CE:1301:Irrigation Engineering

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Civil Engineering Department


2 Marks Question and Answer


CE:1301:Irrigation Engineering







Prepared
 By
thomas britto













Principal                          H.OD                                            









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UNIT – 1

INTRODUCTION

1) Define irrigation ?
                            Irrigation is defined as the science of artificial application of water to
the land in accordance with the crop requirements.
2) What are the necessity of irrigation ?
                            1.inadequate rainfall
                           2.increasing yield of crops
                           3.growing perennial crops
                           4.uneven distribution of rainfall.
     3) What are the advantages of irrigation?
                             1.increase in food production
                             2.optimum benefits
                             3.general prosperity
                             4.afforestation.
 4) What are the disadvantages of irrigation?
                              1.over irrigation may lead to water logging
                             2.it may reduce cropyield
                             3.it is expensive and complex.
      5) What are the types of irrigation?
                             1.surface irrigation                            
                             2.sub-surface irrigation.
        6) what are the techniques of water distribution in the farms? 
                 1.free flooding
                 2.border flooding
                 3.check flooding
                 4.basin flooding, furrow irrigation method, drip irrigation method.
7) What are the types of sprinkler system?
                     1.permanent system
                     2.semi-permanent system
                     3.portable system
8)What are the advantages of sprinkler irrigation?
                     1.land levelling is not required
                     2.fertilisers can be uniformly applied
                           3.it is less labour oriented
      9) What are the limitations of sprinkler irrigation?
                     1.initial cost of the system is very high
                            2.it requires larger electrical power
                            3.high wind may distort sprinkler pattern   
10) What is arid region?
              The area where irrigation is must for agriculture is called arid region

 
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11) What is semi-arid region?
                          The area in which inferior crops can be grown without irrigation 
12) What is crop period?
                     The time period that elapses from the instant of its sowing to the  instant of
its harvesting is called crop period.
       13) What is base period?
                  The time between the first watering of a crop at the time of its  sowing to its
last watering before harvesting is called the   base period
       14) What is rotation period?                              
                                The time interval between two such consecutive watering is  called
frequency irrigation.
15) Define duty of water?
                    It is the relationship between the volume of water and the area of crops it
matures is called duty of water.
16) Define delta of a crop?
                      each crop requires a certain amount of water after a certain fixed interval of
time, through its period of growth is called  delta of a crop
17) What are the factors on which duty depends?
                               1.type of crop
                                2.climate and seasons
                                3.useful rainfall 
                                4.type of soil
                                5.efficiency of cultivation method

18) What are kharif crops?
               The kharif crops are rice,bajra,jawar,maize,cotton,tobacco, groundnut,etc.
19) What are rabi crops?
                                     Rabi crops are wheat,barley,gram,linseed,mustard,potatoes,etc
20) Define irrigation efficiency?
                                      It is the efficiency of water output to the water input,and is
usually expressed as percentage.  
    21) What is called effective rainfall?
                                Precipitation falling during the growing period of a crop that is
available to meet the evapo-transpiration needs of the crop, is called effective rainfall.
                
                                    






    
                            
  


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                                                 UNIT – 2

  IRRIGATION METHOD

1) List some types of irrigation ?
                          canal irrigation,lift irrigation,tank irrigation,etc

2) What are the necessity of irrigation ?
                             
                           1.inadequate rainfall
                           2.increasing yield of crops
                           3.growing perennial crops
                           4.uneven distribution of rainfall.
     3) What are the advantages of irrigation?
                             1.increase in food production
                             2.optimum benefits
                             3.general prosperity
                             4.afforestation.
  4) What are the disadvantages of irrigation?
                              1.over irrigation may lead to water logging
                             2.it may reduce cropyield
                             3.it is expensive and complex.
 5) What are the types of irrigation?
                             1.surface irrigation                            
                             2.sub-surface irrigation.
 6) What are the techniques of water distribution in the farms? 
                 1.free flooding
                 2.border flooding
                 3.check flooding
                 4.basin flooding,furrow irrigation method,drip irrigation method.
7)What are the types of sprinkler system?
                     1.permanent system
                     2.semi-permanent system
                     3.portable system
8)what are the advantages of sprinkler irrigation?
                     1.land levelling is not required
                     2.fertilisers can be uniformly applied
                           3.it is less labour oriented
     9) what are the limitation of sprinkler irrigation?
                               1.initial cost of the system is very high
                            2.it requires larger electrical power
                            3.high wind may distort sprinkler pattern       
    10) What are the types of canals?
                            1.alluvial canal

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                            2.non-alluvial canal
  
11)what are alignment of canals?
                            1.watershed canal or ridge canal
                            2.contour canal
                            3.side slope canal
12)what are distribution system of canal irrigation?
                            1.main canal
                            2.branch canal
                            3.major canal
                            4.watercourses
                            5.minor canal
13)define tank irrigation?]
                       it is defined as the storage irrigation scheme,which utilizes the water
stored on the upstream side of a smaller earth dam
14)define tank banks?
                             the earthen bunds,spanning across the steams are called tank bunds or
tank banks
15)what is called alluvial soil?
                              the process of silt deposition may continue over long periods of
time,resulting in the formation is called alluvial soil
16)what is called non-alluvial soil?
                               moutaineous regions may go on disintegrating over a period of
time,resulting in the formation of a rocky plain area called non-alluvial soil
17)what is called watershed canal?
                        the dividing ridge line between the catchment areas of two streams is
called watershed canal]
18.what is the other name for drip irrigation?
                         drip irrigation is also called as trickle irrigation.
19.what is called sprinkler irrigation system?
                         water is applied to the soil in the form of a spray through a network of
pipes and pumps is called sprinkler irrigation system
20.what is called called borders?
                         land is divided into a number of strips separated by low leeves called
borders.
    
                                                             
                                                                  








 

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UNIT-3
 1) What is meant by canal escape?
                           Canal escapes are the safety valves of canals &must be provided at
regular intervals   depending upon the  importance of channel& availability of suitable
drainage for the disposal of the exposed water.
 2) Define base period.
                    the time period that elapses from the instant of sowing to instant of
harvesting is  called crop or  base period.
3) State diff types of sprinkler system.
                             1.permanent system
                             2.semi-permanent system
                            3.portable system
  4) State various kinds of dams.
                           1.earth dams
                           2.rock fill dams
                           3.solid masonry gravity dams
                           4.hollow    "      "            "       "
                           5.timber dams
                           6.steel dams
                           7.arch dams
 5). State diff types of spillways.
                        1.straight drop spillway
                        2.ogee spillway
                       3.trough spillway
                      4.side channel spillway
                     5.shaft spillway
                    6.syphon spillway
6) Define gross commanded area.
                         it is the total area  bounded with in the irrigation boundary of a project. it
includes the cultivable as well as uncultivable areas.
7). What are the various types of dams?
                  1.earth dams
                  2.rockfill dams
                  3.solid masonry gravity
                  4.hollow  “            “
                  5.timber dams
                  6.steel dams
                  7.arch dams
8)What is weir?
          The major part of the water is achieved by a raised crest or a small part is achieved
by raising shutters then this barrier is known as weir.
9) What is tank sluices?
           it is an opening in the form of culvert under the tank bund and supplying water to
the distributory channel.
10) Forces acting on arch dams.

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            1.water pressure
            2.uplift   “    “
            3.earthquake forces
            4.silt pressure
            5.wave pressure
            6.ice        “    “
11) Define sluiceway.
             Pipe or tunnel provided for the withdrawl of water from the dams is known as
sluiceway.
12) What is spillway?
             Spillway is a structure constructed at a dam site for disposing the surplus water
from upstream to downstream.
13) Types of earthen dams.
             1.homogeneous embankment type
             2. zoned                “        “        “
             3. diaphragm type.
14) Define barrage.
             the most of the ponding is done by gates and a smaller of it is done by raised
crest then the barrier is known as barrage.
15). What are the modes of failure in gravity dams?
               1. by over turning about the toe
               2.by crushing
               3.by development of tension
               4.by sliding

16) Define diversion headwork.
              Any hydraulic structure, which offers water to the offtaking canal, is called
diversion headwork.
17) What is gravity dam?
              a structure which is designed in such a way that its own weight resist external
forces and it is more durable .
18)Define stream line.
                it represent the path along which the water flows through the subsoil.at a given
point in upstream of hydraulic structure will travel its ownpath &will represented the
stream line.
19). Types of aeration tanks.
               1.air diffusion
               2.mechanical aeration
               3.combined       “   “
20) Limitations of blighs creep theory.
               1. no difference b\w hzl & vtl creep
               2.hzl distance b\w pipe line is greater than 2 times the depth
               3.no idea about exit gradient


 

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UNIT -5

IRRIGATION WATER MANAGEMENT

1).what are the causes of water loss?
                        1. seepage from the canal
                        2. over irrigation of field
                        3. heavy surface runoff
2) what are ways of water loss in the canal?
                         1. seepage loss
                         2. evaporation loss 
3) What are factors on which seepage loss depends?
position of water table 
porosity of sub-soil
porosity of soil
extend of absorbing medium
      4) What are two different condition of seppage? 
 1.perculation
                           2.absorption
5. What are the remedial measures for losses?
                            1.efficient surface drainage
                            2..restriction of irrigation
                            3. change in crop pattern
6) What are the advantages of irrigation water managements?
                            1 .achievement of optimum irrigation efficiency
                             2.economical and efficient operation and  maintanence of irrigation system
                              3.equitable distribution of supplies to  irrigators especially at the end
7) Discuss some components of water management?
                            1.water shed management
                            2.land management
                            3.rain water management
                            4.reservoir management
8.What are the impact  of water user association?
                          1.conveyance efficiency
                          2.operation efficiency 
                          3.equity
                          4.area water unit ratio
9.) What are the advantages of water user association?
                         1.better maintenance of the distributry
                         2.possibility of high value of crop programme
                         3.availability of water and irrigation process
10) What are optimization of water user association?
                          1.to reduce the seepage loss and conveyance
                          2.control over the usage of water


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                          3.planning
                          4.to avoid excess supply of water
11).what are the factors which influence evaporation loss?
                           1.temperature
                           2.wind velocity  
                           3.relative humidity  
12. What is land management?
                            The intensity of raising productivity per unit area per unit time needs 
         to be increased which amounts to increasing croped area.
13. What are the irrigation methods for cultivation?
                          1.border strip-wheat
                          2.furrow method –cotton
                          3.basin method –orchard
14. What is meant by cad?
                    Command area developments.the concept of this developments is to
                                ensure efficient water utilization.
15. What are the uses of irrigation waters?
                                  1.wastages due to over irrigation
                                   2.wastages due to surface runoff
                                   3.wastages due to escape of water
16. What are the work of on farm development?
                                   1.irrigation practice
                                   2.crop planning
                                   3.irrigation method
                                   4.right amount of irrigation
17. what are  the components of on farm developments?
                                   1.field drain
                                    2.crossing in field channel
                                    3.crossing of field channel
                                    4.formation of field channel
18. What is called optimum water depth?
                                    The quantity of water at which the yield is maximum, is called the
optimum water depth.
19. What is called optimum utilisation of irrigation?
                         It generally means, getting maximum yield with any amount of water.
20.what is the relation between efficieny and losses?
                  efficieny is inversely proportional to the losses.  
                                      







 

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SIXTEEN MARK QUESTIONS

UNIT-1

1) What are the merits and demerits of irrigation?
2) What are the factors affecting duty?
3) Briefly explain about irrigation efficiencies?
4) What are the consumptive use of water?
5) Briefly explain about planning and development of irrigation project?
UNIT-2
1.Briefly explain about c anal irrigation?
2.Briefly explain about lift irrigation?
3.Briefly explain about tank irrigation?
4.Briefly explain about flooding methods?
5.Briefly explain about sprinkler irrigation methods?
UNIT-3
1.What are the factors affecting  location and types of dams?
2.Briefly explain about tanks,sluices,and wiers?
3.What are types of dams and dam arches?
4.What are forces acting on a dam?
5.Explain the design features of cross drainage works?
UNIT-4
1.What is the necessity of river training works?
2.Describe in brief different types of river training works?
3.What is mean by guide banks?what are their functions and effects?
4.State the necessity and location of canal falls?
5.Briefly explain about classification of canals?
UNIT-5
1.Briefly explain about on-farm-development works?
2.What is the need for water user’s association?
3.What is the need for optimisation of water use?
4.Briefly explain about perculation pond?
V.Shijumon,Lecturer Civil Engg Dept ,NICE

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5.Discuss the role of farmers in water management?
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