrical  progression,  Incremental  increase  method  and changing Increase Rate method.
33.   Explain the procedure for the complete testing of a newly laid  C.I. pipe for carrying water supply.
34.   What  factors  are  required  to  be  considered  in  the  selection  of  the  type  of  pump?  Discuss  the  situations  under  which  the  following types of may be used.
        (a) Reciprocating pumps         
(b) centrifugal pumps
        (c) Air lift pumps.
 35.   (a)  State  the  principles  of  working  of  a   horizontal  flow  sedimentation tanks.
        (b) What should be the size of a rectangular sedimentation tank  to treat 1.0 MLD with 2 hours detention and overflow rate less  than 40,000 litres per day per sq.m. of the surface areas?
36.   (a) What are the merits and demerits of the rapid sand filters as  compared with slow sand filters?
        (b) What is air binding? What are its effects?
 37.   What  are  the  methods  available  for  supplying  water  to  the  consumers? Which one do you think to be preferable and why?
38.   What are the different methods of analyzing a given distribution  system? Explain Hardz-Cross method of pipe network analysis.
 39.   Explain various methods of ground water recharging and state  the factors to be considered.
40.   What are the advantages of Rain water harvesting and discuss  the various methods of rain water harvesting. 
 41.   Discuss   the   various   Physical,   Chemical   and   Biological   characteristics of water.
42.   Name  the  various  methods  of  population  forecast  and  explain  the circumstances under which it is applicable.
43.   Mention any three pipe appurtenances with neat sketches.
44.   What  are  intakes?  Explain  any  two  intake  structure  with  neat

45.   Distinguish between the slow sand filter and rapid sand gravity
sand filters in a tabular form.
46.   Water has to be purified for a town whose daily demand is 9 x
10 6 litres/day. Design a suitable sedimentation tank of the water  works fitted with sludge remover. Assume the velocity of flow,  in the sedimentation tank as 22cm/min and the detention period  as 8 hrs.
 47.   What are the different method of analyzing a given distribution
system? Explain Hardy Cross method of pipe network analysis.
48.   Write short notes on: 
(a) Service storage 
(b) Fire hydrant
 49.   Explain briefly about “Rain Water Harvesting”.
51.   Linking of Indian rivers – Discuss.  
(a)   Give  the  permissible  limits  for  the  following  in  drinking  water
(i)                 Turbidity
(ii)                (ii) Chlorides 
(iii)             Nitrates
(iv)             (iv) Hardness
(v)               (v) Total Solids
(b)   Enumerate   the   method   which   you   can   adopt   for determining the total water requirement of community.
52.   (a)   Name   five   important   communicable   –   water   borne  diseases  what  are  the  fundamental  requirement  of  portable water.
(b)   Describe the bacteriological rests to be performed for  portable water.
53.   Determine   the   capacity   of   a   pump   to   meet   the   water  requirement    of town with the following data 
  (a) population of the town
 (b) Difference of water level between the source and treatment  plant 
 (c) Efficiency of the pump and it has to pump the water in 24 hours
54.   (a)   What  are  the  different  type  of  pipes  in  use  for  carrying  water  Indicate approximately diameters and pressure ranges  in  which they are used.
(b)   Explain and Sketch any two types of joints used for water mains.     
5.   (a)   What are the points to be considered for public water supply?
 (b)   Explain the treatment processes carried out for the removal  of impurities in water?
56.   (a)  Discuss the relative merits of rapid sand filters and slow  sand filters indicating the condition favorable for the choice  each
(b)   Discuss the use of chlorine as disinfecting agent with  reference to a.
a) Its disinfecting action.
b) Dosage
c) Its form        
d) Testing its residuals
 57.   (a) What are the four different systems of distribution? Explain  any one system in a neat sketch. 
 (b)  What  are  the  different  types  of  reservoirs  used  for  storage  purposes? Explain any one system in a neat sketch.
58.   (a) Explain the hardy cross method used for pipe network  analysis in water distribution system. 
(b) What are the main function of the storage and distribution  reservoirs?
59.   (a) Explain the Nalgonda technique of deflouridation by  exhibiting its use for an individual rural household. 
 (b) Describe the methods of effective usage of waste water. 
60.   (a) Discuss in detail the environmental aspects of linking of  Indian rivers. 
 (b) Describe the procedure for removal of iron from raw  supplies in rural areas.  
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